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Mosquitoes 101.pptx

  1. Mosquitoes 101 This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-ND.
  2. Here are some of the most common and notable species. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.
  3. • 2. Aedes albopictus: This species is also known as the Asian tiger mosquito and is found in many parts of the United States, particularly in the southeastern states. It is a vector for several diseases, including dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika virus. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.
  4. 3. Anopheles quadrimaculatus: This species is found in the eastern United States and is a vector for malaria.
  5. • 4. Culex pipiens: • This species is found throughout the United States and is a vector for West Nile virus and several types of encephalitis.
  6. • 5. Culex tarsalis: This species is found in western and midwestern United States and is a vector for West Nile virus and several types of encephalitis.
  7. 6. Celesta inornata: This species is found in many parts of the United States and is a vector for several types of encephalitis.
  8. Not all mosquitoes bite people or animals. When mosquitoes bite people, the most common reactions to the bite are itching and swelling. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY.
  9. Some Mosquitoes Spread Germs Only some types of mosquitoes can spread germs (viruses and parasites) to people and animals. West Nile virus is one of the most common mosquito-borne diseases in the continental United States. Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus outbreaks have occurred in US states and territories, including Florida, Hawaii, Texas, Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.
  10. • Some mosquitoes bite, but do not spread germs. These types of mosquitoes are called nuisance mosquitoes. Nuisance mosquitoes can become a problem immediately following heavy rains, or natural disasters, such as hurricanes or floods. • When people spend time outside cleaning up after a hurricane or flood, they are more likely to be bitten by nuisance mosquitoes. Large numbers of nuisance mosquitoes can affect recovery efforts. For this reason, local or state mosquito control experts will often take steps to control these mosquitoes.
  11. Facts About Mosquitoes •Adult mosquitoes live indoors and outdoors. •Mosquitoes can bite day and night. •Adult mosquitoes live for about 2 to 4 weeks depending on the species, humidity, temperature, and other factors. Female mosquitoes often live longer than male mosquitoes. •Only female mosquitoes bite people and animals to get a blood meal. Female mosquitoes need a blood meal to produce eggs. •Mosquitoes get infected with germs, such as viruses and parasites, when they bite infected people and animals. •It takes just a few infected mosquitoes to start an outbreak in a community and put you and your family at risk of becoming sick.
  12. • All types of mosquitoes have similar life cycles. A mosquito egg hatches into a larva. A larva becomes a pupa. An adult mosquito emerges from the pupa. • Some mosquitoes lay eggs in water, others on soil. Some mosquitoes lay their eggs singly on the surface of water, others lay several eggs at a time in rafts that float on water, others lay eggs on moist ground, and others lay eggs inside containers above the water line. OOPS! NOT THESE EGGS
  13. • Mosquitoes are small, flying insects that belong to the family Culicidae. They are known for their biting behavior, as females require a blood meal in order to produce eggs. Here are some key facts about the biology of mosquitoes:
  14. Life cycle: Mosquitoes undergo complete metamorphosis, meaning they have four distinct life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The length of the life cycle varies depending on the species and environmental conditions, but it typically takes around 7 to 10 days. Female mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, where they hatch into larvae. The larvae feed on small particles in the water and develop into pupae, which eventually emerge as adult mosquitoes.
  15. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
  16. Disease transmission: Mosquitoes are vectors of several diseases that affect humans and animals, including malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and West Nile virus. When a mosquito feeds on an infected host, it can pick up the pathogen and transmit it to other hosts it feeds on.
  17. Reproduction: Mosquitoes mate in flight, and females can store sperm for several weeks. When a female mosquito is ready to lay eggs, she seeks out a suitable water source and lays her eggs on the surface of the water or on objects near the water's edge. Mosquitoes can lay hundreds of eggs at a time, and they can lay multiple batches of eggs throughout their lifespan.
  18. Overall, mosquitoes are adapted to thrive in a variety of habitats, and their biology and behavior make them efficient at finding and feeding on hosts. However, they also pose a significant threat to human health, making mosquito control an important public health measure.
  19. Adult mosquito parts key Head: The head has many organs that help mosquitoes eat, see, and smell. Antennae: Long feather-like organs that detect carbon dioxide from a person’s breath and movement of air. Eye: Mosquitoes have two large compound eyes that detect movement. Palps: Organs between the antennae that sense odor.
  20. • Proboscis: • In female mosquitoes, this mouth part pierces the skin of a person or animal and sucks out blood. The male’s proboscis is not strong enough to pierce the skin, and males do not feed on blood. Both female and male mosquitoes use the proboscis to feed on flower nectar and fruit juices. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
  21. Thorax: The thorax is connected to the head. Wings and legs are connected to the thorax. Halter: A small wing-like organ used for steering while flying. Wing: Mosquitoes have two wings used for flying. Leg: Mosquitoes have six legs like other insects.
  22. Femur: Upper part of the leg. Tibia: Middle part of the leg. Tarsus: End of the leg that helps mosquitoes stand and walk on water. Abdomen: The abdomen connects to the thorax and serves as the stomach, reproductive system, and part of the respiratory system. Genitalia: Where eggs are released from the female.
  23. Common types of mosquitoes in the United States
  24. Aedes aegypti mosquito Life Cycle of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes
  25. • Eggs look like black dirt. •Adult, female mosquitoes lay eggs on the inner walls of containers with water, above the waterline. •Eggs stick to container walls like glue. They can survive drying out for up to 8 months.
  26. Mosquitoes only need a small amount of water to lay eggs. Bowls, cups, fountains, tires, barrels, vases, and any other container storing water make a great “nursery.” This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.
  27. Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito Culex tarsalis mosquito
  28. Life Cycle of Culex Species Mosquitoes
  29. Eggs stick together to form a raft.
  30. •Adult, female mosquitoes lay eggs on the surface of fresh or stagnant water. Water sources can include barrels, horse troughs, ornamental ponds, unmaintained swimming pools, puddles, creeks, ditches, and marshy areas. A female Culex mosquito lays eggs one at a time. Eggs stick together to form a raft of 100 to 300 eggs. The raft floats on the water.
  31. Larva Larvae in the water
  32. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY.
  33. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
  34. Adult Female mosquito after a blood meal.
  35. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.
  36. Culex mosquitoes don’t fly long distances but have been known to fly up to 2 miles (3.2 km). Some Culex mosquitoes prefer to live near and bite birds. They bite people when other animals are not nearby. Because Culex bite animals and people, they live outdoors or near homes.
  37. Anopheles freeborni mosquito
  38. Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquito
  39. Life Cycle of Anopheles Species Mosquitoes Eggs Unique Anopheles eggs have floats on either side.
  40. •Adult, female mosquitoes lay eggs one at a time directly on water. The eggs float on the surface of the water. •Adult, female mosquitoes lay 50–200 eggs at a time. •Eggs do not tolerate drying out.
  41. Larva
  42. Pupa
  43. An adult mosquito emerges from a pupa.
  44. •Some Anopheles male mosquitoes fly in large swarms, usually around dusk, and the females fly in the swarms to mate. •After blood feeding, the female mosquitoes rest for a few days while the blood digests and the eggs develop. After the eggs develop, the female lays them in the water sources. •Anopheles mosquitoes generally don’t fly more than a 1.2 miles (2 km) from their larval habitats. •Anopheles mosquitoes are attracted to dark, sheltered areas for resting during the daytime.
  45. How mosquitoes get infected For a mosquito to get infected with a germ and then spread that germ to people or animals is a complex process. 1.A mosquito takes a blood meal from a person or animal. 2.If the blood meal contains a germ, then the germ must pass from the mosquitoes’ gut into its body. Mosquitoes do not transmit all kinds of germs, only those that can grow or multiply in the body of the mosquito. 3.The germ multiplies in the body of the mosquito. Then the germ moves from the body into the salivary glands where saliva is made. This process takes 2-3 weeks.
  46. 4.The next time a mosquito bites a person or animal, the germ passes from the salivary glands into the blood of the person or animal being bitten. 5.The person or animal can get sick. Ability of a mosquito to get infected with and spread a germ depends on: •The type of germ •Environmental conditions, like temperature •The amount of a germ eaten during a blood meal •The age of the mosquito
  47. In the United States, the most common types of mosquitoes that can spread germs include: •Aedes species mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) •Culex species mosquitoes (Cx. pipiens, Cx. tarsalis, Cx. quinquefasciatus) •Anopheles species mosquitoes (An. freeborni and An. quadrimaculatus)
  48. Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. In 2020 an estimated 241 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 627,000 people died, mostly children in sub- Saharan Africa. About 2,000 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the United States each year. The vast majority of cases in the United States are in travelers and immigrants returning from countries where malaria transmission occurs, many from sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
  49. Illness caused by mosquitoes 1.Malaria: This is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are transmitted to humans by Anopheles mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, chills, and flu- like illness. 2. Dengue fever: This is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Symptoms include high fever, severe headache, joint and muscle pain, and rash. In severe cases, dengue fever can cause hemorrhagic fever and shock. 3. Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. These mosquitoes also spread Zika, chikungunya, and other viruses.
  50. 4. Almost half of the world’s population, about 4 billion people, live in areas with a risk of dengue. Dengue is often a leading cause of illness in areas with risk. 5. Each year, up to 400 million people get infected with dengue. Approximately 100 million people get sick from infection, and 40,000 die from severe dengue. 6. Dengue is caused by one of any of four related viruses: Dengue virus 1, 2, 3, and 4. For this reason, a person can be infected with a dengue virus as many as four times in his or her lifetime.
  51. Chikungunya: This is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, joint pain, and rash. In some cases, joint pain can persist for months or even years. Chikungunya virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash. Outbreaks have occurred in countries in Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans. There is a risk the virus will be spread to unaffected areas by infected travelers. There is currently no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection.
  52. Symptoms Most people infected with chikungunya virus will develop some symptoms. Symptoms usually begin 3–7 days after an infected mosquito bites you. •The most common symptoms are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash. •People at risk for more severe disease include newborns infected around the time of birth, older adults (≥65 years), and people with medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart disease. •Most patients feel better within a week. However, joint pain can be severe and disabling and may persist for months. •Death from chikungunya is rare.
  53. Zika virus: This is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis. In pregnant women, Zika virus infection can cause birth defects such as microcephaly. Many people infected with Zika virus won’t have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. Your doctor may order a blood or urine test to help determine if you have Zika. There is no specific medicine for Zika.
  54. Zika symptoms
  55. Many people infected with Zika virus won’t have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. The most common symptoms of Zika are  Fever  Rash  Headache  Joint pain  Red eyes  Muscle pain Symptoms can last for several days to a week. People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. Once a person has been infected with Zika, they are likely to be protected from future infections.
  56. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND.
  57. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the continental United States. It is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Cases of WNV occur during mosquito season, which starts in the summer and continues through fall. There are no vaccines to prevent or medications to treat WNV in people. Fortunately, most people infected with WNV do not feel sick. About 1 in 5 people who are infected develop a fever and other symptoms. About 1 out of 150 infected people develop a serious, sometimes fatal, illness.
  58. Symptoms No symptoms in most people. Most people (8 out of 10) infected with West Nile virus do not develop any symptoms. Febrile illness (fever) in some people. About 1 in 5 people who are infected develop a fever with other symptoms such as headache, body aches, joint pains, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash. Most people with febrile illness due to West Nile virus recover completely, but fatigue and weakness can last for weeks or months.
  59. Severe illness can occur in people of any age; however, people over 60 years of age are at greater risk for severe illness if they are infected (1 in 50 people). People with certain medical conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease, and people who have received organ transplants, are also at greater risk. Recovery from severe illness might take several weeks or months. Some effects to the central nervous system might be permanent. About 1 out of 10 people who develop severe illness affecting the central nervous system die.
  60. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA.
  61. West Nile virus is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes then spread West Nile virus to people and other animals by biting them. In a very small number of cases, West Nile virus has been spread through: •Exposure in a laboratory setting •Blood transfusion and organ transplant •Mother to baby, during pregnancy, delivery, or breast feeding
  62. West Nile virus is not spread: •Through coughing, sneezing, or touching •By touching live animals •From handling live or dead infected birds. Avoid bare- handed contact when handling any dead animal. If you are disposing of a dead bird, use gloves or double plastic bags to place the carcass in a garbage can. •Through eating infected animals, including birds. Always follow instructions for fully cooking meat.
  63. Symptoms Most people infected with eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus do not develop symptoms. For those who develop symptoms, the time from infected mosquito bite to onset of illness (incubation period) ranges from 4 to 10 days. EEE can result in febrile illness (fever) or neurologic disease, including meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (infection of the brain). The type of illness will depend on the age of the person and other factors.
  64. Febrile illness is characterized by fever, chills, body aches, and joint pain. The illness lasts 1 to 2 weeks, and most people recover completely when there is no central nervous system involvement. Signs and symptoms of neurologic disease include fever, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, behavioral changes, drowsiness, and coma. In infants, neurologic disease often occurs soon after onset; in older children and adults, encephalitis may occur after several days of systemic illness.
  65. Approximately a third of all people with encephalitis due to EEE die. Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after onset of symptoms but can occur much later. Many people who recover are left with long-term physical or mental impairments, which can range from mild brain dysfunction to severe intellectual impairment, personality disorders, seizures, paralysis, and cranial nerve dysfunction. People with severe impairments often require long-term care and die within a few years.
  66. St. Louis encephalitis: This is a viral disease transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, headache, and nausea, and in severe cases, it can cause encephalitis. St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Most people infected with SLE virus do not have symptoms. Those people who do become ill may experience fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and tiredness. Some people may develop neuroinvasive disease, such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord). In rare cases, long- term disability or death can occur. There are no vaccines to prevent or medicines to treat SLE. You can reduce your risk of infection with SLE virus by using insect repellent, wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and taking steps to control mosquitoes indoors and outdoors.
  67. Symptoms Most people infected with St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE) virus do not have symptoms. For people with symptoms, the time from infected mosquito bite to feeling sick (incubation period) ranges from 4 to 14 days. The disease is generally milder in children and young adults than in older adults.
  68. o Symptoms usually start abruptly, with fever, headache, dizziness, nausea, and generalized weakness. o They typically get worse over a period of several days to a week. o Some patients recover after this period. o Others develop signs of central nervous system infections, including infection of the brain (encephalitis) or the membranes around the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). o Symptoms can include stiff neck, confusion, disorientation, dizziness, tremors, and unsteadiness. o Coma can develop in severe cases.  Among patients diagnosed with SLE, 5 to 20% die. The risk of dying increases with age.
  69. Transmission St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus is spread to people through the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on birds that have the virus in their blood. Birds that live in urban-suburban areas, such as the house sparrow, pigeon, blue jay, and robin, are common SLE virus hosts. The principal vectors are Culex species mosquitoes, including Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus in Eastern states, Cx. nigripalpus in Florida, and Cx. tarsalis and members of the Cx. pipiens complex in Western states.
  70. People do not develop high enough levels of the virus in their blood to infect mosquitoes. As a result, people are considered “dead-end” hosts for SLE virus. However, the levels of SLE virus in people’s blood is enough to spread the infection through blood transfusions, though this very rarely occurs.
  71. In nature, St. Louis encephalitis virus cycles between mosquitioes (primarily Culex species) and birds. Some infected birds can develop high levels of the virus in their bloodstream and mosquitoes can become infected by biting these birds. People become infected with the virus when mosquitoes feed on infected birds and then bite people. People are considered dead- end hosts because unlike birds, they do not develop high enough levels of virus in their bloodstream and cannot pass the virus on to other biting mosquitoes.
  72. IMM uses methods to control mosquitoes based on an understanding of mosquito biology, the mosquito life cycle, and the way mosquitoes spread viruses. The methods used, when followed correctly, are safe and have been scientifically proven to reduce mosquito populations. The basic components of IMM include surveillance, source reduction, control of all mosquito life stages, insecticide resistance testing, public education, community involvement, and evaluation of actions taken.
  73. Surveillance Professionals monitor mosquitoes, pathogens, and host animals like birds to understand what types and numbers of mosquitoes are in an area and if they are infected with pathogens. Surveillance activities can include: •Finding and monitoring places where mosquitoes lay eggs. The larvae that hatch from eggs are found in the same places. •Tracking mosquito populations and the viruses they may be spreading. •Monitoring birds to gather data on bird mortality and exposure to West Nile virus. •Determining if Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insecticides will be effective.
  74. As a mosquito expert you should conduct surveillance or monitoring to understand what types and numbers of mosquitoes are in an area. Use this information to identify nuisance and germ-spreading mosquitoes in an area. Knowing where mosquitoes live helps to: • Set up traps for collecting mosquito eggs and adult mosquitoes. Some traps collect female mosquitoes ready to lay eggs, and other traps collect all adult mosquitoes in an area.
  75. Sort and identify the mosquitoes to gain a better understanding of local mosquito populations. Some mosquitoes are tested to see if they are infected with germs. •Use proper techniques for collecting mosquito larvae. •Determine which mosquito control methods will be effective in an area. •Develop mosquito control plans. An effective mosquito management program cannot be planned or implemented unless surveys are made to determine which species are present, their relative abundance, and the location of breeding sites. Also, an understanding of the biology of the species involved is essential so that control efforts are not only directed at the proper habitat but also at the right time.
  76. Surveys can be labor intensive but they allow personnel to focus control efforts on the species that are causing a problem. This avoids unnecessary intrusion into areas which do not need to be treated, which saves time and money.​ Surveys for eggs and egg-laying sites can be a useful predictor of mosquito abundance. Mosquito egg surveys for floodwater mosquitoes are often used to schedule an effective pre-hatch application of insecticide. Dipper for sampling mosquito larvae
  77. Larval surveys are the primary means of deciding whether control measures should be applied to aquatic sites. A white dipper equipped with a long handle is the collecting tool most often used. Brown larvae can be easily seen on a white utensil. Some “stealth” is required when dipping for mosquito larvae because they quickly swim to deeper water when disturbed. The surveyor must also not overlook obscure larval sites, such as cattle hoof prints in wet pastures or on the edges of water holes and ponds. For examining tree holes, artificial containers, and similarly inaccessible cavities. A large-capacity rubber suction bulb and flexible extension tube can be used to draw out the water into a white metal pan.
  78. Light traps are relatively inexpensive and are easy to set up. They are most useful in determining the presence or absence of a particular mosquito species, and in demonstrating population trends. However, light traps are not effective for determining the absolute number of mosquitoes in an area. Light traps collect only those mosquitoes that are active at night and are attracted to lights. Therefore, light traps may not necessarily collect all the mosquito species present in the area. Another disadvantage of light traps is that they are not selective. They also collect moths, flies, beetles, and other insects attracted to light. Despite these limitations, light traps are an important surveillance tool.
  80. BGSENTINELTRAP Use Mosquito species: Ae.aegypti,Ae.albopictus, andCulexspp. • Lifestage:adult Tips for use • Use attractant (e.g., octenol lure, human scent lure, carbon dioxide) to attract more female mosquitoes
  81. CDC LIGHT TRAP Use • Mosquito species: wide range of mosquito genera and species • Life stage: adult Tips for use • Hang to a tree (5ft.up) • Using dry ice releases carbon dioxide that attracts host-seeking female mosquitoes • Most effective when set at dusk and collected after dawn the next day
  82. GRAVIDTRAP Tips for use • Infuse hay in water 5 days before use(acts as an attractant) • Drain water on days that trapping is not taking place Use • Mosquito species: Culexspp. • Life stage: gravid, adult females
  83. OVICUP Use Mosquito species: Ae. aegypti, Ae.albopictus ,Ae.japonicus, And Ae.triseriatus Tips for use • Check at least every 3 days • Dark colors (black) Are attractive to females for egg laying
  84. RESTINGTRAP Use • Mosquito species: Anopheles, Culex, and Culiseta spp. • Life stage: Adult females Tips for use • Set traps in cool, shaded areas Collect mosquitoes in the early morning Do not set in areas with high sun exposure for extended periods of time Left: Resting trap without fan Right: Resting trap with battery-operated fan
  85. Another technique used in adult mosquito surveillance is the landing/biting count. This method uses humans or animals as the attractant. They wait motionless at a specific location. Mosquitoes are counted as they land to feed and collected with a battery-powered aspirator. This technique is very useful because only those species that bite that particular host will be collected. This technique requires that the host be bitten, and therefore is not recommended when there is a high risk of disease transmission.
  86. Professionals around the United States report data to CDC’s national surveillance system, ArboNET. This surveillance system helps states and CDC track recent disease activity in an area, types and numbers of mosquitoes, and other information important to public health officials. These activities help professionals determine if, when, and where control activities are needed to manage mosquito populations before people start getting sick. If professionals discover that local mosquitoes are spreading viruses, they start implementing other activities identified in their mosquito control plans.
  87. Source Reduction Eliminate as many oviposition sites as possible to reduce the sources of mosquitoes. Reducing mosquito oviposition sites can help minimize the use of insecticides. Source reduction activities can include: (This can be a great outreach community program for a mosquito control business.) •Organizing community-wide cleanup drives to remove standing water and dispose of any containers that can hold water. •Modifying habitats, such as regrading drainage ditches, so water drains quickly and does not accumulate as standing water. •Managing water drainage systems like culverts, storm drains, or roadside ditches.
  88. Control of Mosquito Larvae and Pupae Source reduction can eliminate many oviposition sites. However, larvicides are used when oviposition sites cannot be eliminated or modified to prevent producing mosquitoes.  Physical controls such as screens on rain barrels  Mechanical controls such as such as using acoustic energy to kill larvae  Bacterial larvicides  Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis (Bti)  Lysinibacillus sphaericus  Spinosad  Insect growth regulators  Oils and films
  89. Control Larvae and Pupae Once mosquito eggs hatch, they become larvae and then pupae. Both larvae and pupae live in standing water. Dumping or removing standing water in and around the home or business is one way to control larvae. For standing water that cannot be dumped or drained, a larvicide can be used to kill larvae. Larvicides are products used to kill mosquito larvae before they become biting adults.
  90. Treat water-holding structures and containers in public places, like storm drains or urns in cemeteries. They may also treat standing water on private property as part of a neighborhood cleanup campaign. •Treat standing water that cannot be dumped or drained, like rain barrels and pool covers, with larvicides. •Controlling larvae and pupae before they become adults can minimize the need for widespread use of insecticides that kill adult mosquitoes.
  91. Control of Adult Mosquitoes Adult mosquitoes can be controlled with a variety of adulticides. Mosquito control professionals select the appropriate adulticide based surveillance data. In addition, professionals test for insecticide resistance to ensure that the selected adulticide will kill mosquitoes in an area. Commonly used adulticides include: •Pyrethrins/Pyrethroids •Organophosphates
  92. When surveillance activities show that adult mosquito populations are increasing or that they are spreading viruses, as a professional you may decide to apply adulticides to kill adult mosquitoes. Adulticides help reduce the number of adult mosquitoes in an area and reduce the risk that people will get sick. •If mosquitoes are spreading viruses, professionals spray adulticides by using backpack sprayers, trucks, or airplanes. •Do not apply more product than directed or reapply more often than stated on the label.
  93. Mosquitoes lay eggs on or near water because larvae need water to survive. Professionals and the public can remove standing water to reduce mosquito larvae before they become adult flying mosquitoes. •Professionals at local government agencies and mosquito control districts may collect and dispose of illegally dumped tires, clean up and maintain public spaces like parks and greenways, and clean up illegal dumps and roadside trash. •You may recommend to your clients to start a community campaign to remove standing water. Once a week, items that hold water like tires, buckets, planters, toys, pools, birdbaths, flower pot saucers, and trash containers should be emptied and scrubbed, turned over, covered, or thrown away.
  94. Habitats Some mosquitoes like living near people, while others prefer forests, marshes, or tall grasses. All mosquitoes like water because mosquito larvae and pupae live in the water with little or no flow. Different types of water attract different types of mosquitoes.
  95.  Permanent water mosquitoes: These mosquitoes tend to lay their eggs in permanent-to-semi-permanent bodies of water.  Some mosquitoes prefer clean water, while others like nutrient-rich waters.  Some mosquitoes lay eggs near the edges of lakes and ponds, or among plants in swamps and marshes, or in containers that hold water.  Floodwater mosquitoes: These mosquitoes lay their eggs in moist soil or in containers above the water line. The eggs dry out, then hatch when rain floods the soil or container. Floodwater habitats include:  Temporary pools and ponds created by melting snow or rain  Floodplains along stream and river banks  Irrigated fields and meadows  Containers that hold water and fill up after a rain shower  Tree holes that collect rainwater
  96. CONTROL OPTIONS What You Need to Know About Truck Spraying Trucks fitted with special spray equipment can be used to treat areas with larvicides or adulticides to kill mosquito larvae or adult mosquitoes. This process is called truck spraying. Truck spraying is used to: •Control and reduce the number of mosquitoes that can spread viruses. This can reduce your chances of getting sick. •Control and reduce the number of nuisance mosquitoes that bother people but do not spread viruses.
  97. Treat entire neighborhoods in a short period of time compared to some other methods. Mosquito control districts or local government departments track both nuisance mosquitoes and mosquitoes that can spread viruses. Spraying larvicides and adulticides from a truck, according to label instructions, is one way to kill mosquito larvae or adult mosquitoes in an area. This is especially important when people in the community are getting sick from mosquito bites.
  98. What are mosquito control trucks spraying? Mosquito control truck spraying insecticides into the air. Adulticiding: Mosquito control trucks spray very small amounts of insecticide into the air to kill flying mosquitoes. This spray is a fine mist that acts as a fogger in the area. Adulticiding: Spraying occurs when mosquitoes are most active. Generally, local government agencies or mosquito control districts announce the dates and times of spraying in the local newspaper, on district websites and social media, through public service announcements, by telephone, or through door-to-door notices.
  99. Other Control Measures 1. Remove Mosquito Habitats An important part of mosquito control around homes is making sure that mosquitoes don't have a place to lay their eggs. Because mosquitoes need water for two stages of their life cycle, it's important to monitor standing water sources. •Get rid of standing water in rain gutters, old tires, buckets, plastic covers, toys or any other container where mosquitoes can breed. •Empty and change the water in bird baths, fountains, wading pools, rain barrels and potted plant trays at least once a week to eliminate potential mosquito habitats. •Drain temporary pools of water or fill with dirt. •Keep swimming pool water treated and circulating.
  100. 2. Use Structural Barriers Because Aedes mosquitoes frequently bite indoors, using structural barriers is an important way to reduce the incidence of bites. Examples of structural barriers include: •Install window and door screens if they are not already in place. •Cover all gaps in walls, doors and windows to prevent mosquitoes from entering. •Make sure window and door screens are "bug tight." •Completely cover baby carriers and beds with netting. Nets can be especially important for protecting a sick person from getting more mosquito bites, which could transmit the disease to other people.
  101. 3. Control Mosquitoes at the Larval Stage The greatest impact on mosquito populations will occur when they are concentrated, immobile and accessible. This emphasis focuses on habitat management and controlling the immature stages (egg, larva, and pupa) before the mosquitoes emerge as adults. This approach maximizes the effectiveness of pesticide application and minimizes the use from widespread pesticide application. Larvicides target larvae in the breeding habitat before they can mature into adult mosquitoes and disperse. Larvicide treatment of breeding habitats helps reduce the adult mosquito population in nearby areas.
  102. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can use natural locations or habitats (for example tree holes and crevices in plants) and artificial containers with water to lay their eggs. They lay eggs during the day in water containing organic material (e.g., decaying leaves, algae, etc.) in containers with wide openings. They prefer dark- colored containers located in the shade. Other sites where they may lay their eggs include: old tires, buckets, toys, potted plant trays and saucers, plastic covers and even places as small as bottle caps.
  103. Egg and larva interventions are generally the most effective, least costly, way to control mosquitoes. However, these interventions are unlikely to be 100% effective, especially for mosquitoes like the Aedes aegypti that breed in varied and scattered locations. In these cases, eliminating or treating all or even most standing water can be nearly impossible. Successful control efforts will need to supplement habitat removal with other means of control.
  104. Aedes aegypti have evolved so that they can reproduce in even the most challenging environment. There are a number of EPA-registered active ingredients used in larvicides. Choosing which larvicide to use in a given area is best done by experts and will depend on a variety of factors, including potential human or environmental risk, cost, resistance, and ease of use.
  105. Controlling Mosquitoes at the Larval Stage
  106. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA. • Liquid larvicide products are applied directly to water using backpack sprayers and truck or aircraft- mounted sprayers. Tablet, pellet, granular, and briquet formulations of larvicides are also applied by mosquito controllers to breeding areas. • While there are a number of registered active ingredients used in larvicides, further down you will find information on more commonly used larvicides. EPA’s evaluation of mosquito control product includes assuring that it does not pose risks to vulnerable populations, including children and pregnant women when used according to label directions.
  107. Zika Virus Bacterial Insecticides Insects that are exposed to the Bacillus species have trouble digesting food they eat after the exposure. They then die of starvation. Insect Growth Inhibitors Prevent the larvae from maturing into adult mosquitoes.
  108. Other Materials Oils and films disperse as a thin layer on the surface of the water and cause larvae and pupae to drown. •Mineral Oils •Monomolecular films
  109. Control Adult Mosquitoes Using an EPA-registered pesticide is one of the fastest and best options to combat an outbreak of mosquito-borne disease being transmitted by adult mosquitoes. The pesticides registered for this use are known as adulticides. Adulticides are applied either using aerial applications by aircraft or on the ground by truck-mounted sprayers. Aerial spraying techniques can treat large areas with only small amounts of pesticide and have been used safely for more than 50 years. These aerial sprays are been fully evaluated by EPA and don’t pose risks to people or the environment when used according to the directions on the label.
  110. Mosquito adulticides are applied as ultra-low volume (ULV) sprays. ULV sprayers dispense extremely small droplets. The naled insecticide, (Naled is an insecticide that has been registered since 1959 for use in the United States. It is used primarily for controlling adult mosquitoes but is also used on food and feed crops and in greenhouses. For mosquito control, naled is most commonly applied aerially as an ultra-low volume (ULV) spray. ULV sprayers mounted on planes or helicopters dispense very fine aerosol droplets containing small quantities of insecticide that drift through the air and kill mosquitoes on contact. (Cont.)
  111. The spray is dilute (only 1-2 tablespoons of naled is applied per acre sprayed) and the amount that ultimately floats to the ground is small and dissipates quickly.for example,) uses 80 microns or less which means hundreds of thousands of droplets could fit inside something as small as one pea. When released from an airplane, these tiny droplets are intended to stay airborne as long as possible and drift through an area above the ground killing the mosquitoes in the air on contact. The small droplet size makes the pesticide more effective, which means less pesticide is used to better protect people and the environment.
  112. Extensive scientific research has been conducted by academia, industry, and government agencies to identify appropriate droplet sizes for individual compounds. The equipment nozzles undergo rigorous testing before being sold to the mosquito controllers. ULV applications involve very small quantities of pesticide active ingredient in relation to the size of the area treated. There are a number of registered adulticides to choose from.
  113. The mainland U.S. has successfully used naled to quickly reduce mosquito populations.. This pesticide has been used for routine mosquito control and following natural disasters such as hurricanes and floods on millions of acres across the U.S. Naled was used recently for mosquito control in FL, TX, LA, GA, SC, GA, WA, CA, NV, and in a number of other states. The insecticide is used highly populated metropolitan areas, such as Miami, and in less populated areas.
  114. In 2004, naled was used extensively to treat eight million acres across Florida as part of the emergency responses to hurricanes. In 2005 after Hurricane Katrina, five million acres of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas were treated with naled to kill mosquitoes. Naled is effective at controlling Zika, dengue and chikungunya.
  115. Pesticides That Can Be Used To Control Adult Mosquitoes Organophosphates •Malathion for Mosquito Control Malathion is part of an integrated overall strategy to control mosquitoes. In particular, malathion is an adulticide, used to kill adult mosquitoes. Most malathion mosquito adulticide applications (about 90%) are made by ground application (fogging equipment mounted on trucks). However, in situations of heavy mosquito presence across large geographic areas, aerial application is an important method of application. Less than 1% of spraying for mosquitoes is malathion aerial spray.
  116. Naled for Mosquito Control Naled is an insecticide that has been registered since 1959 for use in the United States. It is used primarily for controlling adult mosquitoes but is also used on food and feed crops and in greenhouses. For mosquito control, naled is most commonly applied aerially as an ultra-low volume (ULV) spray. ULV sprayers mounted on planes or helicopters dispense very fine aerosol droplets containing small quantities of insecticide that drift through the air and kill mosquitoes on contact. The spray is dilute (only 1-2 tablespoons of naled is applied per acre sprayed) and the amount that ultimately floats to the ground is small and dissipates quickly.
  117. Synthetic Pyrethroids •Permethrin, Resmethrin, Sumithrin for Mosquito Control •Prallethrin •Etofenprox Pyrethroids are synthetic chemical insecticides that act in a similar manner to pyrethrins, which are derived from chrysanthemum flowers. Pyrethroids are widely used for controlling various insects. Permethrin, resmethrin, and d- phenothrin (Sumithrin®) are synthetic pyrethroids commonly used in mosquito control programs to kill adult mosquitoes.
  118. Permethrin has been registered by the EPA since 1979. It is currently registered and sold in a number of products such as residential indoor and outdoor insect foggers and sprays, treated clothing, flea products for dogs, termite treatments, agricultural and livestock products, and mosquito abatement products. It is also regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as a treatment of head lice and scabies. Permethrin is the most widely used mosquito adulticide in the U.S. and is used to treat 9 to 10 million acres annually (out of 32-39 million acres treated with a mosquito adulticide).
  119. Permethrin’s widespread use can be attributed to its low cost, high effectiveness, low incidence of pest resistance, and broad labeling. Resmethrin has been registered by the EPA since 1967. It is currently registered for use only in public health and vector control programs to control adult mosquitos, biting and non-biting midges and blackflies.
  120. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-ND.
  121. D-phenothrin (Sumithrin®) has been registered by the EPA since 1976 for use to control adult mosquitos and other nuisance insects indoors and outdoors in residential yards and public recreational areas. Use sites include in and around residential/domestic dwellings, commercial and industrial buildings, transportation vehicles, recreation areas, animal quarters, direct animal treatment (dogs). While there are no direct applications to food crops, d-phenothrin labels allow for applications to control mosquitoes over agricultural as well as non-agricultural areas.
  122. Mosquito control professionals apply pyrethroids as an ultra low volume (ULV) spray. ULV sprayers dispense very fine aerosol droplets that stay aloft and kill adult mosquitoes on contact. Pyrethroids used in mosquito control are typically mixed with a synergist compound, such as piperonyl butoxide, which enhances the effectiveness of the active ingredient. The product is often diluted in water or oil and applied at rates less than 1/100th of a pound of active ingredient or less than 4 fluid ounces of mixed formulation per acre.
  123. What are outdoor residential misting systems? Outdoor residential misting systems (sometimes called "mosquito misters") are application systems designed to spray pesticides in a fine mist to kill mosquitoes and other insects outdoors. Misting systems include spray nozzles that are mounted around the perimeter of a home in the lawn or landscaping, or on parts of the house or fence. The spray nozzles are connected by tubing to a supply of insecticide. Some misting systems may be turned on at preset intervals using a timer. Others may be turned on using a remote controller, while others may be activated using a switch.
  124. What pesticides are used in the misting systems? The insecticide products most often used in outdoor residential misting systems contain pyrethrins and permethrin. These products may also contain piperonyl butoxide. To be sure what type of insecticide you are using, check the list of active ingredients on the container label. Certain minimum risk pesticides may also be used in some misting systems. Because EPA has determined that certain "minimum risk pesticides" pose little to no risk to human health or the environment, EPA has exempted them from the requirement that they be registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.
  125. Pesticides are used to control various pests, such as mosquitoes, ticks, rats and mice. Pesticides are also used in agriculture to control weeds, insect infestation and diseases.​ It is illegal to use a pesticide in a misting system if the pesticide label contains a prohibition against use in these systems.
  126. Outdoor residential misting systems have not yet been studied sufficiently to document their effectiveness in controlling mosquitoes or other yard and garden pests, nor have they been scientifically proven to control or prevent the spread of West Nile Virus or other diseases. While pest management begins with you, effective mosquito control is often community-based.
  127. Contact your local health department or mosquito abatement district to report severe annoyance or potential mosquito sources. For pests other than mosquitoes, a combination of pest management practices tailored for the specific pest may offer the best results.
  128. Are residential misting systems safe? People and pets may be exposed to pesticides used in a residential misting system through direct contact with sprays, by touching plants or other objects in the treated area, or by inhaling small amounts of pesticide remaining in the air. EPA has assessed the human health and environmental risks of the pesticides most commonly used in misting systems. Most of these pesticides last only short periods in the environment, so long-term exposure to humans is not expected.
  129. Based on its assessment, using toxicity data and exposure estimates, EPA does not expect risks of concern to humans when these chemicals are used in outdoor residential systems according to labeling specific for use in these systems. However, excessive use or accidents may pose risks. No pesticide should be regarded as 100% risk free. Since pyrethrins and permethrin are toxic to all insects, they may kill beneficial insects such as honeybees, ladybugs, butterflies and other non-target species. In addition, permethrin is very highly toxic to fish.
  130. Are misting systems regulated by EPA or the states? Regulations for these systems may vary from state to state. Some states may forbid the use of certain pesticides, or any pesticides at all in these systems in residential areas, others may require that signs be posted, while others may not regulate their use at all. For the most updated and accurate regulations in your state, consider consulting your state pesticide regulatory agency for details before you purchase.
  131. Some Common Mosquito Species Larval Habitat Biting Time Flight Range Aedes albopictus artificial containers & tree holes Day 100 - 300 yards Culex quinquefasciatus ground pools, catch basins, artificial containers Crepuscular, Night 1/4 - 1/2 mile Aedes vexans Flooded grassy and wooded areas Day, Crepuscular, Night 5 - 8 miles Coquillettidia perturbans Cattail marshes Crepuscular, Night 1 - 5 miles 8
  132. SUMMARY : In this course you have covered Aedes aegypti: This species is also known as the yellow fever mosquito Aedes albopictus: This species is also known as the Asian tiger mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus: A vector for malaria Culex pipiens: vector for West Nile virus Culex tarsalis: a vector for West Nile Celesta inornata: vector for several types of encephalitis
  133. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. American Pest CEUS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label. Photos courtesy of photographers published on ITP Node Pest and Disease Image Library, Joseph Barger, Photos courtesy of photographers published on ITP Node Photos courtesy of photographers published on ITP Node Photos courtesy of photographers published on ITP Node Photos courtesy of photographers published on ITP Node Photos courtesy of photographers published on ITP Node Pest and Diseases Image Library,