Course The Lowdown On IPM .pptx

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Course The Lowdown On IPM .pptx

The Lowdown On IPM
I. Definition of Integrated Pest Management
Definition of Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
means providing effective pest control while decreasing the exposure of
customers and the environment to pesticides through least toxic
alternatives and integrated pest management principles.
IPM does not necessarily mean that pesticides cannot be used;
however, any use of pesticides must be consistent with the goals of IPM.
Through sanitation, exclusion, planting resistant varieties, cultural
practices and mechanical means, reliance on pesticides may be reduced
in some instances. By use of baits and bait containers, pheromones, and
applications to protected areas (crack and crevice, wall voids, sub-slab,
etc.), exposure to pesticides can be lessened when pesticides are the
control method of choice. IPM techniques, i.e. monitoring, action
thresholds, targeting at certain stages of a pest's life cycle, and using a
combination of compatible control methods.
II. Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Pest Management may include appropriately labeled pesticides when
necessary to control a pest(s) and when allowed by the customer(s). However, emphasis
should be placed on minimizing the reliance on pesticides. Also, if pesticides are to be
used, application techniques and choice of products should contribute to reducing
human and environmental contact with pesticides.
A holistic approach to pest problems is required. This involves both the
applicator and the customer. As a pest control professional, you possess knowledge of
pest biology and control methods. IPM provides you with a great opportunity to put that
expertise to work. This is an opportunity to be paid and appreciated for your ingenuity in
solving pest problems and not just for what comes out of a spray nozzle. This approach
requires greater labor input in terms of inspections and reports. It also requires better
communication with the customer and a partnership (with the customer) for successful
implementation.
A. Site Inspection
A site inspection is the first step in the IPM process, regardless of the category or
categories of pest control involved. The site inspection is conducted prior to pest control
treatments and serves several functions: 1) establishes presence (or absence) of pests
on the site; 2) provides an inventory of conditions conducive to infestations; and 3) gives
the applicator a basis for developing site specific recommendations for pest control
alternatives.
Though some pests may occasionally invade, they do not continue to live and
reproduce in environments that do not meet their needs. Therefore, IPM inspections
should focus on the conditions of a site that make it hospitable to pests.
For indoor pests, conditions to consider include:
 food sources  lighting
 moisture  furnishings in the building
 harborage  routes of invasion
 temperature  conditions outside the structure
 air circulation  storage areas
For pests such as roaches, ants and flies, inspect for conditions such as:
 exposed food  open vents or fireplace flues
 food scraps and grease on and under
appliances
 structural damage creating openings to
the building
 food improperly stored in cabinets with
access for pests
 improper storage and debIPM
 leaking plumbing, sweating pipes,
dripping air conditioner units, and pet
water dishes
 shrubbery, flower beds, trees, or mulch
up against the building
 poorly fitting doors and windows  dead air spaces in house or attic
 open doors and windows without
screens
 rotting boards and mildew
 screens in need of repair  droppings or fly specks
 openings around pipes and wires
leading into buildings
 live or dead pests
 open drains or sewer pipes  roach egg cases in protected areas
Inspect for rodents with special attention given to:
 live or dead rats or mice  open drains or sewer pipes
 droppings  open vents or fireplace flues
 gnawing damage  structural damage creating openings to
the building
 trails or grease spots along walls or
rafters
 improper storage and debIPM
 noises in attic or walls  shrubbery, flower beds, trees, or mulch
up against the building
 odor  exposed food
 open doors  food scraps and grease on and under
appliances
 openings to crawl space not screened  food improperly stored in cabinets with
access for pests
 openings around pipes and wires
leading into buildings
 leaking plumbing, dripping air
conditioner units, and pet water dishes
For fleas and ticks, look for:
 presence of pets (inspect for fleas and
ticks)
 condition of sheets and other bedding
 pet bedding, sleeping/resting areas  dirty floors and rugs
 access to structure and yard by rats,
squirrels, raccoons, or other wildlife
 upholstered furniture
 rodent nests  fleas around lights or windows
 children that may be prone to bring
fleas into the house
For spiders, scorpions and centipedes, inspect for:
 webs or spider egg cases in corners or
under furniture and appliances
 open vents or fireplace flues
 poorly fitting doors and windows  structural damage creating openings to
the building
 open doors and windows without
screens
 improper storage and debIPM
 screens in need of repair  shrubbery, flower beds, trees, or mulch
up against the building
 openings around pipes and wires
leading into buildings
 presence of insects and other
arthropods that provide a food source
For wood destroying insects (termites, wood boring beetles, carpenter worms
and carpenter ants), inspect for:
 foraging carpenter ants  wood contact with the ground
 frass  excessive moisture
 fecal pellets  rotten wood
 kick holes  soil too high on foundation or on walls
of building
 exit holes  planter boxes, wood fences, wood
piles, debris or woody vegetation in
contact with the building
 soil tubes  form boards left in place
 buckled paint  insufficient ventilation
For outdoor pests and plant diseases, consider:
 presence of pests or diseases  slope
 food sources  exposure (north, south, east, west)
 species, life stages, and condition of
ornamental plants and turf
 adjacent land uses
 soil type and depth  lighting
 maintenance practices (mowing,
mulching, trimming, fertilization, etc.)
 routes of invasion
 water and moisture  droppings
 cover
For weeds, consider:
 variety of weeds  shading
 holes in turf  slope
 soil type and depth  exposure (north, south, east, west)
 drainage  adjacent land use and seed sources
 species of turf and ornamental plants  type and amount of traffic
 maintenance practices (mowing,
mulching, trimming, fertilization, etc.)
 previous land use
B. Pest Identification
Pest identification is much more crucial for effective implementation of an IPM
program than for conventional pest control where broad spectrum pesticides can be
used to kill a wide variety of pests. IPM program goals require that pesticide use be as
selective as possible. This requires both identification of the species of pest and major
areas of pest activity.
C. Customer Education
IPM can only be partially successful (if at all) without the cooperation of the
customer. The IPM provider must educate the customer about conditions conducive to
pest survival and infestations and steps to alleviate such conditions. The customer must
be provided with non-chemical alternatives for addressing pest problems. Some of these
alternatives may be beyond the purview or capabilities of the IPM provider. Working with
the customer, the applicator should devise a plan that eliminates or minimizes pesticide
exposure while still providing an acceptable level of control. Be realistic about the
probability of success.
D. Pest Management Objectives
Establishing pest management objectives should be by mutual agreement
between the applicator and customer. The objectives can vary between various areas
and for different pests. A food processing establishment may have an objective of no
pests in the food preparation and warehouse areas. A homeowner may not tolerate rats
and mice but accept low levels of certain insects in the house.
E. Set Action Thresholds
Action thresholds are levels of pest infestation at which some control measure(s)
is implemented. To conserve resources, limit exposure, and reduce environmental
impact, it is sometimes desirable to tolerate some level of pest infestation. For indoor
treatments, tolerance may be very low and based on regulatory or aesthetic reasons.
Where possible, use scientifically determined thresholds. An example is treatment for
grubs in turf when the density reaches an average of 4 to 6 grubs per square foot. Trees
generally begin using starch reserves when defoliation reaches 25%; however, surveys
of aesthetic perceptions indicate a threshold of 10% or less damage.
F. Reducing Human Exposures
Human exposure to pesticides can be accomplished by using 1) non-chemical
pest management techniques, and 2) using application techniques and products that
limit the probability of human contact.
1. Non-chemical Control Techniques
Non-chemical control techniques include methods to exclude pests,
environmental modification, introduction of natural predators, and mechanical removal
and vacuuming.
a. Sanitation
Sanitation as used in regard to pest control includes the removal of food, water
and harborage conducive to pest invasion or survival. This includes measures
such as:
 cleaning up food scraps in food
preparation areas
 vacuuming regularly
 storing food in pest-proof containers  cleaning sink traps
 stopping plumbing leaks  removing dense foliage against
buildings
 removing piles of debris, limbs, leaves
and rotting vegetation
 removing diseased plants and dead
limbs
 removing animal droppings  eliminating standing water
 removing pet food after feeding
b. Exclusion
Exclusion is eliminating entrance to a building or area. Techniques include:
 caulking or filling cracks and crevices  fencing
 keeping windows and doors closed  metal plates and shields
 outward opening screen doors  chimney caps
 air curtains  bird spikes
 screens on windows and vents  paint
 weather-stripping on doors  inspection of incoming items to prevent
importing pests
 grates on drains
c. Traps and Mechanical Devices
Traps and mechanical devices are commercially available for catching a wide
variety of, small mammals and insects. Mammal traps include killing traps such as snap
traps for small rodents, tunnel traps, and various specialized traps for gophers and
moles. A number of traps are also available for insect control including light traps,
pheromone traps, sticky traps and various funnel traps using food baits.
2. Low Exposure Pesticide Applications
Human risks and environmental impact can be reduced by using the least harmful
method. Whether using pesticides or other control means, a goal of pest management
should be to implement the most specific control measures possible. Consideration must
be given not only to the acute toxicity of the pesticide but also to other toxicological and
physical characteristics of the pesticide. These include persistence in the environment,
probability that the product will move off site, and the spectrum of species that will be
impacted.
Direct toxicity is one measure of the dangers of pesticides; however, it is not
always the overriding factor in regard to safety. Chronic toxicity, whether the pesticide
is accumulative or rapidly broken down and excreted, synergistic effect with other
materials used, and persistence of the pesticide are also important considerations.
Unfortunately, most readily available information on toxicity is presented as LD50
values which means the amount that killed one-half of a sample population. LD50 or LC50
provide a relative comparison of toxicity of pesticides but do not indicate the amount
required to kill an individual. Of greater concern to applicator and public safety should
be the no effect level and the level at which mortality begins -- these may be much lower
than the LD50 or LC50 values for many individuals. Additionally, most of the toxicity data
available is from animals other than humans and toxicity can vary considerably between
species.
Formulated products may be more or less toxic depending on the nature of inert
ingredients, solvents, synergists, etc. in the product. Consult the Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS) and the manufacturer for product specific information.
In judging the toxicity of a product, applicators need to look at the amount of
toxicant in the product -- "the poison is in the dose." Anticoagulant rodenticides are
among the most toxic materials in common usage, but the amount of actual poison in bait
formulations is very small, frequently 0.05 to 0.005%. Consult the MSDS for pesticide
specific information. For products that you will dilute with water and apply as a spray,
calculate the toxicity of the finished product to present a more accurate picture of the
material being applied.
To find the LD50 value for a pesticide spray mix (in water)
containing 0.5% of an active ingredient with a LD50 of 200
mg/kg, multiply 200 mg/kg by 100 divided by 0.5.
200 mg/kg x 100 = 200 mg/kg x 200 = 40,000 mg/kg
0.5
There are additional considerations other than direct mortality such as speed of
action, reversibility (is there an effective antidote or treatment?), and irreversible injury
such as kidney damage, nervous system disorders, ulcerations of the cornea, and
carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects.
The routes of entry (dermal, inhalation, and ingestion) for a pesticide are of
primary concern. Avoiding ingestion is a relatively easy task with proper hygiene. Other
things being equal, products that can be absorbed through the skin are more likely to
enter the applicator's body even with protective clothing. Fumigants, fogs, and fine
dusts are more likely to be inhaled or evade exclusion by clothing and protective
equipment. Pesticides that are not readily absorbed through intact skin may be rapidly
absorbed through cuts or abrasions.
Considerations in formulations involve a number of factors including: 1) the
concentration of the toxic agent or agents, 2) inclusion of synergists, 3) solvents that may
increase absorption, 4) physical state of the product -- liquid, gas, solid, paste, particle
size of dust, 5) stability -- especially propensity to vaporize, 6) mixing requirements (if
any), and 7) the treatment surface.
Probability of exposure, i.e., contact with a pesticide, involves a combination of
factors previously discussed as well as the equipment used and mixer/loader/applicator
procedures. However, the use of products that are low concentrations, solids that do not
vaporize, ready to use, and not absorbed through the skin minimize probability of
exposure. Exposure is most likely with fumigants, vapors, fogs, fine mists, and dusts that
can be absorbed through the skin and inhaled.
a. Timing of Applications
The biology of the target pest(s) and human activities both need to be considered
in planning pest management operations. Sometimes the best time to make an
application does not conform with "normal" working hours. Sometimes a compromise
must be struck between the best time to reach the target species and avoiding human
contact. Try to avoid human contact or entry for the maximum length of time. Don't make
general applications of sprays, dust, fogs, or fumigants in occupied rooms. Avoid
treating in school classrooms when students are present. If pesticide application is the
control method of choice, make your selection based on the environmental impact and
relative safety of using various products. As an applicator you will come in contact with
higher concentration products and increased dermal and inhalation risks. Also consider
that you may be returning to the sites of your previous applications including protected
environments such as crawl spaces, attics, etc., where degradation of pesticides may be
extremely slow.
b. Short Residual Pesticides
Pesticides with short lives in the environment lessen the chances for exposure. In
addition to chemical properties of the pesticide, protection from the elements, volatility,
moisture, bacterial action, temperature, soil and water pH, and sunlight are important
factors in pesticide persistence. Indoor treatments will generally result in greater
persistence.
c. Baits and Bait Boxes
Baits including food, scent and pheromone baits, can aid in targeting pests and
reducing non-target take. Bait boxes can further protect the environment, non-targets,
and humans from contact with pesticides. There are a number of effective rodent food
baits for use in bait boxes. Baits for outdoor or moist environments are made in wax
blocks. Food and scent baits are used for trapping various small mammals in live or
killing traps. The choice of bait can greatly influence the species taken. Food baits are
used for bird control with pesticides and traps. Food and pheromone baits are used for
various insects in combination with traps, glue boards, insect growth regulators (IGR),
and toxicants.
d. Crack and Crevice Treatments
Baits, sprays and dusts can be placed out of areas of normal human contact by
deposition in structural cracks and crevices. Not only does this reduce probability of
contact, but it also places pesticides in locations where many small pests seek
harborage. It may be necessary in some instances to drill into voids in walls or under
cabinets to place pesticides where insects are hiding. By strategically placing
pesticides, greater contact with pests can be realized while reducing the total amount of
pesticides used.
e. Perimeter Treatment
Perimeter treatments are band applications of pesticide around the outer
boundaries of an area or along the foundation of buildings. The purpose is to provide a
barrier to prevent pest invasion or re-invasion. Perimeter treatments can reduce the
need for pest control inside the area where human exposure is more likely to occur.
IPM Strategies to Control Pests
Integrated pest management utilizes inspection, pest identification, monitoring,
knowledge of pest life histories, and action thresholds to make intelligent decisions on
the use of compatible methods of pest control. IPM seeks to prevent pests from reaching
damaging numbers. While many aspects of each job will be similar, consider each
structure or lawn and customer to be unique. Determine the conditions that favor pest
infestations and plant diseases. Explore the combination of methods that will best serve
the customer in resolving the pest problem and in making the area less hospitable for the
pest(s).
1. IPM Strategies and Techniques for Indoor Sites
Inspection/monitoring, sanitation, and exclusion are practices common to all
indoor IPM programs. Pest biology, cost, type and physical condition of the structure,
and use(s) of the building greatly affect management strategies and methods. Some
examples of possible IPM strategies for indoor pests are as follows:
Ants
 survey for the presence of ants -- use of
several types of baits may be useful
 seal cracks where ants may be
entering the structure
 store food in ant-proof containers
 improve cleanup after food preparation
and meals
 clean stove and appliances
 do not leave pet food out
 always carefully inspect any potted
plants brought inside
 use bait(s) containing an IGR or boric
acid until ants disappear
Cockroaches
 weather-strip bottom of doors
 caulk cracks in building where pipes
enter
 clear vegetation against building
 remove firewood stacked on porch or
against house
 improve cleanup of food scraps in
kitchen
 store all food in roach-proof containers
 place garbage cans 100 feet from
building
 inspect all boxes, furniture, and
materials coming into the building to
prevent introduction of roaches or egg
cases
 repair dripping faucets
 caulk cracks along baseboards
 improve ventilation in dead air spaces
such as attics
 place roach baits including an IGR
beneath appliances in kitchen and
closets
 consider Bio-path fungus chambers
 use crack and crevice paste baits as
appropriate
 place glue traps in strategic locations
under furniture to survey roaches
 consider boric acid, diatomaceous
earth, or boron dust placement in voids
in walls and under cabinets
 conduct regular inspections for
conditions conducive to roach
infestations
Fleas
 survey for presence of fleas in house
 inspect pets
 vacuum carpets and furniture before
treatment and regularly thereafter
 place pets on a maintenance program
for flea control
 wash pet bedding
 treat house with low toxicity contact
pesticide for adults and larvae
 Confine outdoor treatments to shaded
areas. If the grass is tall it should be
mowed prior to treatment.
 apply residual insect growth regulator
in house to control new hatch
 place light trap for fleas in area where
pets sleep
 re-inspect in 30 to 60 days to assess
need for further action
 if pets go outside, also inspect the
yard, under porches, kennels, etc., and
treat hot spots with low toxicity contact
pesticide.
 Fleas do not breed in direct sunlight.
Inspect shaded areas.
House Flies
 repair or install screens
 keep doors closed
 install air door over inside doorways
 improve trash handling practices
 locate trash cans or dumpsters away
from building
 insure that exterior lighting does not
attract flies
 use light traps inside the building
where flies will not be attracted into the
building (out of sight from windows and
doors)
Termites
 survey structure and surrounding area
for signs of termite infestation
 identify species of termite infesting the
structure or in the vicinity
 remedy conditions allowing
subterranean and Formosan termites
access to the structure (wood ground
contact, wooden fences against
building, vegetation against building,
cracks in foundation, etc.)
 consider treating exposed boards in
attic and/or crawl space with a
registered borate
 check moisture levels in walls and in
crawl areas. Eliminate excessive
moisture sources.
 check lawn sprinklers to make sure
water direction is not hitting the
structure.
 check sprinklers to identify faulty shut
off valves that allow water to
continually seep out.
 check gutters for debris and
downspouts for proper direction and
distance from the structure
 for drywood termites evaluate the
exterior exposed wood for cracks
 for drywood termites check the
condition of painted surfaces
 remove down limbs, boards, and other
termite food sources littering the
ground
 if infestations of drywood termites or
Formosan termites not having a ground
connection are small and isolated,
remove infested wood and destroy
 consider use of a termite bait for
subterranean or Formosan termites
 for houses with a crawl space, ensure
adequate distance from ground to any
wood
 provide adequate ventilation (minimum
of 1/150th of area beneath house) One
vent per 25 lineal foot.
 in crawl areas with high moisture
content in wood members that
additional vent installation is
impractical install a 4-6 mil. plastic
vapor barrier over 80-90 percent of the
soil area.
 install subterranean termite monitoring
devices (wood stakes) around the
exterior perimeter of the structure.
Rats
 survey for rats and rat signs
 place tracking patches to monitor for
activity
 seal all openings greater than 1/4 inch
 place metal shields on wires to building
 place rat exclusion shield in toilets
 place grates with openings of 1/4 inch
(or less) over drains
 place all boxes in storage at least 12
inches from wall and off the floor on
pallets
 store food in rat-proof containers
 eliminate free water sources
 remove shrubbery, vines, and tall
vegetation against building
 trim tree limbs away from building
 remove debris that may harbor rats
 for areas with heavy movement of rats
from surrounding areas, use paraffin
bait blocks in tamper resistant bait
boxes placed outside along protected
travel routes
 place all garbage in rat-proof
containers
 place screens or hardware cloth over
vents
 keep doors and windows closed when
not in use
 place repeating rat traps adjacent to
doors that may remain open for
prolonged periods
 use snap traps or glue boards at 20 to
30 foot intervals along walls where rats
travel
 inspect regularly to remove trapped
rats and for presence of fresh rat sign
 if sanitation, exclusion, and trapping
fail to control rodents, add use of
rodenticide baits in tamper resistant
bait boxes
 if rats will not accept baits, place
tracking powder in inaccessible rat
travel lanes if appropriate for the sight
 if all moisture sources can be
eliminated liqua-tox can be mixed with
water, and placed in locked bait boxes
in inaccessible areas
Mice
 survey for mice and signs of mouse
infestations
 seal all openings greater than 1/4 inch
 place all boxes in storage at least 12
inches from wall and off the floor on
pallets
 store food in mouse-proof containers
 eliminate free water sources
 trim tree limbs away from building
 remove debris that may harbor mice
 place all garbage in mouse-proof
containers
 place screens over vents
 keep doors and windows closed when
not in use
 place repeating mouse traps adjacent
to doors that may remain open for
prolonged periods
 use snap traps or glue boards at 10-
foot intervals along walls where mice
travel
 inspect regularly to remove trapped
rats and for presence of fresh mouse
sign
 if sanitation, exclusion, and trapping
fail to control mice, add use of
rodenticide baits in tamper resistant
bait boxes
 if all moisture sources can be
eliminated liqua-tox can be mixed with
water, and placed in locked bait boxes
in inaccessible areas

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Course The Lowdown On IPM .pptx

  • 1. The Lowdown On IPM I. Definition of Integrated Pest Management Definition of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) means providing effective pest control while decreasing the exposure of customers and the environment to pesticides through least toxic alternatives and integrated pest management principles. IPM does not necessarily mean that pesticides cannot be used; however, any use of pesticides must be consistent with the goals of IPM. Through sanitation, exclusion, planting resistant varieties, cultural practices and mechanical means, reliance on pesticides may be reduced in some instances. By use of baits and bait containers, pheromones, and applications to protected areas (crack and crevice, wall voids, sub-slab, etc.), exposure to pesticides can be lessened when pesticides are the control method of choice. IPM techniques, i.e. monitoring, action thresholds, targeting at certain stages of a pest's life cycle, and using a combination of compatible control methods.
  • 2. II. Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Management may include appropriately labeled pesticides when necessary to control a pest(s) and when allowed by the customer(s). However, emphasis should be placed on minimizing the reliance on pesticides. Also, if pesticides are to be used, application techniques and choice of products should contribute to reducing human and environmental contact with pesticides. A holistic approach to pest problems is required. This involves both the applicator and the customer. As a pest control professional, you possess knowledge of pest biology and control methods. IPM provides you with a great opportunity to put that expertise to work. This is an opportunity to be paid and appreciated for your ingenuity in solving pest problems and not just for what comes out of a spray nozzle. This approach requires greater labor input in terms of inspections and reports. It also requires better communication with the customer and a partnership (with the customer) for successful implementation. A. Site Inspection A site inspection is the first step in the IPM process, regardless of the category or categories of pest control involved. The site inspection is conducted prior to pest control treatments and serves several functions: 1) establishes presence (or absence) of pests on the site; 2) provides an inventory of conditions conducive to infestations; and 3) gives the applicator a basis for developing site specific recommendations for pest control alternatives. Though some pests may occasionally invade, they do not continue to live and reproduce in environments that do not meet their needs. Therefore, IPM inspections should focus on the conditions of a site that make it hospitable to pests. For indoor pests, conditions to consider include:  food sources  lighting  moisture  furnishings in the building  harborage  routes of invasion  temperature  conditions outside the structure  air circulation  storage areas For pests such as roaches, ants and flies, inspect for conditions such as:
  • 3.  exposed food  open vents or fireplace flues  food scraps and grease on and under appliances  structural damage creating openings to the building  food improperly stored in cabinets with access for pests  improper storage and debIPM  leaking plumbing, sweating pipes, dripping air conditioner units, and pet water dishes  shrubbery, flower beds, trees, or mulch up against the building  poorly fitting doors and windows  dead air spaces in house or attic  open doors and windows without screens  rotting boards and mildew  screens in need of repair  droppings or fly specks  openings around pipes and wires leading into buildings  live or dead pests  open drains or sewer pipes  roach egg cases in protected areas Inspect for rodents with special attention given to:  live or dead rats or mice  open drains or sewer pipes  droppings  open vents or fireplace flues  gnawing damage  structural damage creating openings to the building  trails or grease spots along walls or rafters  improper storage and debIPM  noises in attic or walls  shrubbery, flower beds, trees, or mulch up against the building  odor  exposed food  open doors  food scraps and grease on and under appliances  openings to crawl space not screened  food improperly stored in cabinets with access for pests  openings around pipes and wires leading into buildings  leaking plumbing, dripping air conditioner units, and pet water dishes
  • 4. For fleas and ticks, look for:  presence of pets (inspect for fleas and ticks)  condition of sheets and other bedding  pet bedding, sleeping/resting areas  dirty floors and rugs  access to structure and yard by rats, squirrels, raccoons, or other wildlife  upholstered furniture  rodent nests  fleas around lights or windows  children that may be prone to bring fleas into the house For spiders, scorpions and centipedes, inspect for:  webs or spider egg cases in corners or under furniture and appliances  open vents or fireplace flues  poorly fitting doors and windows  structural damage creating openings to the building  open doors and windows without screens  improper storage and debIPM  screens in need of repair  shrubbery, flower beds, trees, or mulch up against the building  openings around pipes and wires leading into buildings  presence of insects and other arthropods that provide a food source For wood destroying insects (termites, wood boring beetles, carpenter worms and carpenter ants), inspect for:  foraging carpenter ants  wood contact with the ground  frass  excessive moisture  fecal pellets  rotten wood  kick holes  soil too high on foundation or on walls of building  exit holes  planter boxes, wood fences, wood piles, debris or woody vegetation in contact with the building  soil tubes  form boards left in place  buckled paint  insufficient ventilation
  • 5. For outdoor pests and plant diseases, consider:  presence of pests or diseases  slope  food sources  exposure (north, south, east, west)  species, life stages, and condition of ornamental plants and turf  adjacent land uses  soil type and depth  lighting  maintenance practices (mowing, mulching, trimming, fertilization, etc.)  routes of invasion  water and moisture  droppings  cover For weeds, consider:  variety of weeds  shading  holes in turf  slope  soil type and depth  exposure (north, south, east, west)  drainage  adjacent land use and seed sources  species of turf and ornamental plants  type and amount of traffic  maintenance practices (mowing, mulching, trimming, fertilization, etc.)  previous land use B. Pest Identification Pest identification is much more crucial for effective implementation of an IPM program than for conventional pest control where broad spectrum pesticides can be used to kill a wide variety of pests. IPM program goals require that pesticide use be as selective as possible. This requires both identification of the species of pest and major areas of pest activity. C. Customer Education IPM can only be partially successful (if at all) without the cooperation of the customer. The IPM provider must educate the customer about conditions conducive to pest survival and infestations and steps to alleviate such conditions. The customer must be provided with non-chemical alternatives for addressing pest problems. Some of these alternatives may be beyond the purview or capabilities of the IPM provider. Working with the customer, the applicator should devise a plan that eliminates or minimizes pesticide exposure while still providing an acceptable level of control. Be realistic about the probability of success.
  • 6. D. Pest Management Objectives Establishing pest management objectives should be by mutual agreement between the applicator and customer. The objectives can vary between various areas and for different pests. A food processing establishment may have an objective of no pests in the food preparation and warehouse areas. A homeowner may not tolerate rats and mice but accept low levels of certain insects in the house. E. Set Action Thresholds Action thresholds are levels of pest infestation at which some control measure(s) is implemented. To conserve resources, limit exposure, and reduce environmental impact, it is sometimes desirable to tolerate some level of pest infestation. For indoor treatments, tolerance may be very low and based on regulatory or aesthetic reasons. Where possible, use scientifically determined thresholds. An example is treatment for grubs in turf when the density reaches an average of 4 to 6 grubs per square foot. Trees generally begin using starch reserves when defoliation reaches 25%; however, surveys of aesthetic perceptions indicate a threshold of 10% or less damage. F. Reducing Human Exposures Human exposure to pesticides can be accomplished by using 1) non-chemical pest management techniques, and 2) using application techniques and products that limit the probability of human contact. 1. Non-chemical Control Techniques Non-chemical control techniques include methods to exclude pests, environmental modification, introduction of natural predators, and mechanical removal and vacuuming.
  • 7. a. Sanitation Sanitation as used in regard to pest control includes the removal of food, water and harborage conducive to pest invasion or survival. This includes measures such as:  cleaning up food scraps in food preparation areas  vacuuming regularly  storing food in pest-proof containers  cleaning sink traps  stopping plumbing leaks  removing dense foliage against buildings  removing piles of debris, limbs, leaves and rotting vegetation  removing diseased plants and dead limbs  removing animal droppings  eliminating standing water  removing pet food after feeding b. Exclusion Exclusion is eliminating entrance to a building or area. Techniques include:  caulking or filling cracks and crevices  fencing  keeping windows and doors closed  metal plates and shields  outward opening screen doors  chimney caps  air curtains  bird spikes  screens on windows and vents  paint  weather-stripping on doors  inspection of incoming items to prevent importing pests  grates on drains c. Traps and Mechanical Devices Traps and mechanical devices are commercially available for catching a wide variety of, small mammals and insects. Mammal traps include killing traps such as snap traps for small rodents, tunnel traps, and various specialized traps for gophers and moles. A number of traps are also available for insect control including light traps, pheromone traps, sticky traps and various funnel traps using food baits.
  • 8. 2. Low Exposure Pesticide Applications Human risks and environmental impact can be reduced by using the least harmful method. Whether using pesticides or other control means, a goal of pest management should be to implement the most specific control measures possible. Consideration must be given not only to the acute toxicity of the pesticide but also to other toxicological and physical characteristics of the pesticide. These include persistence in the environment, probability that the product will move off site, and the spectrum of species that will be impacted. Direct toxicity is one measure of the dangers of pesticides; however, it is not always the overriding factor in regard to safety. Chronic toxicity, whether the pesticide is accumulative or rapidly broken down and excreted, synergistic effect with other materials used, and persistence of the pesticide are also important considerations. Unfortunately, most readily available information on toxicity is presented as LD50 values which means the amount that killed one-half of a sample population. LD50 or LC50 provide a relative comparison of toxicity of pesticides but do not indicate the amount required to kill an individual. Of greater concern to applicator and public safety should be the no effect level and the level at which mortality begins -- these may be much lower than the LD50 or LC50 values for many individuals. Additionally, most of the toxicity data available is from animals other than humans and toxicity can vary considerably between species.
  • 9. Formulated products may be more or less toxic depending on the nature of inert ingredients, solvents, synergists, etc. in the product. Consult the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and the manufacturer for product specific information. In judging the toxicity of a product, applicators need to look at the amount of toxicant in the product -- "the poison is in the dose." Anticoagulant rodenticides are among the most toxic materials in common usage, but the amount of actual poison in bait formulations is very small, frequently 0.05 to 0.005%. Consult the MSDS for pesticide specific information. For products that you will dilute with water and apply as a spray, calculate the toxicity of the finished product to present a more accurate picture of the material being applied. To find the LD50 value for a pesticide spray mix (in water) containing 0.5% of an active ingredient with a LD50 of 200 mg/kg, multiply 200 mg/kg by 100 divided by 0.5. 200 mg/kg x 100 = 200 mg/kg x 200 = 40,000 mg/kg 0.5 There are additional considerations other than direct mortality such as speed of action, reversibility (is there an effective antidote or treatment?), and irreversible injury such as kidney damage, nervous system disorders, ulcerations of the cornea, and carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects. The routes of entry (dermal, inhalation, and ingestion) for a pesticide are of primary concern. Avoiding ingestion is a relatively easy task with proper hygiene. Other things being equal, products that can be absorbed through the skin are more likely to enter the applicator's body even with protective clothing. Fumigants, fogs, and fine dusts are more likely to be inhaled or evade exclusion by clothing and protective equipment. Pesticides that are not readily absorbed through intact skin may be rapidly absorbed through cuts or abrasions. Considerations in formulations involve a number of factors including: 1) the concentration of the toxic agent or agents, 2) inclusion of synergists, 3) solvents that may increase absorption, 4) physical state of the product -- liquid, gas, solid, paste, particle size of dust, 5) stability -- especially propensity to vaporize, 6) mixing requirements (if any), and 7) the treatment surface. Probability of exposure, i.e., contact with a pesticide, involves a combination of factors previously discussed as well as the equipment used and mixer/loader/applicator procedures. However, the use of products that are low concentrations, solids that do not vaporize, ready to use, and not absorbed through the skin minimize probability of exposure. Exposure is most likely with fumigants, vapors, fogs, fine mists, and dusts that can be absorbed through the skin and inhaled.
  • 10. a. Timing of Applications The biology of the target pest(s) and human activities both need to be considered in planning pest management operations. Sometimes the best time to make an application does not conform with "normal" working hours. Sometimes a compromise must be struck between the best time to reach the target species and avoiding human contact. Try to avoid human contact or entry for the maximum length of time. Don't make general applications of sprays, dust, fogs, or fumigants in occupied rooms. Avoid treating in school classrooms when students are present. If pesticide application is the control method of choice, make your selection based on the environmental impact and relative safety of using various products. As an applicator you will come in contact with higher concentration products and increased dermal and inhalation risks. Also consider that you may be returning to the sites of your previous applications including protected environments such as crawl spaces, attics, etc., where degradation of pesticides may be extremely slow. b. Short Residual Pesticides Pesticides with short lives in the environment lessen the chances for exposure. In addition to chemical properties of the pesticide, protection from the elements, volatility, moisture, bacterial action, temperature, soil and water pH, and sunlight are important factors in pesticide persistence. Indoor treatments will generally result in greater persistence. c. Baits and Bait Boxes Baits including food, scent and pheromone baits, can aid in targeting pests and reducing non-target take. Bait boxes can further protect the environment, non-targets, and humans from contact with pesticides. There are a number of effective rodent food baits for use in bait boxes. Baits for outdoor or moist environments are made in wax blocks. Food and scent baits are used for trapping various small mammals in live or killing traps. The choice of bait can greatly influence the species taken. Food baits are used for bird control with pesticides and traps. Food and pheromone baits are used for various insects in combination with traps, glue boards, insect growth regulators (IGR), and toxicants. d. Crack and Crevice Treatments Baits, sprays and dusts can be placed out of areas of normal human contact by deposition in structural cracks and crevices. Not only does this reduce probability of contact, but it also places pesticides in locations where many small pests seek harborage. It may be necessary in some instances to drill into voids in walls or under cabinets to place pesticides where insects are hiding. By strategically placing
  • 11. pesticides, greater contact with pests can be realized while reducing the total amount of pesticides used. e. Perimeter Treatment Perimeter treatments are band applications of pesticide around the outer boundaries of an area or along the foundation of buildings. The purpose is to provide a barrier to prevent pest invasion or re-invasion. Perimeter treatments can reduce the need for pest control inside the area where human exposure is more likely to occur. IPM Strategies to Control Pests Integrated pest management utilizes inspection, pest identification, monitoring, knowledge of pest life histories, and action thresholds to make intelligent decisions on the use of compatible methods of pest control. IPM seeks to prevent pests from reaching damaging numbers. While many aspects of each job will be similar, consider each structure or lawn and customer to be unique. Determine the conditions that favor pest infestations and plant diseases. Explore the combination of methods that will best serve the customer in resolving the pest problem and in making the area less hospitable for the pest(s). 1. IPM Strategies and Techniques for Indoor Sites Inspection/monitoring, sanitation, and exclusion are practices common to all indoor IPM programs. Pest biology, cost, type and physical condition of the structure, and use(s) of the building greatly affect management strategies and methods. Some examples of possible IPM strategies for indoor pests are as follows: Ants  survey for the presence of ants -- use of several types of baits may be useful  seal cracks where ants may be entering the structure  store food in ant-proof containers  improve cleanup after food preparation and meals  clean stove and appliances  do not leave pet food out  always carefully inspect any potted plants brought inside  use bait(s) containing an IGR or boric acid until ants disappear
  • 12. Cockroaches  weather-strip bottom of doors  caulk cracks in building where pipes enter  clear vegetation against building  remove firewood stacked on porch or against house  improve cleanup of food scraps in kitchen  store all food in roach-proof containers  place garbage cans 100 feet from building  inspect all boxes, furniture, and materials coming into the building to prevent introduction of roaches or egg cases  repair dripping faucets  caulk cracks along baseboards  improve ventilation in dead air spaces such as attics  place roach baits including an IGR beneath appliances in kitchen and closets  consider Bio-path fungus chambers  use crack and crevice paste baits as appropriate  place glue traps in strategic locations under furniture to survey roaches  consider boric acid, diatomaceous earth, or boron dust placement in voids in walls and under cabinets  conduct regular inspections for conditions conducive to roach infestations Fleas  survey for presence of fleas in house  inspect pets  vacuum carpets and furniture before treatment and regularly thereafter  place pets on a maintenance program for flea control  wash pet bedding  treat house with low toxicity contact pesticide for adults and larvae  Confine outdoor treatments to shaded areas. If the grass is tall it should be mowed prior to treatment.  apply residual insect growth regulator in house to control new hatch  place light trap for fleas in area where pets sleep  re-inspect in 30 to 60 days to assess need for further action  if pets go outside, also inspect the yard, under porches, kennels, etc., and treat hot spots with low toxicity contact pesticide.  Fleas do not breed in direct sunlight. Inspect shaded areas.
  • 13. House Flies  repair or install screens  keep doors closed  install air door over inside doorways  improve trash handling practices  locate trash cans or dumpsters away from building  insure that exterior lighting does not attract flies  use light traps inside the building where flies will not be attracted into the building (out of sight from windows and doors) Termites  survey structure and surrounding area for signs of termite infestation  identify species of termite infesting the structure or in the vicinity  remedy conditions allowing subterranean and Formosan termites access to the structure (wood ground contact, wooden fences against building, vegetation against building, cracks in foundation, etc.)  consider treating exposed boards in attic and/or crawl space with a registered borate  check moisture levels in walls and in crawl areas. Eliminate excessive moisture sources.  check lawn sprinklers to make sure water direction is not hitting the structure.  check sprinklers to identify faulty shut off valves that allow water to continually seep out.  check gutters for debris and downspouts for proper direction and distance from the structure  for drywood termites evaluate the exterior exposed wood for cracks  for drywood termites check the condition of painted surfaces  remove down limbs, boards, and other termite food sources littering the ground  if infestations of drywood termites or Formosan termites not having a ground connection are small and isolated, remove infested wood and destroy  consider use of a termite bait for subterranean or Formosan termites  for houses with a crawl space, ensure adequate distance from ground to any wood  provide adequate ventilation (minimum of 1/150th of area beneath house) One vent per 25 lineal foot.  in crawl areas with high moisture content in wood members that additional vent installation is impractical install a 4-6 mil. plastic vapor barrier over 80-90 percent of the soil area.  install subterranean termite monitoring devices (wood stakes) around the exterior perimeter of the structure.
  • 14. Rats  survey for rats and rat signs  place tracking patches to monitor for activity  seal all openings greater than 1/4 inch  place metal shields on wires to building  place rat exclusion shield in toilets  place grates with openings of 1/4 inch (or less) over drains  place all boxes in storage at least 12 inches from wall and off the floor on pallets  store food in rat-proof containers  eliminate free water sources  remove shrubbery, vines, and tall vegetation against building  trim tree limbs away from building  remove debris that may harbor rats  for areas with heavy movement of rats from surrounding areas, use paraffin bait blocks in tamper resistant bait boxes placed outside along protected travel routes  place all garbage in rat-proof containers  place screens or hardware cloth over vents  keep doors and windows closed when not in use  place repeating rat traps adjacent to doors that may remain open for prolonged periods  use snap traps or glue boards at 20 to 30 foot intervals along walls where rats travel  inspect regularly to remove trapped rats and for presence of fresh rat sign  if sanitation, exclusion, and trapping fail to control rodents, add use of rodenticide baits in tamper resistant bait boxes  if rats will not accept baits, place tracking powder in inaccessible rat travel lanes if appropriate for the sight  if all moisture sources can be eliminated liqua-tox can be mixed with water, and placed in locked bait boxes in inaccessible areas
  • 15. Mice  survey for mice and signs of mouse infestations  seal all openings greater than 1/4 inch  place all boxes in storage at least 12 inches from wall and off the floor on pallets  store food in mouse-proof containers  eliminate free water sources  trim tree limbs away from building  remove debris that may harbor mice  place all garbage in mouse-proof containers  place screens over vents  keep doors and windows closed when not in use  place repeating mouse traps adjacent to doors that may remain open for prolonged periods  use snap traps or glue boards at 10- foot intervals along walls where mice travel  inspect regularly to remove trapped rats and for presence of fresh mouse sign  if sanitation, exclusion, and trapping fail to control mice, add use of rodenticide baits in tamper resistant bait boxes  if all moisture sources can be eliminated liqua-tox can be mixed with water, and placed in locked bait boxes in inaccessible areas