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AI Trust and Safeguards

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Presented @ The AI Summit, Olympia, London, 29 Nov 2017
In a world that is getting more connected and complex by the day, where we need to produce and distribute more at a lower and lower cost to the planet to achieve sustainability, we see the Japanese embracing robotics and AI with great confidence. They see both as part of the solution to many of their societal, care and industrial problems and limitations, and they assign some level of life quality to both.

Meanwhile, throughout the West a debate rages on the dangers, real and imaginary. These are mainly based on fear created by ignorance, the Hollywood Effect (eg Terminator and AI) bolstered by celebrities issuing warnings whilst that never having designed or operated an AI system!

So, what is the reality? Are there any real dangers? Of course, there always are with all new technologies, but as ever, engineers and scientists are continually reviewing what can and should be done. The reality is; the AI cat is well and truly out of the bag! It has already seen widespread deployments across manufacturing industry, transport, logistics, and of course the medical and care sectors. There is no going back, we are now totally dependant!

To date all of our AI has been ‘Narrow’ and simple; very limited and generally addressing a singular or single class of problem. We have IBM Watson in the lead with its breadth of analysis and diagnostic abilities, whilst Google AlphaGO is in the lead in the way it is able to learn games and processes sans human help. But in the next two phases leading to General (or Wide) AI we are heading toward true sentience, self awareness, and full autonomy of access and action.

This general trajectory is of some concern and the focus of this presentation. So, we examine the characteristics of each phase and the techniques that could be and are being developed and deployed to avert the much heralded ‘Destruction of the Human Race’ to come. In reality, military hunter killer robots are already being developed with some trials and deployments underway. As ever, AI and Robotic technologies have a huge upside, but potentially with a bigger that usual downside!

In reality, the real problem, threat and risks have little to do with the technologies, they are almost entirely in the hands of their human masters!

Published in: Technology
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AI Trust and Safeguards

  1. 1. Trust and Safeguards Peter Cochrane AI Summit, Olympia, London 29 November 2017 cochrane.org.uk
  2. 2. W h e r e A r e W e To d ay? At the foothills of AI we have a mountain to climb Intelligence Abilities Categories 1) Narrow Singular Problem Solving with human involvement in coding and tuning Human based algorithm Top down, Bottom up Machine learning 2) Learning 3) Cognitive 4) Wide
  3. 3. W h e r e A r e W e To d ay? At the foothills of AI we have a mountain to climb Intelligence Abilities Categories 1) Narrow Singular Problem Solving with human involvement in coding and tuning Human based algorithm Top down, Bottom up Machine learning 2) Learning 3) Cognitive 4) Wide Most AI today is here as is so very easy Google alphago IBM Watson
  4. 4. W h e r e A r e W e To d ay? At the foothills of AI we have a mountain to climb Intelligence Abilities Categories 1) Narrow Singular Problem Solving with human involvement in coding and tuning Human based algorithm Top down, Bottom up Machine learning Multiple Problem Classes with interactive memory - little or no human help Initial algorithms from (1) + a learning abilty - solves problems by observing, playing and creating rule sets 2) Learning 3) Cognitive 4) Wide A wide range of problem sets - with cognition & near 100% autonomy Initial algorithms from (2) + a degree of understanding - sees new ways of analysis and solution formulation Can address any problem type/set - has high level context/self awareness A completely new ‘mind’ proposition in a variety of species connected to the wider environment - autonomous Most AI today is here as is so very easy Google alphago IBM Watson
  5. 5. W h e r e A r e W e To d ay? At the foothills of AI we have a mountain to climb Intelligence Abilities Categories 1) Narrow Singular Problem Solving with human involvement in coding and tuning Human based algorithm Top down, Bottom up Machine learning Multiple Problem Classes with interactive memory - little or no human help Initial algorithms from (1) + a learning abilty - solves problems by observing, playing and creating rule sets 2) Learning 3) Cognitive 4) Wide A wide range of problem sets - with cognition & near 100% autonomy Initial algorithms from (2) + a degree of understanding - sees new ways of analysis and solution formulation Can address any problem type/set - has high level context/self awareness A completely new ‘mind’ proposition in a variety of species connected to the wider environment - autonomous Machine influence Human influence Most AI today is here as is so very easy Google alphago IBM Watson Isolated Fixed Machines Networked Fixed Machines Networked Fixed/Mobile With Sensors Networked Fixed/Mobile With Full I/O
  6. 6. W h e r e A r e W e To d ay? At the foothills of AI we have a mountain to climb Intelligence Abilities Categories 1) Narrow Singular Problem Solving with human involvement in coding and tuning Human based algorithm Top down, Bottom up Machine learning Multiple Problem Classes with interactive memory - little or no human help Initial algorithms from (1) + a learning abilty - solves problems by observing, playing and creating rule sets 2) Learning 3) Cognitive 4) Wide A wide range of problem sets - with cognition & near 100% autonomy Initial algorithms from (2) + a degree of understanding - sees new ways of analysis and solution formulation Can address any problem type/set - has high level context/self awareness A completely new ‘mind’ proposition in a variety of species connected to the wider environment - autonomous Machine influence Human influence Most AI today is here as is so very easy Google alphago IBM Watson Isolated Fixed Machines Networked Fixed Machines Networked Fixed/Mobile With Sensors Networked Fixed/Mobile With Full I/O Main Frame Main Frame PC Laptop Main Frame PC Laptop Mobile Main Frame PC Laptop Mobile Robot Sentient Machines Sentient Lifeforms Cyborgs
  7. 7. Languages &Techniques The biggest fraction of the technology mixes today TechniquesSoftware
  8. 8. An A.I. system: 1) Must be subject to the full gamut of laws that apply to its human operator/creator 2) Must clearly disclose that it is not human 3) Cannot retain or disclose confidential information without explicit approval from the source Etzioni’s 2017 A Robot must: 0) Not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm 1) Not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm
 2) Obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the 1st Law
 3) Protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or 2nd Law Asimov’ 1942 LAWS To Be HEEDED ? Ignored by governments & industry to date
  9. 9. An A.I. system: 1) Must be subject to the full gamut of laws that apply to its human operator/creator 2) Must clearly disclose that it is not human 3) Cannot retain or disclose confidential information without explicit approval from the source Etzioni’s 2017 A Robot must: 0) Not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm 1) Not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm
 2) Obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the 1st Law
 3) Protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or 2nd Law Asimov’ 1942 LAWS To Be HEEDED ? Ignored by governments & industry to date NEVER APPLIED N o C h a n c e
  10. 10. S T O P P R ESS Killer AI & Robots are GO! A I A R M S RACE IS GO
  11. 11. ONLY ONE All that is needed Mobile AI/Robotic weapon platforms demand far less resources than any atom bomb and/or missile program Numerous rogue states will quickly embrace this new opportunity! W e a p o n s C o n t r o l S E E M S I m p o s s i b l e
  12. 12. Etzioni’s 2017 AI & Robots must: 0) Not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm 1) Not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm
 2) Obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the 1st Law
 3) Protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or 2nd Law 4) Be subject to the full gamut of laws that apply to its human operator/creator 5) Clearly disclose that it is/they are not human 6) Not retain or disclose confidential information without explicit approval from the source 7) Be bounded in their actions & inaction according to the safety requirements of humans and their systems 8) Not violate human social, cultural, safety and legal norms 9) ???? Asimov’ 1942 LAWS To Be combineD ? To be ignored by future governments & industry
  13. 13. Etzioni’s 2017 AI & Robots must: 0) Not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm 1) Not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm
 2) Obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the 1st Law
 3) Protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or 2nd Law 4) Be subject to the full gamut of laws that apply to its human operator/creator 5) Clearly disclose that it is/they are not human 6) Not retain or disclose confidential information without explicit approval from the source 7) Be bounded in their actions & inaction according to the safety requirements of humans and their systems 8) Not violate human social, cultural, safety and legal norms 9) ???? Asimov’ 1942 LAWS To Be combineD ? To be ignored by future governments & industry L e g a l e n f o r c e m e n t v e r y u n l i k e l y
  14. 14. Meanw hile in industry ? People protected from robots by wire cages and bars
  15. 15. A s s i s t a n t AT HOME in office People are using and working with AI AI is increasingly all pervasive in homes, offices, appliances, vehicles, mobiles and our trust and dependency is building fast - it is changing everything…
  16. 16. Fa m i l i a r i t y Just a repeat of the past ? Faster, more profound, inclusive and impactful with an acceleration of other technologies and big changes in the way we work and live….. A greater dependency and risk of human errors/mistakes Job creation on huge scale but with vast shortages of skilled and capable people
  17. 17. Breeds trust & dependency F a m i l i a r i t y It takes time: builds slowly along with the ability to work together in teams using tools, tech and nets to collaborate globally +++ AI will soon be doing trust and dependency rankings of us; our teams, tools, facilities, plant & companies along with other AI systems +++ It is an essential for their real world modelling Man Woman Machine A triad of trust mechanisms at work here A population of ’N’ machines could see ≤ N(N-1) different trust mechanisms at work at the same time
  18. 18. SAFEGUARDS Operational measures Testing Fixed, Combinatorial, Dynamic - Gold standard problem checks - M a t h p ro v a b l e v e r i f i c a t i o n s - W i t h i n n o r m a l i n p u t r a n g e - Beyond normal input range - A n o m a l y t e s t a n d s e a rc h - Structured walk through - Monte Carlo assessment - Dynamic flood testing - Pre-release real data - R e g r e s s i o n t e s t i n g - S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s - Sensitivity analysis - New developments
  19. 19. SAFEGUARDS Operational measures Constrainers Fixed, Combinatorial, Dynamic - Input sensor/data range limiters - O u t p u t a c t u a t o r / d a t a l i m i t e r s - A n o m a l y d e t e c t i o n / w a r n i n g s - H i s t o r i c a l e x c e p t i o n f l a g s - Human intervention alerts - M 2 M r a n g e c o m p a r i s o n s - C o m p l i a n c e m o n i t o r i n g - Statistical I/O trending - New developments - Core activity flags - FlOP counter alerts - Energy consumption alarm
  20. 20. H u m a n S a f e t y Rooms, floors, cages and barriers We have kept machines and people well apart for decades and only recently have we considered it safe to mix the two in the same space…
  21. 21. H u m a n S a f e t y Restricted inputs/outputs by design This philosophy is applicable to AI and Intelligent robotics and by default, industry, appliance and vehicle producers et al are obeying ‘The Laws of Robotics and AI’ to date https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6UxmpbSQGU&ab_channel=JustWowme
  22. 22. FAR FUTURE AI + Human guardians Being discussed, debated and Initially researched at this time: Policing AI into the future by Humans, AI, Bots, Machines, Networks: - Interrogators - Enforcers - Monitors - Auditors - Ethicists A lot of research/thinking required as a sentient and creative AI may be capable of outsmarting any and all guardianship systems
  23. 23. Thank You www.cochrane.org.uk What are these crazy humans planning to do next ?? They are the biggest risk and not us!!

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