20 M.C.C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19-291. Introduction Primary wood has been, and still is, an important renewable resource formankind. It has many highly appreciated characteristics like its useful (technical)properties such as strength, flexibility and a relatively low specific density. It also hasproperties (appearance, smell) which people appreciate . Wood is used in a widevariety of applications. Examples are the application of wood in buildings as aconstruction material and in furniture. But wood is also a major resource for thepaper industry and in a lot of countries it is the most important fuel. The amountof wood that is consumed nowadays however is so large that in many areas of theworld the forest areas are reduced and the quality of the forests is deteriorating.Ecological damage (sometimes severe) has been established in tropical, temperate and boreal forests. It is expected that the pressure on forests may increase furtherin the near future due to population growth and increasing consumption of woodper head of the population [3,4]. Moreover one may argue that there is a case forsubstituting virtually non-renewables by conditionally renewables such as wood . From this characterisation of the present consumption level and expected futuredevelopments it can be concluded that increased sustainability of wood productionand use in the near future is an urgent matter. Against this background a systematicapproach has been developed to achieve a more sustainable use of wood in theNetherlands. More sustainable use is defined as using primary wood as efficientlyas possible and applying wood when there is an appropriate fit [6,7], meaning thatwood is applied on the highest possible quality level on the basis of its properties.2. Method By analogy to methodologies that have emerged in response to the oil crisis in1973 , a six step approach (Fig. 1) has been developed to achieve a moresustainable use of primary wood. Firstly, an analysis of the inputs and outputs of(primary) wood and an analysis of the (end)use of wood derived products in theDutch economy is executed. In the next four steps the two basic ideas of usingprimary wood as efficiently as possible and with appropriate fit are elaborated infour categories of measures that can be taken. The options generated, reflectingmeasures that may be taken, consist of relatively simple technical possibilities whichcan be implemented fairly easily. The last step included in the methodology is theevaluation of the combined impact of measures generated in the four previous steps.2.1. Step 1: an input-output analysis of primary wood flows and a quantitativeanalysis of the (end)use of wood derived products The goal of this analysis is to acquire quantitative data that can be used in thenext steps of the systematic approach. In Fig. 2 an overview is given of the kind ofinformation that is required.
M. C.C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19 29 21 Data were collected on the major wood commodities that are imported, exportedand produced in the Netherlands. Export and import consist of all the commoditiesthat cross the Dutch border except the transit trade. Produced in this context relatesto wood that is harvested in the Netherlands. From these data it is possible tocalculate the primary consumption of wood in the Netherlands (import + produc-t i o n - export = primary consumption). The relevant information was found innational and international statistics. Subsequently, quantitative information on the major wood commodities that areprocessed by the Dutch processing industry and information on the (end)use ofwood derived products by different user categories was collected. The sources forthese data are, amongst others, statistics of the processing industries, figures ofbranch and sales organisations and data on the composition of waste of differentuser categories. STEP1 An i n p u t - o u t p u t a n a l y s i s o f p r i m a r y w o o d f l o w s and a q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the ( e n d ) u s e of w o o d d e r i v e d products Y I STEP2 R e d u c e the ( e n d ) u s e o f w o o d d e r i v e d p r o d u c t s i STEP3 A p p r o p r i a t e fit i Y STEP4 Cascading Y i STEP 5 I n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y of w o o d p r o c e s s i n g v i STEP6 E v a l u a t i o n o f the c o m b i n e d i m p a c t o f steps 2, 3, 4 and 5 iFig. 1. A schematic presentation of the systematic approach to achieve a more sustainable use of wood.
22 M.C.C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje/ Resources, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19-29 ..................................... i DUTCH ECONOMY i i PROOUCTION: * i harvesting of w o o d in The Netherlands i IN OUT primary wood u s a o f w o o d in p r o c e s s i n g I n d u s t r y : primary wood (round wood, f u r n i t u r e Industry, printing industry, carpentry (round w o o d , sawn wood, industry, a t e , sawn w o o d . w o o d pased w o o d pased panels, pulp) panels, pulp) secondary secondary w o o d (wood I w o o d (wood based panels. ( e n d ) u s e o f w o o d d e r i v e d p r o d u c t s by I based panels, different user categories : I pulp) pulp) households, o f f i c e s , building industry, e t c , - __ ,,~;c.JJf"~J~"~~ _~"~__.~ ...... products with a i i products with a s h o r t life s p a n : ~ l o n g life s p a n : newspaper, w i n d o w frame, printing paper, [ [floor, s t a i r s , b e n c h : packaging, fuelwood ~ . . . . . rFig. 2. Schematic presentation of the quantitative information that has to be obtained via aninput-output analysis.2.2. Step 2: reduction of the (end)use of wood derived products Reducing the (end)use of wood derived products, thereby optimising the effi-ciency of the consumption is the first step to come to more sustainable use of wood.Options were identified which lead to a reduction of the (end)use of wood derivedproducts by endusers such as households, offices and the building industry.Examples are size reduction and fuller use. For the generation of this kind ofoptions use was made of literature and discussions with actors involved in the useof wood derived products [9,10].2.3. Step 3: achieve appropriate fit Secondly, measures were taken to achieve appropriate fit. Appropriate fit is thefirst principle behind the concept of resource-cascading, which can be defined as thesequential exploitation of the full potential of a resource during its use [11-13]. InFig. 3 the principle of resource cascading is shown. The figure shows that cascading means that a resource is first applied in aproduct with a high quality (Q(t = 0)), the life time of each product (zl t) is extended
M.C.C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje/ Resourees, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19-29 23as far as possible and sound from an environmental point of view and that qualityloss (A q) per application is minimised. To achieve appropriate fit wood may be replaced by other materials or othermaterials may be replaced by wood. For instance, primary roundwood of a pinetree which has just been felled should be used as a supporting beam first, therebyutilizing properties (like strength) of massive wood, and not directly as a resourcefor the paper production. When making paper directly from primary, vegetablesources, one should rather use annuals such as flax or hemp, instead of wood.Another example of appropriate fit is that wood should, in some cases, be used asa substitute for virtually non-renewable materials f.i. in buildings and interiors.Options coming in this category can be derived from literature and discussions withthe actors involved [14-16].2.4. Step 4: cascading Following the principle of resource-cascading also means taking measures toreuse wood as often as is possible and responsible. Therefore in this fourth step,options were generated for reusing wood. For such options actors have beeninterviewed and use has been made of literature [17,18].2.5. Step 5: increase eJficiency of wood processing Measures to increase the efficiency were aimed at the wood processing industryand were derived from literature and via discussions with people involved in theprocessing industry and other users of wood [19,20]. AI quality Q - --.~ A t , con -ventional use time t Fig. 3. A resource cascade.
24 M . C C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19-292.6. Step 6: evaluation of the combined impact of steps 2, 3, 4 and 5 In this step the results of the input-output analysis and the inventory of optionsto come to more sustainable use of wood were combined to get an overview of whatcan be achieved. The results can be used by producers, consumers and (non-)governmental organisations to take action.3. Results3.1. Analysis of primary wood flows and of (end)use of wood derived products Figures were available [21-23] on the Dutch gross import, export and productionof five commodities; roundwood, sawn wood, wood based panels, pulp andpaper/cardboard. To obtain data on the consumption of primary wood thecalculated gross wood consumption had to be corrected for double counting (woodthat is being processed, thereby changing from one commodity into the other) andfor the use of secondary wood. The remaining woodflow was defined as the primarywood consumption. Furthermore, a distinction was made between wood that is used less than oneyear in a single application (short life span) and wood that is utilised more than 10years in a single application (long life span). The applications in which wood hasbeen used for a short life span can be subdivided in wood applications (such asfuel wood and disposable crates) and paper and cardboard applications. These quantitative data could only be estimated. The results are presented inTable 1. It appeared that the degree to which the Netherlands is self supporting isapproximately 8%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the consumption of wood inthe Netherlands depends to a high degree on the production which takes placeabroad. A comparison of the consumption figures with the import and exportfigures which are all three considerable, also leads to the conclusion that the use ofwood in the Netherlands can also be characterised as being very dynamic. Thedifference between the gross wood consumption and the primary wood consump-tion shows that the amount of secondary paper used in the Netherlands issubstantial, although there is still a considerable amount of primary wood (pulp)that is used as a resource for paper production. An explanation can partly be foundin the fact that the collection of used paper (and other products made out of woodand remainders of the wood processing industry) in the Netherlands is quitesuccessful. The consumption of primary wood in wood applications with a short lifespan is not to be neglected. The quantitative analysis of the consumption of wood derived products ofvarious user categories only resulted in rough estimates of this consumption due tolack of proper data. It can be concluded that of all products with a long life span(mainly sawn wood and wood based panels) approximately 65% is used 4n thebuilding industry, whereas households have a share of about 35% due to do-it-your-
M.C.C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje/ Resources, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19 29 25Table 1The gross production, import and export and gross and primary consumption of wood ~ with a shortor long life span in the Netherlands in 1990 (in 1000 m 3 roundwood equivalencies r.e. b Round- Sawn wood Wood based Paper/card- Pulp Total wood panels boar&Production 1500 790 120 8780 11 190Import 810 5700 2700 7510 16 720Export 550 600 250 6530 7930Gross wood con- 1760 5890 2570 9760 19 980 sumption Short life span 650d 665 100 9760 l l 175 Long life span 1110 5220 2475 88()5Primary wood 265 5230 2145 3740 11 380 consumption Short life span 230 520 65 3740 4555 Long life span 35 4710 2080 6825"It should be noticed that these are approximate figures. More detailed figures and a thorough analysisof the various data which are available is given in . It should also be noticed that in some cases thedata had to be recalculated via conversion factors, because often the data are given in tonnes o1 cubicmeters.bThis unit can be defined as the amount of roundwood that is necessary to produce a wood derivedproduct.qt has been assumed that the amount of pulp that is produced, imported, exported and consumed in theNetherlands is covered by figures on paper and cardboard.d300 000 m 3 r.e. of the roundwood consumption of 650 000 m 3 r.e. with a short life span is used Jor theproduction of pulp. It is justified to leave this amount out because it has also been assumed that the pulpconsumption is included in the data on the consumption of paper/cardboard.self activities. It c a n also be c o n c l u d e d t h a t h o u s e h o l d s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a b o u t50% o f t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f p a p e r a n d c a r d b o a r d .3.2. Inventor) o f measures to achieve more sustainable wood in the Netherlana~" I n t h e n e x t f o u r steps o p t i o n s w e r e g e n e r a t e d t h a t m a y e x p e c t to i m p r o v es u s t a i n a b l e use. I n T a b l e 2 a s u m m a r y is g i v e n o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f o p t i o n s t h a tw e r e g e n e r a t e d in e a c h step a n d the m o s t i m p o r t a n t o p t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e ni d e n t i f i e d are p r e s e n t e d . I n t o t a l 81 o p t i o n s to s a v e o n the w o o d c o n s u m p t i o n w e r e g e n e r a t e d . O n t h eo t h e r h a n d 23 o p t i o n s to i n c r e a s e t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f w o o d f o r the a c h i e v e m e n t o fa p p r o p r i a t e fit h a v e b e e n identified.3.3. Evaluation T h e e s t i m a t e d c u m u l a t i v e i m p a c t o f the o p t i o n s g e n e r a t e d in step 2, 3, 4 a n d 5is p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 3. O n l y the r e d u c t i o n o f t h e g r o s s w o o d c o n s u m p t i o n c o u l d
26 M.C.C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje/ Resources, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19-29be calculated. Besides, the figures in Table 3 only give an indication of the totalamount that can be saved, because it was not possible to calculate the amount ofwood that could be saved or would be necessary for all the generated options.Table 3a shows the cumulative impact pertinent to specific wood derived products.In Table 3b an overview is given of the cumulative impact that can be achieved viaTable 2Options generated for achieving a more sustainable use of wood in the NetherlandsStep Total number Most important options of optionsReduce the (end)use of wood derived 44 Reduce the size of newspapers products Reduce the amount of packaging ma- terials Reduce the amount of advertising leaflets Use both sides of paper in copiers, printers etc. The introduction of reusable packaging Reuse buildingsAchieve appropriate fit 33 Options by which wood is replaced by 10 Hempfibers as a resource to upgrade other materials pulp made out of secondary paper Hempshives as a replacement for wood based panels Straw as a resource for paper and cardboard production Use flaxshives in panels Options by which other materials are 23 Increase the share of woodframe replaced by wood buildings in building industry Increase the share of wooden compo- nents in buildings (f.i. floors, window frames, doors)Cascading 12 More secondary wood for the produc- tion of wood based panels Reuse waste from building industry Reuse demolition wasteIncrease the efficiency of wood process- 15 Optimisation of peeling techniques ing Use pulp produced via a mechanical process instead of a chemical process More pre-fab components in the build- ing industry Optimisation of wood consumption for the production of window frames
M,C.C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje/ Resources, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19-29 27Table 3Indication of the total amount of wood that can be saved in the Netherlands in 1000 m3 roundwoodequivalents (r.e.)A BReduction related to wood 1000 m3 r.e. Reductionrelated to steps 1000 m3 r.e. derived productsPaper/cardboard 5330 reduce (end)use 5880Pulp 3830 Appropriate fit 3890 • Reduction 4370 • Increase - 480Wood application with: Cascading 1200 Short life span 1250 Long life span: 2690• Reduction 3170 Increase efficiency of wood pro- 2490 cessing• Increase -480General 360Total 13 460 Total 13 460respective reduction of the (end)use, appropriate fit, cascading and improvement ofthe efficiency in the wood processing industry. Our research shows that with relatively simple measures the gross consumptionof wood in the Netherlands may be reduced by about two-thirds, even whenexpanding the application of wood in the building industry. Seventy percent of thereduction comes from reducing the end-use, cascading and increased efficiency ofwood processing. Appropriate fit, whereby wood is replaced by crops like hemp andflax is contributing about 30%. F r o m a comparison of these results with the reference situation (shown in Table1) it can also be derived that the consumption of paper and cardboard can behalved. Approximately 80% of this reduction can be achieved by reducing thedemand for paper/cardboard via measures such as two sided printing, less packag-ing materials and reduction of the size of newspapers. The consumption of wood inwood applications with a short life span can also be reduced considerably (byapproximately 90%). Especially the introduction of reusable crates and pallets resultin a considerable saving of wood. The consumption of long life span wood productscan be reduced by approximately 30%. The main savings can be achieved via theintroduction of other resources for the production of wood based panels which canbe applied in the building industry, because this is more in accordance with theprinciple of appropriate fit. Resources which are more appropriate are secondarywood from the processing industry, flax- or hempshives.4. Discussion In this article it is shown that the two basic ideas behind more sustainable use,using primary wood as efficiently as possible and appropriate fit, have functioned as
28 M.C.C. Lafleur, P.J. Fraanje /Resources, Conservation and Recycling 20 (1997) 19-29useful guidance to generate measures to come to a more sustainable use of wood. The estimate on the amount of primary wood that can possibly be saved, can beoptimised if better data become available on the primary wood savings. A similar approach to the one in this article may be feasible for other countriesin order to analyse their wood consumption and to find out how these countriescould achieve a more sustainable use. The chances for the implementation of the measures which have been identifiedmay increase if it is possible to better correlate the measures with different(end)users. Therefore, it is desirable to have better quantitative data on the present(end)use of wood derived products by different user categories. This research has been focusing on the technical opportunities to come to a moresustainable use of wood in the Netherlands. Research related to the social,economic and political factors that influence the wood consumption is consideredto be a worthwhile supplement.Acknowledgements The authors wish to acknowledge Prof. Dr. L. Reijnders for his valuablecomments on the concept of this paper, the World Wide Fund for Nature in theNetherlands who has supported the research which has preceded this articlefinancially and the NWO-research programme for sustainability and environmentalquality who has partly financed the establishment of this article. The research studyon which this article is based has led to the publication of the report Sustainableuse of wood in the Netherlands (published in Dutch Verantwoord gebruik vanhout in Nederland, IVAM Environmental Research no. 08, 1994).References  Schneider, A., 1986. Wald-Holz-Mensch, Institut fiir Baubiologie + Oekologie. Neubeuern, Germany.  Dudley, N., 1992. Forests in trouble: a review of the status of temperate forests worldwide. Earth Resources Research; World Wide Fund for Nature, London.  Alkema, K., April 1993. Research towards the provision of wood in the Netherlands (published in Dutch; Onderzoek naar de houtvoorziening in Nederland). SBH Wageningen, Ministry of Eco- nomic Affairs, dir. CBB, The Hague.  Sedjo, R.A. and Lyon, K.S., 1990. The long term adequacy of world timber supply. Resources for the future, Washington US.  Ministry of housing, spatial planning and environment, 1989. National Environment policy plan. The Hague, the Netherlands.  Sirkin, T. and Houten, M. ten, 1993. Resource cascading and the cascade chain. IVAM No. 71, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.  Sirkin, T. and Houten, M. ten, 1994. The cascade chain. In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling No. 11, pp. 215-277.  Lovins, A.B., October 1976. Energy Strategy: The Road Not Taken? In: Foreign Affairs.  Friends of the Earth, the Netherlands, October 1993. Paper (published in Dutch; Papier). Amster- dam, the Netherlands.
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