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Thermodynamics
The basic mechanisms and laws
that govern, life, the universe,
science, engineering,
and everything!
Everything you wanted to ask about,
But were afraid to ask!
Wed 7 March 2018 16:00 – 18:00
Out of hours public lecture
Presented by Professor
Peter Cochrane OBE
Ipswich Waterfront Building
Animated tutorial style with,
demonstrations, videos &
provoking propositions
Organised and hosted by the
UoS Innovation Centre
A story just for students or what? Entropic formula by
Ludwig Boltzmann
between 1872 - 1875
As a student I was taught that Boltzmann got so frustrated
that people would not believe him and would not accept
his ideas and theories that he committed suicide whilst on
a family holiday - 5 September1906 Duino Italy
(I have never been able to verify this! )
Member of Austrian Academy of Sciences and in 1887
President of the University of Graz 1887
Member of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 1888
Member of Royal Society 1899
Named in his honour:
• Boltzmann's Energy Equipartition theorem
• Boltzmann brain
• Boltzmann constant
• Boltzmann machine
• Boltzmann equation
• Boltzmann Lattice methods fluid dynamics
• Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft
• Boltzmann Medal
• Boltzmann (crater)
To U n d e r s t a n d !
Art
Life
Death
Physics
Theory
Biology
Science
Practice
Industry
Education
Chemistry
Philosophy
Experience
Experiment
Manufacturing
Mathematics
Observation
Engineering
Agriculture
Technology
Cosmology
Computing
Production
Philosophy
Economics
Transport
Telecoms
Design
Construction
Management
Information
Sociology
Pharmacy
Medicine
Logistics
Security
Systems
Energy
Health
Cyber
AI/AL
++++
We like to put things in boxes
We teach and learn in boxes
It is fast, efficient, & effective up
to a point
A product of an education system
forged to meet the needs of the
industrial revolution
This subject cannot be ‘boxed’
as it is so widely applicable and
the closest we have to a GUT !
THE 30 sec VERSION
There is a game
We are all in the game
No one can opt out !
B AD NEWS: You can’t win the game
GOOD NEWS: You can break even
LIMITATION: But only on a very cold day
B AD NEWS: It never gets that cold !
A fundamental realisation simplified
F o r g o t t e n o r d i s c o n n e c t e d
We do things
We see things
We experience things
We are taught lots of things
We actually understand lots of things
AND THEN we forget or do not link them
D E M O
T I M E
Pe o p l e a r e w a s t i n g t h e i r l i v e s a n d $ $ $ M
- Fools
- The Ignorant
- Tricksters @ Charlatans
F R E E E N E R G Y I S A L I V E
A N D W E L L - B U T S T I L L
N O T D E L I V E R I N G ! !
T H I S C A U S E I S Y E T 

A N O T H E R I R R A T I O N A L
B E L I E F S Y S T E M ! !
I t a l l b o i l s d o w n t o p t h i s
A n d i t i s t h i s o b v i o u s !
E v e r y t h i n g i s c o n n e c t e d
E n e r g y i s n o t m a g i c !
T h e re i s n o f re e e n e r g y !
T h e re i s a l w a y s a p r i c e t o p a y !
1 0 0 % e f f i c i e n c y i s u n a t t a i n a b l e !
To l e v i t a t e a 1 0 0 k g h u m a n @ 1 m / s
@ a r a n g e o f 0 m ~ 1 k W
@ a r a n g e o f 1 m ~ 1 0 k W
@ a r a n g e o f 2 0 m ~ 4 M W
H a r r y d e f i n i t e l y n e e d s a t h i c k e r a r m a n d w a n d ! !
M y s t i c i s m d o e s n o t s o l v e o u r p r o b l e m s !
E n e r g y i s n o t m a g i c !
T h e re i s n o f re e e n e r g y !
T h e re i s a l w ay s a p r i c e t o p ay !
1 0 0 % e f f i c i e n c y i s u n a t t a i n a b l e !
H u m a n b r a i n ~ 6 0 - 1 0 0 W
H u m a n b o d y ~ 1 0 0 - 1 , 0 0 0 W
L i f t i n g p o w e r r e q u i r e d ~ 4 0 0 M W
I f L u k e i s p r o j e c t i n g t h e f o r c e h e n e e d s a t h i c k e r a r m ! !
T h a t e n e r g y d i d n o t p a s s t h ro u g h h i s h e a d o r b o d y
THERMO DYNAMICS
Relating to heat Relating to
change/movement
No one could have
guessed that the study
of heat would reveal
laws and principles
pertinent to all systems
in general - biological -
chemical - physical and
man made
The closest we have come to a
‘one theory fits all’ - a unified
set of observations - a generally
applicable law, & comprehensive
understandings
RANKING
Across the entire spectrum of physics,
Einstein liked General Relativity and
Thermodynamics best because they
are both derived from fundamental
considerations of how the universe
works; their ‘completeness’ and as
fundamentally emergent properties
THE NATURE OF HEAT
A complete mystery for millennia
Used and exploited with
rules of thumb based on
feel, colour, melting
point of metals and
malleability etc
ASSOCIATED WITH THE GODS
Ancient Egyptians related heat to mythology
Component of “primordial
forces”, from which all was
formed and elements of
chaos, that existed before
the creation of the sun
A TOOL FOR PEACE AND WAR
Ancient Greeks created an early flame thrower
First theory Heraclitus ~500 BC:
Elements in nature; fire, earth,
& water "All things are flowing -
and an exchange for fire“
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1
Water transport & limited green energy ~1770
Water and water flow sufficiently understood and
characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to
Newtonian Mechanics
~5 bhp @ <10%
Efficiency of
energy extraction
BIG Unknowns
How big a wheel ?
What shape the blades ?
Overflow or underflow of water ?
How high the head and volume of water ?
CONCATENATED MILLS
Quickly ran out of energy as more built
****** Water and water flow sufficiently understood and
characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to
Newtonian Mechanics
The fight for efficiency was driven by
building mill after mill along rivers
only to run out of energy….a victory
for science, engineering, innovation…
and a foundation for the rationale of
thermodynamics
A story to be repeated with the
steam engine and the belt drive…
with energy distribution, friction and
efficiency…the next big hurdles
Water transport & limited green energy ~1770
D I G G I N G I N T O T H E D E T A I L
Experiments, intuition, guessing, theory, understanding
Mathematician Leonhard Euler and son Albert (1750s) experimented with/characterised waterwheels
Mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet (1862) proposed inward-flowing radial turbine - modern turbine precursor
Engineer Samuel B. Howd (1838) patented enclosed vertical spindle & curved blades.
Hydraulic Engineer James B. Francis (1892) added guide vanes and shaped the
blades to the correct angle
Francis turbine is still the most widely used for medium-high heads/pressure
Engineer James Thomson, added pivoted curved guide vanes to assure optimum
flow even at part load
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 2
Steam power and ‘engine design’ were very
rudimentary with many accidents and huge
inefficiencies apparent due to the lack of
scientific knowledge and sound
engineering principles
Steam transport & energy from coal ~1850
BIG Unknowns
What fuel ?
What fluid ?
What pressure ?
What size piston ?
How efficient the design ?
~30 bhp
@ < 15%
Efficiency
THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE
Big accidents
People get hurt/killed
Understanding is essential
Without knowledge and understanding……
Water and water flow sufficiently
understood and characterised by
Archimedes, and adaptations to
Any fool can build a water mill
and/or a steam engine, but it
takes science and engineering
to build a good/efficient/safe
machine
~500 bhp
@ < 20%
Efficiency
COAL, FIRE, WATER, STEAM, BELT
A long path to understanding and efficiency realisation
~300bhp
@ < 20%
Efficiency
~100kbhp
@ >95%
Efficiency
~200 bhp
@ < 15%
Efficiency
COAL, FIRE, WATER, STEAM, BELT
A long path to understanding and efficiency realisation
~200bhp
@ < 20%
Efficiency
~100kbhp
@ >95%
Efficiency
~30 bhp
@ < 15%
Efficiency
TITANIC
~50,000 bhp
Engines x 2 ~ 50k bhp Total
Speed ~ 22 knots
Coal ~ 825 Tons/day
Engines = 2
Boiler Rooms = 6
Boilers = 24
Furnaces = 72
SCIENCE COMES TO THE RESCUE
Deep knowledge & understanding creates acceleration
All our transport, energy, industrial,
civil, military, information & network
systems hinge on this knowledge
Riding a horse to walking on the moon < 200 years
Riding on a train to riding on a rocket <100 years
THE RUN UP
Perspective thinking
~1662 Robert Boyle
Gas Law
~1666 Issac Newton
Laws of Motion
P.V = k
P.V = mRT
F = d(mv)
dt
s = ut + ft2
Force
Motion
Inertia
Momentum
1) A body is at rest or in linear motion
until acted upon by some external force
2) Force is the time rate of change of
momentum
3) For every action in nature there is
always an equal and opposite reaction
Volume
Pressure
Temperature
Volume and Pressure
are inversely related
when Temperature is
constant
T H E R U N U P
Thinking on machines
THE RUN UP
Step by step thinking
~1850 Rudolf Clausius
William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
Max Plank
All proved and stated The First and Second Laws of
Thermodynamics:
- the total heat in a closed system is conserved
- there really is no free lunch
- 100% efficiency can never be realised
- perpetual motion machines are impossible
[Heat converted
to work analysis
Work converted
to heat analysis
Gave ‘Entropy’ its name and the first to
lecture and teach the subject
Entropy from the Greek En = enérgeia + tropos = turning point
THEORY FORMULATION
It all starts with the nature of heat
The physics of and understanding of heat…followed by a realisation of
a general and universal applicability…
Biology
Systems
Chemistry
Cosmology
Information
Communications
Artificial Intelligence
+++++ almost everything else
…with each discipline taking a different
route, applying a different emphasis,
interpretation and application set
Sad to say the conservationists,
sustainability enthusiasts, and
politicians still have to discover
thermodynamics and entropy!
I N I T I A L F O R M U L A T I O N
Derived from the kinetic theory of gases
Law 0: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third then all are in equilibrium
Law 1: Conservation - energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system
Law 2: Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases
Law 3: System Entropy - approaches a constant as temperature approaches absolute zero
…theories, experiments, trials, observations repeated multiple times
and ways by hundreds of teams across the planet over many lifetimes.
The most complete view of the way (our) universe works and why!
All based on what we observer, what we can test, what we can prove:
the ‘truths’ established by standing on the shoulders of giants over
millennia…
If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third then all are in equilibrium
LAW 0 Defines temperature and heat flow
Cold Water
+
Hot Water
+
Dish
}All want to be
at the same
temperature
Flow is hot to cold and never the reverse direction
LAW 1: Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system
Energy can only change in form potential, kinetic, heat
Perhaps obvious from Einstein E = mc2
In a universe, or system, of constant mass the energy is also constant
But this is partially a circular argument
Internal Energy = +Heat Input +Work Done by System
∆u = Q + W
Internal Energy = Heat Output -Work Done on System
∆u = -Q - W
A S F A R A S W E K N O W
The total mass/energy of the universe is constant
Dark Energy ?
Quantum Dynamics ?
Black Holes ?
String Theory ?
Worm Holes ?
Multi-Dimensionality ?
Relativity
Quantum
Mechanics
Experiments
Observations
ExperiencesMeasurements
Theories
LAW 2: Full energy and state accounting
Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases
Entropy can be thought of in terms of order and disorder
All systems tend toward a disordered state
One way processes
Drop a cup and it smashes, but the reverse never happens
A battery always discharges it never decides to recharge itself
We live and then die and not the other way round - there are no zombies
The more energy is dispersed - the greater the entropy
LAW 2: Full energy and state accounting
Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases
Entropy can be thought of in terms of order and disorder
All systems tend toward a disordered state
One way processes
Drop a cup and it smashes, but the reverse never happens
A battery always discharges it never decides to recharge itself
We live and then die and not the other way round - there are no zombies
The more energy is dispersed - the greater the entropy
Hot coffee in a mug is concentrated - but as the heat dissipates into the surroundings
the heat flow sees entropy fall in the mug and rise in the environment
LAW 2: Entropy
- Turbo charger and turbo booster in an internal combustion cycle
- Activation energy necessary to initiate a chemical reaction
- Photosynthesis as a form of energy transformation
- Energy conversion of aviation fuel in a jet engine
- Chlorophyll as a mechanism of energy storage
- Spread of heat from the sun across the earth
- Efficiency of a modern power station
- After burner cycle of a jet turbine
The nature of heat/energy flow/spread/dissipation
The ‘purists’ always ‘retreat’ to this founding conceptualisation/formulation applicable to:
These, and many more, are the ‘qualified/recognised’ boundaries of the science founded
on heat, energy, and reactions. Here, formulations are directly related to the original
roots of thermodynamics without abstraction, modification or mutation!
LAW 2: Entropy
- A measure/number of possible arrangements the atoms in a system can have
- Measure of how (dis)organised energy is in a system of atoms or molecules
- The level of (dis)organisation of characters on a page or bits in a message
- The level of social activity and or physical movement in a crowd
- The effectiveness of passwords, coding and encryption
- The level of cohesion in a fighting force
Order/disorder is a popular visualisation
The ‘purists’ tend to wince at this visual perspective as, for many of them, it strays too far
from the thermodynamic origins of the property and heat based formulations:
The level of ‘bastardisation’ of the original thermodynamic concepts and formulations
increases as we come down this list - however, they, and many more, prove to be useful
across many fields - BUT we should note that, as useful as they may be, they are not the
same as the original starting point, but can be statistically justified
LAW 2: Entropy
Order/disorder information
Order Disorder
. , : ; i if iff
I need to
talk with
you soon
The concept of information
entropy was introduced by
Claude Shannon in his 1948
paper "A Mathematical Theory
of Communication"
Information
ENGINEERING MAXIMS : Does it work ?
“ Whilst it is permissible for the mathematicians, physicists, chemists and biologists
to declare that there is no solution to a problem - WE in engineering enjoy no such
luxury and WE always have to find an answer”
Order/disorder is more than a popular visualisation - it is a useful tool
The primary question for engineers is: Does it work ?
Refinement, efficiency, reliability, resilience, and functionality often have to follow!
“Engineers have to drink from the ‘well of human knowledge’ and experience; they
are obliged to utilise and/or bend any likely discovery/result to their advantage -
and do so without regret or limitation”
In this sense engineers and engineering ride the boundary between science and alchemy in the/ir
search for practical solutions often ahead of reliable results or any workable science.
One way processes
From order to disorder
Entropy always increases
This is the universe we live in - our experiences
Order disorder
LAW 2 : Times Arrow
LAW 2 : Times Arrow
Doesn’t do reverse gear
Order from disorder isn’t simple
Entropy never decreases
LAW 2 : Times Arrow
Doesn’t do reverse gear
Order from disorder isn’t simple
Entropy never decreases
We have never witnessed any reverse order processes- and whilst theoretically feasible
their probability is so close to zero we can say they will never happen….and we have
no evidence of time travellers either !!
Order disorder
EXCEPTION ALERT : LIFE!!
Time’s arrow isn’t in reverse !
-ve Entropy partly defines life systems
Only possible (and true) in small pockets
Life is an insignificant element of a bigger system
Entropy goes negative as order emerges from disorder
Does not detract significantly from the universal trend toward total disorder
WE ALWAYS have to consider any system
in the context of the whole environment…
..the Entropy of a closed/isolated/
constrained system can experience/see +
or -ve Entropy,. but the whole only ever
sees a +ve change
ENTROPY : Basic System Form
Energy
Sink
Engine transforms
the form of energy
Engine
Energy
Source
Work Output
movement
chemical reaction
temperature change
ENTROPY : Impossibilities
Engine
Energy
Source
No Work Output
Energy
SinkEngineEngine
There are no perpetual motion machines - and there will never be any
- No free energy
- No free material
- No free processes
- No perpetual motion machines
NOTHING IS FREE : Everything has a cost !!
Efficiency Always < 100%
Energy Out < Energy In
ENTROPY : Basic System Form
Energy
Sink
Engine transforms
the form of energy
Engine
Energy
Source
Work Output ⇒ Energy Output = E1 - E2 = ∆E ∝T1 -T2
movement
chemical reaction
temperature change
Energy Suppled = E1
Energy Dissipated = E2
Energy = E1 ∝T1 Energy = E2 ∝T2
NOTICE : The work/energy output is
dictated by the temperature differential
and the efficiency of the machine. For a
given efficiencey the output = Z( T1 - T2)
NOTICE : Entropy defines the energy
available to do useful work in a
thermodynamic process
ENTROPY : Heat v Statistical View
∆S ≈ ∆ERelative change in Entropy
Many formulation variants - some more convenient or easier to deal with than
others depending on educational background/mode of thinking distribution but
the outcome/form is always the same and so are all the conclusions - there are
no conflicts or exceptrions…
T
}
Integrating over the entire space/system is then trivial:
S = k log KT∂S ≈ ∂E
T∫∫ S = kß log W
Relative change system energy
at a given temperature
GENERAL FORMULATION
Derived from the kinetic theory of gases
Historically; Thermodynamics and nearly
all the early thinking emerged from
considerations of a number a number of
i n d u s t r i a l p ro b l e m s re l a t e d t o h e a t
generation, flow and exploitation in the
transformation into motion
Development; It was soon realised and
shown that all the laws could be derived
from the study of molecular movement at
an individual and fundamental level - and
therefore, be based on a statistical model
c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s
associated with movement and location
ENTROPY : Thermal Derivation ~1840
∆S ≈ ∆E ≈ k∆TRelative change in Entropy
Many formulation variants - some more convenient or easier to deal with than others
depending on educational background/mode of thinking, but the outcome and form is
always the same and so are all the conclusions - there are no conflicts or exceptions…
T
Integrating over the entire space/system is then trivial:
∂S ≈ ∂E
T∫∫ S = kß logW
T
∂S ≈k ∂T
T∫
kß
= Boltzman’s Constant = 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K
Joules/Kelvin
This W nomenclature was ‘standardised’
from later probabalistic derivations
Original formulation in 1842 by Boltzmann did not use
W =Wahrscheinlichkeit (German for probability) - it
was introduced by Max Plank in 1900
∫
ENTROPY : Statistical Derivation ~1900
A measure of the number of possible micro-states of a system in thermodynamic
equilibrium, consistent with its macro-state
A full formulation is rendered impossibly large unless all the micro-states are statistically
independent and all the probabilities are the same for the whole macro-state
W = Wahrscheinlichkeit (probability) of a macrostate for some probability distribution of microstates - positions and
momenta of all molecules - the most general expression of the thermodynamic entropy
N = The total number of molecules/components
Ni = The individual molecules/components
N!
N
Ni !∏i
W =
Total number of positions of total population
Total number of individual positions/molecule
ENTROPY : Statistical Thermodynamics
In many practical cases a system’s thermodynamic micro-states are not equally probable: eg,
high energy states are less probable than low energy at a fixed temperature
And so the equal probabilities assumption does not always obtain, but a well established
generalisation is given by Gibbs:
This formulation is the most useful and most cited
in engineering and information science…and there
are many similar forms including Shannon’s Bound
S = ⎲⎲
i
pi log pi-kß
Iff all the probabilities are equal, then this reduces to:
S = kß logW
ENTROPY : Commonly cited forms
The springboard for
information theory
and info systems
understanding
EXCEPTION ALERT: New Dimensions
Our reality of 4 dimensions appears to be a fraction of an 11 dimensional universe.
But all of the above is based on millennia of evidential understanding of our 4D
‘reality’ and the Laws of Physics appear immutable. Though challenged and tested
continually they remain steadfast and the foundation of our understandings.
There is always room for new discoveries, but unless there is another reality of
different and/or more dimensions the Laws of Thermodynamics remains our
most complete model, at the core of our base understandings of the universe in
which we live.
POSITIONING: Human knowledge
E = mc2
S = kß log W
kß
= 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K
If this is mankind’s most prophetic equation:
Then this is a very close second:
Profound consequences: Time travel is impossible and nothing lives or lasts forever
LAW 3: Entropy > 0 as T > 0 K
The only law founded on unique measurement trends
“The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute
zero is exactly equal to zero”
In a sense this law is more hypothetical that any of the other
three as it cannot be directly demonstrated - ie we cannot
create perfect crystals or a temperature of absolute zero !
“Perfect order and thus zero entropy is only
possible at absolute zero”
https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3828
TO BE AWARE: ENTHALPY
A measure of the total energy of a system
The internal energy plus that required to create a system
Entropy S = Joules/Kelvin - a measure of how energy is distributed in a system
Enthalpy H = Joules - A systems internal energy + p.v
TO BE CLEAR
OTHER TERMS
Endothermic = Absorbing Energy
Exothermic = Releasing Energy
Adiabatic = No Energy Exchange
More generally applicable in chemistry
and chemical engineering et al and not
information systems and theory
{
Terms commonly employed in many
other fields but not in general use for
information systems and theory
{
IS HELL ENDOTHERMIC OR EXOTHERMIC ?
1) We postulate that if souls exist, then they must have some mass. If they do; a mole of souls can also have a mass
2) So, at what rate are souls moving into and exiting hell? I think we can safely assume that once in hell souls do not leave
3) Many/most religions state that if you are not a member, then you will go to hell. Since there are so many of these religions and people
do not belong to more than one religion, we can project that all people and souls go to hell
4) With birth and death rates as they are, we can expect the number of souls in hell to increase exponentially.
5) NOW; Boyle’s Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in hell to stay the same, the ratio of the mass of souls and
volume needs to stay constant. Two options exist:
a)If hell is expanding at a slower rate than the rate at which souls enter hell, then the temperature and pressure in hell will increase until
all hell breaks loose
b)If hell is expanding at a rate faster than the increase of souls in hell, then the temperature and pressure will drop until hell freezes over
So which is it? If we accept the quote given to me by Theresa Manyan during Freshman year, "that it will be a cold night in hell before I
sleep with you" and take into account the fact that I still have NOT succeeded in having sexual relations with her, then Option 2 cannot be
true...Thus, hell is exothermic."
A fun read from the internet often falsely attributed to Dr Schambaugh of the
Oklahoma School of Chemical Engineering
TO CONTEMPLATE - THE FRIVOLOUS ?
Analysing and making sense of the extreme including the non-sensical
1) How much energy flows down Harry Potters wand when he casts a spell?
2) AND where does that energy come from, and what kind of energy is it?
3) What are the limitations to building a matter transporter - aka Start Trek?
4) Is it possible for any life form to survive in its own waste materials?
5) Does a pregnant mother see an increase or decrease in her entropy?
6) When someone/thing dies, does it’s entropy stop increasing?
7) What is the ultimate limit to our information storage capacity?
8) In the movie ‘The Martian’ would his survival strategy actually work?
9) Where are heaven and hell located and how much energy do they consume?
10)…..
TO CONTEMPLATE: SERIOUS PROBLEMS
Fashion, fad, political and scientific correctness are almost never in alignment
1) Do our waste recycling programs actually work ?
2) Should we be burning plastic waste instead of recycling?
3) Are electric vehicles really green ?
4) Do wind farms cost in ecologically?
5) Can wave power save us?
6) Is tidal power a better option?
7) Can we actually live ‘off grid’ and benefit the planet?
8) Do solar cells create more pollutants than they save?
9) Can ‘natural farming’ feed the planet?
10)Could we actually freeze technologically driven change?
M O R E E X P L A N A T I O N S / V I E W S
Need to know even more?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_entropy
http://entropysimple.oxy.edu/content.htm
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/energy-and-enzymes/the-laws-of-thermodynamics/a/
the-laws-of-thermodynamics
http://physicsforidiots.com/physics/thermodynamics/
Brian Cox explains why time travels in one direction - Wonders of the Universe - BBC Two
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQSoaiubuA0
A derivation (and quantification) of the third law of thermodynamics
Masanes & Oppenheim (Quantum Physics 11 Dec 2014 (v1), revised 7 Apr 2016)
https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3828
“It can be argued that civilisation and its technology enabler IS the sustainability problem”
This axiom has a brilliant/controversial thermodynamic proof byTim Denton in a 2007/9 paper
suggesting tCivilisation itself is a heat engine - producing 9.6 milliwatts of heat for ever dollar of
GDP normalised to 1990 value.
The insight is quite brilliant, and the implications terrifying.
FURTHER FOOD FOR THOUGHT !
Make it your practice to read wider than your lecture
notes and printed books. Search out the radical, the
deep thinkers, and those who posit the challenging!
“you don't solve problems from within the system that created those same problems”
Axiom - Einstein
Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28,
1903) was an American scientist who made important
theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and
mathematics. His work on the applications of
thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming
physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive science.
Gibbs Formula of Enthalpy and Entropy defines
the point of a chemical phase change/reaction
cochrane.org.uk
Any further questions

or thoughts ??

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Thermodynamics Tutorial - The Fundamentals

  • 1. Thermodynamics The basic mechanisms and laws that govern, life, the universe, science, engineering, and everything! Everything you wanted to ask about, But were afraid to ask! Wed 7 March 2018 16:00 – 18:00 Out of hours public lecture Presented by Professor Peter Cochrane OBE Ipswich Waterfront Building Animated tutorial style with, demonstrations, videos & provoking propositions Organised and hosted by the UoS Innovation Centre
  • 2. A story just for students or what? Entropic formula by Ludwig Boltzmann between 1872 - 1875 As a student I was taught that Boltzmann got so frustrated that people would not believe him and would not accept his ideas and theories that he committed suicide whilst on a family holiday - 5 September1906 Duino Italy (I have never been able to verify this! ) Member of Austrian Academy of Sciences and in 1887 President of the University of Graz 1887 Member of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 1888 Member of Royal Society 1899 Named in his honour: • Boltzmann's Energy Equipartition theorem • Boltzmann brain • Boltzmann constant • Boltzmann machine • Boltzmann equation • Boltzmann Lattice methods fluid dynamics • Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft • Boltzmann Medal • Boltzmann (crater)
  • 3. To U n d e r s t a n d ! Art Life Death Physics Theory Biology Science Practice Industry Education Chemistry Philosophy Experience Experiment Manufacturing Mathematics Observation Engineering Agriculture Technology Cosmology Computing Production Philosophy Economics Transport Telecoms Design Construction Management Information Sociology Pharmacy Medicine Logistics Security Systems Energy Health Cyber AI/AL ++++ We like to put things in boxes We teach and learn in boxes It is fast, efficient, & effective up to a point A product of an education system forged to meet the needs of the industrial revolution This subject cannot be ‘boxed’ as it is so widely applicable and the closest we have to a GUT !
  • 4. THE 30 sec VERSION There is a game We are all in the game No one can opt out ! B AD NEWS: You can’t win the game GOOD NEWS: You can break even LIMITATION: But only on a very cold day B AD NEWS: It never gets that cold ! A fundamental realisation simplified
  • 5. F o r g o t t e n o r d i s c o n n e c t e d We do things We see things We experience things We are taught lots of things We actually understand lots of things AND THEN we forget or do not link them D E M O T I M E
  • 6. Pe o p l e a r e w a s t i n g t h e i r l i v e s a n d $ $ $ M - Fools - The Ignorant - Tricksters @ Charlatans F R E E E N E R G Y I S A L I V E A N D W E L L - B U T S T I L L N O T D E L I V E R I N G ! ! T H I S C A U S E I S Y E T 
 A N O T H E R I R R A T I O N A L B E L I E F S Y S T E M ! !
  • 7. I t a l l b o i l s d o w n t o p t h i s A n d i t i s t h i s o b v i o u s !
  • 8. E v e r y t h i n g i s c o n n e c t e d E n e r g y i s n o t m a g i c ! T h e re i s n o f re e e n e r g y ! T h e re i s a l w a y s a p r i c e t o p a y ! 1 0 0 % e f f i c i e n c y i s u n a t t a i n a b l e ! To l e v i t a t e a 1 0 0 k g h u m a n @ 1 m / s @ a r a n g e o f 0 m ~ 1 k W @ a r a n g e o f 1 m ~ 1 0 k W @ a r a n g e o f 2 0 m ~ 4 M W H a r r y d e f i n i t e l y n e e d s a t h i c k e r a r m a n d w a n d ! !
  • 9. M y s t i c i s m d o e s n o t s o l v e o u r p r o b l e m s ! E n e r g y i s n o t m a g i c ! T h e re i s n o f re e e n e r g y ! T h e re i s a l w ay s a p r i c e t o p ay ! 1 0 0 % e f f i c i e n c y i s u n a t t a i n a b l e ! H u m a n b r a i n ~ 6 0 - 1 0 0 W H u m a n b o d y ~ 1 0 0 - 1 , 0 0 0 W L i f t i n g p o w e r r e q u i r e d ~ 4 0 0 M W I f L u k e i s p r o j e c t i n g t h e f o r c e h e n e e d s a t h i c k e r a r m ! ! T h a t e n e r g y d i d n o t p a s s t h ro u g h h i s h e a d o r b o d y
  • 10. THERMO DYNAMICS Relating to heat Relating to change/movement No one could have guessed that the study of heat would reveal laws and principles pertinent to all systems in general - biological - chemical - physical and man made The closest we have come to a ‘one theory fits all’ - a unified set of observations - a generally applicable law, & comprehensive understandings
  • 11. RANKING Across the entire spectrum of physics, Einstein liked General Relativity and Thermodynamics best because they are both derived from fundamental considerations of how the universe works; their ‘completeness’ and as fundamentally emergent properties
  • 12. THE NATURE OF HEAT A complete mystery for millennia Used and exploited with rules of thumb based on feel, colour, melting point of metals and malleability etc
  • 13. ASSOCIATED WITH THE GODS Ancient Egyptians related heat to mythology Component of “primordial forces”, from which all was formed and elements of chaos, that existed before the creation of the sun
  • 14. A TOOL FOR PEACE AND WAR Ancient Greeks created an early flame thrower First theory Heraclitus ~500 BC: Elements in nature; fire, earth, & water "All things are flowing - and an exchange for fire“
  • 15. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1 Water transport & limited green energy ~1770 Water and water flow sufficiently understood and characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to Newtonian Mechanics ~5 bhp @ <10% Efficiency of energy extraction BIG Unknowns How big a wheel ? What shape the blades ? Overflow or underflow of water ? How high the head and volume of water ?
  • 16. CONCATENATED MILLS Quickly ran out of energy as more built ****** Water and water flow sufficiently understood and characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to Newtonian Mechanics The fight for efficiency was driven by building mill after mill along rivers only to run out of energy….a victory for science, engineering, innovation… and a foundation for the rationale of thermodynamics A story to be repeated with the steam engine and the belt drive… with energy distribution, friction and efficiency…the next big hurdles
  • 17. Water transport & limited green energy ~1770 D I G G I N G I N T O T H E D E T A I L Experiments, intuition, guessing, theory, understanding Mathematician Leonhard Euler and son Albert (1750s) experimented with/characterised waterwheels Mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet (1862) proposed inward-flowing radial turbine - modern turbine precursor Engineer Samuel B. Howd (1838) patented enclosed vertical spindle & curved blades. Hydraulic Engineer James B. Francis (1892) added guide vanes and shaped the blades to the correct angle Francis turbine is still the most widely used for medium-high heads/pressure Engineer James Thomson, added pivoted curved guide vanes to assure optimum flow even at part load
  • 18. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 2 Steam power and ‘engine design’ were very rudimentary with many accidents and huge inefficiencies apparent due to the lack of scientific knowledge and sound engineering principles Steam transport & energy from coal ~1850 BIG Unknowns What fuel ? What fluid ? What pressure ? What size piston ? How efficient the design ? ~30 bhp @ < 15% Efficiency
  • 19. THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE Big accidents People get hurt/killed Understanding is essential Without knowledge and understanding…… Water and water flow sufficiently understood and characterised by Archimedes, and adaptations to Any fool can build a water mill and/or a steam engine, but it takes science and engineering to build a good/efficient/safe machine ~500 bhp @ < 20% Efficiency
  • 20. COAL, FIRE, WATER, STEAM, BELT A long path to understanding and efficiency realisation ~300bhp @ < 20% Efficiency ~100kbhp @ >95% Efficiency ~200 bhp @ < 15% Efficiency
  • 21. COAL, FIRE, WATER, STEAM, BELT A long path to understanding and efficiency realisation ~200bhp @ < 20% Efficiency ~100kbhp @ >95% Efficiency ~30 bhp @ < 15% Efficiency
  • 22. TITANIC ~50,000 bhp Engines x 2 ~ 50k bhp Total Speed ~ 22 knots Coal ~ 825 Tons/day Engines = 2 Boiler Rooms = 6 Boilers = 24 Furnaces = 72
  • 23. SCIENCE COMES TO THE RESCUE Deep knowledge & understanding creates acceleration All our transport, energy, industrial, civil, military, information & network systems hinge on this knowledge Riding a horse to walking on the moon < 200 years Riding on a train to riding on a rocket <100 years
  • 24. THE RUN UP Perspective thinking ~1662 Robert Boyle Gas Law ~1666 Issac Newton Laws of Motion P.V = k P.V = mRT F = d(mv) dt s = ut + ft2 Force Motion Inertia Momentum 1) A body is at rest or in linear motion until acted upon by some external force 2) Force is the time rate of change of momentum 3) For every action in nature there is always an equal and opposite reaction Volume Pressure Temperature Volume and Pressure are inversely related when Temperature is constant
  • 25. T H E R U N U P Thinking on machines
  • 26. THE RUN UP Step by step thinking ~1850 Rudolf Clausius William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) Max Plank All proved and stated The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics: - the total heat in a closed system is conserved - there really is no free lunch - 100% efficiency can never be realised - perpetual motion machines are impossible [Heat converted to work analysis Work converted to heat analysis Gave ‘Entropy’ its name and the first to lecture and teach the subject Entropy from the Greek En = enérgeia + tropos = turning point
  • 27. THEORY FORMULATION It all starts with the nature of heat The physics of and understanding of heat…followed by a realisation of a general and universal applicability… Biology Systems Chemistry Cosmology Information Communications Artificial Intelligence +++++ almost everything else …with each discipline taking a different route, applying a different emphasis, interpretation and application set Sad to say the conservationists, sustainability enthusiasts, and politicians still have to discover thermodynamics and entropy!
  • 28. I N I T I A L F O R M U L A T I O N Derived from the kinetic theory of gases Law 0: If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third then all are in equilibrium Law 1: Conservation - energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system Law 2: Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases Law 3: System Entropy - approaches a constant as temperature approaches absolute zero …theories, experiments, trials, observations repeated multiple times and ways by hundreds of teams across the planet over many lifetimes. The most complete view of the way (our) universe works and why! All based on what we observer, what we can test, what we can prove: the ‘truths’ established by standing on the shoulders of giants over millennia…
  • 29. If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third then all are in equilibrium LAW 0 Defines temperature and heat flow Cold Water + Hot Water + Dish }All want to be at the same temperature Flow is hot to cold and never the reverse direction
  • 30. LAW 1: Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system Energy can only change in form potential, kinetic, heat Perhaps obvious from Einstein E = mc2 In a universe, or system, of constant mass the energy is also constant But this is partially a circular argument Internal Energy = +Heat Input +Work Done by System ∆u = Q + W Internal Energy = Heat Output -Work Done on System ∆u = -Q - W
  • 31. A S F A R A S W E K N O W The total mass/energy of the universe is constant Dark Energy ? Quantum Dynamics ? Black Holes ? String Theory ? Worm Holes ? Multi-Dimensionality ? Relativity Quantum Mechanics Experiments Observations ExperiencesMeasurements Theories
  • 32. LAW 2: Full energy and state accounting Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases Entropy can be thought of in terms of order and disorder All systems tend toward a disordered state One way processes Drop a cup and it smashes, but the reverse never happens A battery always discharges it never decides to recharge itself We live and then die and not the other way round - there are no zombies The more energy is dispersed - the greater the entropy
  • 33. LAW 2: Full energy and state accounting Celestial Ratchet - entropy of any isolated system always increases Entropy can be thought of in terms of order and disorder All systems tend toward a disordered state One way processes Drop a cup and it smashes, but the reverse never happens A battery always discharges it never decides to recharge itself We live and then die and not the other way round - there are no zombies The more energy is dispersed - the greater the entropy Hot coffee in a mug is concentrated - but as the heat dissipates into the surroundings the heat flow sees entropy fall in the mug and rise in the environment
  • 34. LAW 2: Entropy - Turbo charger and turbo booster in an internal combustion cycle - Activation energy necessary to initiate a chemical reaction - Photosynthesis as a form of energy transformation - Energy conversion of aviation fuel in a jet engine - Chlorophyll as a mechanism of energy storage - Spread of heat from the sun across the earth - Efficiency of a modern power station - After burner cycle of a jet turbine The nature of heat/energy flow/spread/dissipation The ‘purists’ always ‘retreat’ to this founding conceptualisation/formulation applicable to: These, and many more, are the ‘qualified/recognised’ boundaries of the science founded on heat, energy, and reactions. Here, formulations are directly related to the original roots of thermodynamics without abstraction, modification or mutation!
  • 35. LAW 2: Entropy - A measure/number of possible arrangements the atoms in a system can have - Measure of how (dis)organised energy is in a system of atoms or molecules - The level of (dis)organisation of characters on a page or bits in a message - The level of social activity and or physical movement in a crowd - The effectiveness of passwords, coding and encryption - The level of cohesion in a fighting force Order/disorder is a popular visualisation The ‘purists’ tend to wince at this visual perspective as, for many of them, it strays too far from the thermodynamic origins of the property and heat based formulations: The level of ‘bastardisation’ of the original thermodynamic concepts and formulations increases as we come down this list - however, they, and many more, prove to be useful across many fields - BUT we should note that, as useful as they may be, they are not the same as the original starting point, but can be statistically justified
  • 36.
  • 37. LAW 2: Entropy Order/disorder information Order Disorder . , : ; i if iff I need to talk with you soon The concept of information entropy was introduced by Claude Shannon in his 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" Information
  • 38. ENGINEERING MAXIMS : Does it work ? “ Whilst it is permissible for the mathematicians, physicists, chemists and biologists to declare that there is no solution to a problem - WE in engineering enjoy no such luxury and WE always have to find an answer” Order/disorder is more than a popular visualisation - it is a useful tool The primary question for engineers is: Does it work ? Refinement, efficiency, reliability, resilience, and functionality often have to follow! “Engineers have to drink from the ‘well of human knowledge’ and experience; they are obliged to utilise and/or bend any likely discovery/result to their advantage - and do so without regret or limitation” In this sense engineers and engineering ride the boundary between science and alchemy in the/ir search for practical solutions often ahead of reliable results or any workable science.
  • 39. One way processes From order to disorder Entropy always increases This is the universe we live in - our experiences Order disorder LAW 2 : Times Arrow
  • 40. LAW 2 : Times Arrow Doesn’t do reverse gear Order from disorder isn’t simple Entropy never decreases
  • 41. LAW 2 : Times Arrow Doesn’t do reverse gear Order from disorder isn’t simple Entropy never decreases We have never witnessed any reverse order processes- and whilst theoretically feasible their probability is so close to zero we can say they will never happen….and we have no evidence of time travellers either !! Order disorder
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  • 44. EXCEPTION ALERT : LIFE!! Time’s arrow isn’t in reverse ! -ve Entropy partly defines life systems Only possible (and true) in small pockets Life is an insignificant element of a bigger system Entropy goes negative as order emerges from disorder Does not detract significantly from the universal trend toward total disorder WE ALWAYS have to consider any system in the context of the whole environment… ..the Entropy of a closed/isolated/ constrained system can experience/see + or -ve Entropy,. but the whole only ever sees a +ve change
  • 45. ENTROPY : Basic System Form Energy Sink Engine transforms the form of energy Engine Energy Source Work Output movement chemical reaction temperature change
  • 46. ENTROPY : Impossibilities Engine Energy Source No Work Output Energy SinkEngineEngine There are no perpetual motion machines - and there will never be any
  • 47. - No free energy - No free material - No free processes - No perpetual motion machines NOTHING IS FREE : Everything has a cost !! Efficiency Always < 100% Energy Out < Energy In
  • 48. ENTROPY : Basic System Form Energy Sink Engine transforms the form of energy Engine Energy Source Work Output ⇒ Energy Output = E1 - E2 = ∆E ∝T1 -T2 movement chemical reaction temperature change Energy Suppled = E1 Energy Dissipated = E2 Energy = E1 ∝T1 Energy = E2 ∝T2 NOTICE : The work/energy output is dictated by the temperature differential and the efficiency of the machine. For a given efficiencey the output = Z( T1 - T2) NOTICE : Entropy defines the energy available to do useful work in a thermodynamic process
  • 49. ENTROPY : Heat v Statistical View ∆S ≈ ∆ERelative change in Entropy Many formulation variants - some more convenient or easier to deal with than others depending on educational background/mode of thinking distribution but the outcome/form is always the same and so are all the conclusions - there are no conflicts or exceptrions… T } Integrating over the entire space/system is then trivial: S = k log KT∂S ≈ ∂E T∫∫ S = kß log W Relative change system energy at a given temperature
  • 50. GENERAL FORMULATION Derived from the kinetic theory of gases Historically; Thermodynamics and nearly all the early thinking emerged from considerations of a number a number of i n d u s t r i a l p ro b l e m s re l a t e d t o h e a t generation, flow and exploitation in the transformation into motion Development; It was soon realised and shown that all the laws could be derived from the study of molecular movement at an individual and fundamental level - and therefore, be based on a statistical model c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s associated with movement and location
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  • 53. ENTROPY : Thermal Derivation ~1840 ∆S ≈ ∆E ≈ k∆TRelative change in Entropy Many formulation variants - some more convenient or easier to deal with than others depending on educational background/mode of thinking, but the outcome and form is always the same and so are all the conclusions - there are no conflicts or exceptions… T Integrating over the entire space/system is then trivial: ∂S ≈ ∂E T∫∫ S = kß logW T ∂S ≈k ∂T T∫ kß = Boltzman’s Constant = 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K Joules/Kelvin This W nomenclature was ‘standardised’ from later probabalistic derivations Original formulation in 1842 by Boltzmann did not use W =Wahrscheinlichkeit (German for probability) - it was introduced by Max Plank in 1900 ∫
  • 54. ENTROPY : Statistical Derivation ~1900 A measure of the number of possible micro-states of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, consistent with its macro-state A full formulation is rendered impossibly large unless all the micro-states are statistically independent and all the probabilities are the same for the whole macro-state W = Wahrscheinlichkeit (probability) of a macrostate for some probability distribution of microstates - positions and momenta of all molecules - the most general expression of the thermodynamic entropy N = The total number of molecules/components Ni = The individual molecules/components N! N Ni !∏i W = Total number of positions of total population Total number of individual positions/molecule
  • 55. ENTROPY : Statistical Thermodynamics In many practical cases a system’s thermodynamic micro-states are not equally probable: eg, high energy states are less probable than low energy at a fixed temperature And so the equal probabilities assumption does not always obtain, but a well established generalisation is given by Gibbs: This formulation is the most useful and most cited in engineering and information science…and there are many similar forms including Shannon’s Bound S = ⎲⎲ i pi log pi-kß Iff all the probabilities are equal, then this reduces to: S = kß logW
  • 56. ENTROPY : Commonly cited forms The springboard for information theory and info systems understanding
  • 57. EXCEPTION ALERT: New Dimensions Our reality of 4 dimensions appears to be a fraction of an 11 dimensional universe. But all of the above is based on millennia of evidential understanding of our 4D ‘reality’ and the Laws of Physics appear immutable. Though challenged and tested continually they remain steadfast and the foundation of our understandings. There is always room for new discoveries, but unless there is another reality of different and/or more dimensions the Laws of Thermodynamics remains our most complete model, at the core of our base understandings of the universe in which we live.
  • 58. POSITIONING: Human knowledge E = mc2 S = kß log W kß = 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K If this is mankind’s most prophetic equation: Then this is a very close second: Profound consequences: Time travel is impossible and nothing lives or lasts forever
  • 59. LAW 3: Entropy > 0 as T > 0 K The only law founded on unique measurement trends “The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero” In a sense this law is more hypothetical that any of the other three as it cannot be directly demonstrated - ie we cannot create perfect crystals or a temperature of absolute zero ! “Perfect order and thus zero entropy is only possible at absolute zero” https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3828
  • 60. TO BE AWARE: ENTHALPY A measure of the total energy of a system The internal energy plus that required to create a system Entropy S = Joules/Kelvin - a measure of how energy is distributed in a system Enthalpy H = Joules - A systems internal energy + p.v TO BE CLEAR OTHER TERMS Endothermic = Absorbing Energy Exothermic = Releasing Energy Adiabatic = No Energy Exchange More generally applicable in chemistry and chemical engineering et al and not information systems and theory { Terms commonly employed in many other fields but not in general use for information systems and theory {
  • 61. IS HELL ENDOTHERMIC OR EXOTHERMIC ? 1) We postulate that if souls exist, then they must have some mass. If they do; a mole of souls can also have a mass 2) So, at what rate are souls moving into and exiting hell? I think we can safely assume that once in hell souls do not leave 3) Many/most religions state that if you are not a member, then you will go to hell. Since there are so many of these religions and people do not belong to more than one religion, we can project that all people and souls go to hell 4) With birth and death rates as they are, we can expect the number of souls in hell to increase exponentially. 5) NOW; Boyle’s Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in hell to stay the same, the ratio of the mass of souls and volume needs to stay constant. Two options exist: a)If hell is expanding at a slower rate than the rate at which souls enter hell, then the temperature and pressure in hell will increase until all hell breaks loose b)If hell is expanding at a rate faster than the increase of souls in hell, then the temperature and pressure will drop until hell freezes over So which is it? If we accept the quote given to me by Theresa Manyan during Freshman year, "that it will be a cold night in hell before I sleep with you" and take into account the fact that I still have NOT succeeded in having sexual relations with her, then Option 2 cannot be true...Thus, hell is exothermic." A fun read from the internet often falsely attributed to Dr Schambaugh of the Oklahoma School of Chemical Engineering
  • 62. TO CONTEMPLATE - THE FRIVOLOUS ? Analysing and making sense of the extreme including the non-sensical 1) How much energy flows down Harry Potters wand when he casts a spell? 2) AND where does that energy come from, and what kind of energy is it? 3) What are the limitations to building a matter transporter - aka Start Trek? 4) Is it possible for any life form to survive in its own waste materials? 5) Does a pregnant mother see an increase or decrease in her entropy? 6) When someone/thing dies, does it’s entropy stop increasing? 7) What is the ultimate limit to our information storage capacity? 8) In the movie ‘The Martian’ would his survival strategy actually work? 9) Where are heaven and hell located and how much energy do they consume? 10)…..
  • 63. TO CONTEMPLATE: SERIOUS PROBLEMS Fashion, fad, political and scientific correctness are almost never in alignment 1) Do our waste recycling programs actually work ? 2) Should we be burning plastic waste instead of recycling? 3) Are electric vehicles really green ? 4) Do wind farms cost in ecologically? 5) Can wave power save us? 6) Is tidal power a better option? 7) Can we actually live ‘off grid’ and benefit the planet? 8) Do solar cells create more pollutants than they save? 9) Can ‘natural farming’ feed the planet? 10)Could we actually freeze technologically driven change?
  • 64. M O R E E X P L A N A T I O N S / V I E W S Need to know even more? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_entropy http://entropysimple.oxy.edu/content.htm https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/energy-and-enzymes/the-laws-of-thermodynamics/a/ the-laws-of-thermodynamics http://physicsforidiots.com/physics/thermodynamics/ Brian Cox explains why time travels in one direction - Wonders of the Universe - BBC Two https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQSoaiubuA0 A derivation (and quantification) of the third law of thermodynamics Masanes & Oppenheim (Quantum Physics 11 Dec 2014 (v1), revised 7 Apr 2016) https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3828
  • 65. “It can be argued that civilisation and its technology enabler IS the sustainability problem” This axiom has a brilliant/controversial thermodynamic proof byTim Denton in a 2007/9 paper suggesting tCivilisation itself is a heat engine - producing 9.6 milliwatts of heat for ever dollar of GDP normalised to 1990 value. The insight is quite brilliant, and the implications terrifying. FURTHER FOOD FOR THOUGHT ! Make it your practice to read wider than your lecture notes and printed books. Search out the radical, the deep thinkers, and those who posit the challenging! “you don't solve problems from within the system that created those same problems” Axiom - Einstein
  • 66. Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive science. Gibbs Formula of Enthalpy and Entropy defines the point of a chemical phase change/reaction