Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
 
<ul><li>INTROSPECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Method of contemplation wherein one attempts to divine truth and knowledge from lo...
<ul><li>NON-CORPOREAL SELF </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of the self that posits that the self is not dependent on a physical b...
<ul><li>What the self is not </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>It is not certain whether the body is the s...
<ul><li>What the self is not </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>The Body is not perceived clearly and distinctl...
<ul><li>What the self is not </li></ul><ul><li>Avicenna </li></ul><ul><li>There is awareness of the self, even if there is...
<ul><li>What the self is </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>The self is that which is able to perceive, and...
<ul><li>What the self is </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>The self is that which does the thinking and is abl...
<ul><li>What the self is </li></ul><ul><li>Avicenna </li></ul><ul><li>The self is that which takes hold of its essence, an...
<ul><li>TWO LEVELS OF SELF-AWARENESS </li></ul><ul><li>There are two levels at which the self operates, one constant and i...
<ul><li>Nosse </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Nosse thought is not turned on itself, which is the though...
<ul><li>St. Augustine continued… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Should we believe that [the infant’s mind] knows itself, but, being t...
<ul><li>Cogitare </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Cogitare thought is turned on itself and considers itse...
<ul><li>Dâ’im and Shu’ûr </li></ul><ul><li>Avicenna </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Concepts to Augustine’s  nosse  (dâ’im) and ...
<ul><li>Freud’s application of the two levels </li></ul><ul><li>The mind is split into the subconscious (id) and conscious...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Historical Conceptions of the Self

477 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Historical Conceptions of the Self

  1. 2. <ul><li>INTROSPECTION </li></ul><ul><li>Method of contemplation wherein one attempts to divine truth and knowledge from looking inward at the self. </li></ul><ul><li>- Both St. Augustine and Descartes used this method to develop theories of the self. </li></ul><ul><li>- “We must therefore neither seek the intelligibles outside… Rather, all must be given to intellect. In that way, intellect would know and truly know, and not overlook things and go around seeking, and truth will be in it.” - Plotinus </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>NON-CORPOREAL SELF </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of the self that posits that the self is not dependent on a physical body. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two aspects of the theory that define the non-corporeal nature of the self. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Negative - The body is separate from the self, and the the self can exist without the body. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Positive - The self is a thinking thing, aware of its own existence by its ability to recognize itself. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>What the self is not </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>It is not certain whether the body is the self, thus the body is not the self. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In no way is anything rightly said to be known so long as its essence is not known.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is not at all certain whether it is air or fire or any body, or anything bodily. So it is none of these things.” </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>What the self is not </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>The Body is not perceived clearly and distinctly enough to be proved, thus the body may not be the self. </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is certain that I am really distinct from my body, and can exist without it.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ And even though the whole mind seems to be united with the whole body, if however a foot, an arm, or any other part of my body is cut off, I know that nothing thereby is taken away from the mind.” </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>What the self is not </li></ul><ul><li>Avicenna </li></ul><ul><li>There is awareness of the self, even if there is no perception of the body, Thus the body is not a necessity of the self. </li></ul><ul><li>“ [The flying man] will not have any doubt in affirming existence for his essence, yet he will not along with this affirm the existence of… anything external to him. Instead, he will affirm the existence of his essence, without affirming that it has length, breadth, or depth.” </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>What the self is </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>The self is that which is able to perceive, and is aware of its existence and ability to perceive. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If he doubts, he wants to be certain. If he doubts, he thinks. If he doubts, he knows that he does not know. If he doubts, he judges that he ought not rashly to give assent. So whoever acquires a doubt from any source ought not to doubt any of these things whose non-existence would mean that he could not entertain doubt about anything.” </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>What the self is </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>The self is that which does the thinking and is able to perceive the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>“ To Think? That’s it. It is thought. This alone cannot be detached from me. I am, I exist; That is certain. But for how long? As long as I think, for it might possibly happen if I ceased completely to think that I would thereby cease to exist at all.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I rightly conclude that my essence consists in this one thing, that I am a thinking thing.” </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>What the self is </li></ul><ul><li>Avicenna </li></ul><ul><li>The self is that which takes hold of its essence, and thus perceives itself. </li></ul><ul><li>“ What the flying man will then have grasped is his essence, which he will then perceive. Indeed there I nothing which grasps a thing without grasping its own essence as grasping.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A thing cannot be absent from its own essence, nor revert upon it.” </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>TWO LEVELS OF SELF-AWARENESS </li></ul><ul><li>There are two levels at which the self operates, one constant and innate, and one occasional and developed. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First - Nosse - This level is inherent at birth, and has been continuously operating since. It is basic and doesn’t make itself self-aware. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second - Cogitare - This level is developed and is the introspective thought turned on itself, being self-aware. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Nosse </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Nosse thought is not turned on itself, which is the thoughts aren’t inward focused. The focus is on what is external as perceived by the senses. It is not necessarily not self-aware, but it is not the focus of this type of thought. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>St. Augustine continued… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Should we believe that [the infant’s mind] knows itself, but, being too intent on the things that it has begun to sense with the bodily senses, with pleasure all the greater for being new, while it cannot fail to know itself, is yet not able to think itself?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When it is not thinking itself, [the mind] is admittedly not in its own view, nor is its gaze concerned with the mind, and yet it nonetheless knows itself as if it were to itself a memory of itself.” </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Cogitare </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine </li></ul><ul><li>Cogitare thought is turned on itself and considers itself and is a higher type of thinking that appeals more to the intellect. </li></ul><ul><li>“ When by thinking the mind views itself as understood, it does not generate that knowledge it has as if it had previously been unknown to itself.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The cogitare, which is impeded by the bodily senses, would require the kind of turning back on itself that the Neoplatonists as also described as impeded by the bodily senses.” - Sorabji </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Dâ’im and Shu’ûr </li></ul><ul><li>Avicenna </li></ul><ul><li>Similar Concepts to Augustine’s nosse (dâ’im) and cogitare (shu’ûr). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our intellect does not intellegize its essence continuously. However, our soul has a continuous (dâ’im) consciousness (shu’ûr) of its existence. If [the soul] intelligizes in actuality something other than its essence, it has a continuous consciousness that it intelligizes as long as it intelligizes.” </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Freud’s application of the two levels </li></ul><ul><li>The mind is split into the subconscious (id) and conscious (ego) levels. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- The Id is always operating, even in our dreams. It contains thoughts that we are not always aware of, yet the thoughts influence our actions. The Id is not readily apparent, but can be discovered by psychological investigation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- The Ego is the awareness we have of ourselves, that consciously explains our actions and is readily apparent to ourselves. </li></ul></ul></ul>

×