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Course Advanced IPM (4) (1).pptx

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Part one: Basics of IPM
IPM or integrated pest management is a complete solution that incorporates multiple
techniques for...
with a food source. Open doors, and windows with no screens, will provide insects with an
obvious entrance to the structur...
Part 2: exclusion
Mechanical exclusion is a necessary step in any IPM plan because it lowers the need for
chemical applica...
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Course Adv. IPM.pptx
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Course Advanced IPM (4) (1).pptx

  1. 1. Part one: Basics of IPM IPM or integrated pest management is a complete solution that incorporates multiple techniques for enhanced control with a lower impact on human health and the environment. Due to the multiple steps involved in the process, chemical application is less important and monitoring the property and pest activity is a necessity. Pesticide applications therefore should be as precise as possible, and always have a specific reason. Broadcast applications, and over-treating as a precaution are therefore the old style of treatment. Crack and crevice, spot treatments, and void treatments are considered a better solution and have therefore replaced the outdated “the more the better” approach to pest control. Crack and crevice treatments tend to be more effective and are done using lower amounts of product. Since the product can be applied directly under baseboards, and deep into cracks it limits the exposure to the applicator and the homeowner. Void treatments which are also considered low impact are similar in the sense that there is little exposure to the applicator and those within the structure. The use of dusts and baits can enhance a liquid treatment and, in some cases, replace it. Dusts can safely be applied in limited amounts to sensitive areas of the home, particularly in void areas. The use of a compressed air duster can provide a complete method of treatment and protection when used in the wall voids. Dusting attics and crawl spaces can in many cases eliminate the need for treatments in the living space of a home. Gel baits are by design are meant to be used as spot treatments. They are applied in less hidden areas compared to dusts but aren’t generally used out in the open. Door hinges and other niches in sensitive areas are the prime target. In kitchens, hospital rooms, and other sensitive areas gel baits should be used to prevent contamination of food contact surfaces, and other easily contaminated areas. Food preparation counters, hospital beds and other sensitive areas should be treated in a manner that avoids the risk associated with drift, and the food or human contact that could occur as a result of liquid treatments. Vacuuming should be the first part of any treatment plan. On an initial service removing insect bodies, food sources, and harborage will aid in proper control. Also, insect eggs are sucked up into the vacuum cleaner and removed from the property when the vacuum is removed by the technician. If a customer is using their own vacuum it should be taken outside and emptied directly into the outside trash. Conducive conditions should be identified and corrected whenever possible. Conducive conditions include anything that can aid the insect populations’ growth. Dripping faucets, standing water, improperly watered lawns, and other water related issues provide some insects with water, but may also provide a food source for mildew and fungus. Many flies and other filth feeding insects prefer decaying organic matter. This means that accumulations of decaying fruit, dead leaves, and even moss on the ground can provide them
  2. 2. with a food source. Open doors, and windows with no screens, will provide insects with an obvious entrance to the structure, and a not so obvious entrance comes from doors and windows not properly sealed. Inadequate doors and windows should be corrected with weather-stripping, door thresholds, door sweeps or other forms of exclusion to detour entry. Pipes and conduits going through the stucco are often great entry points for insects, and they should be sealed using caulking or sealants. Damaged vent screens should be repaired or replaced. Because of these types of conditions, controlling water on the property and constant sanitation are necessary steps in any IPM plan. The responsibility for controlling these conducive conditions should be assigned as early as possible. Some issues may be corrected by the customer, and others by the pest control technician. Without clearly defining a recommendation, and assigning a responsibility for correction, the likelihood of completion is very low. A good technician should devise a series of IPM plans that can be used for different types of treatments. For complicated properties a more specific IPM plan should be used and written just for that property. An IPM plan may be as simple as the instructions listed on a pest agreement and any special notes listed within. It may also be a complicated written report including a site map with specific instructions listed by area. It is a good idea however to document all findings and recommendations on a property, to save them with the customer file, and to take pictures of all relevant findings so that they can be used to formulate the treatment plan. A well written IPM plan should define the specific treatments to be done on the property, it should note locations of bait stations, traps, glue boards, and other items used for monitoring. A written IPM plan should always be used for commercial properties, but can be customized for residential properties. For commercial accounts a current, accurate site map should be used and adjusted as needed. The plan should always be updated when changes occur to the property or changes occur with the service to be performed. Finally, the plan should define which responsibilities belong to the pest control technician and which belong to the customer. Communication is the most important part of any IPM program. Customers need to be educated on the service being provided to them, and they need to be educated about the properties they own or of which they are left in charge. It’s very likely that the customer doesn’t know about the issues they are shown, or that they never believed it to be a problem. Therefore, speaking with the customer regularly will allow better correction of conducive conditions and better control on the property.
  3. 3. Part 2: exclusion Mechanical exclusion is a necessary step in any IPM plan because it lowers the need for chemical application. Exclusion in many cases can lower pest intrusion to a point that no further treatment is needed. Exclusion therefore can be used to enhance a chemical application or in many cases can be used to replace it. Exclusion techniques include filling holes, applying caulking, installing weather-stripping, and many other tasks that lower the levels of pest intrusion by mechanical means. Caulking and sealants are applied in many locations but the most common places include countertops where water intrusion may attract pests, around pipes where insects or rodents can gain entry and over cracks and crevices where insects may find harborage. Types of caulking • • • • • • Oil based caulking Low cost, easy to use, adhere well to most non-porous surfaces Butyl rubber based caulking Non-hardening, adhere well to masonry and concrete. Good water resistance. Latex caulking Low cost, easy to use and readily adhere to most surfaces. Causes steel to rust. Can be applied to wet surfaces, but not appropriate for permanently wet locations. • • Acrylic latex caulking Similar to latex caulks but are more suitable for outdoors and are more resistant to UV light. Types of sealants • • Siliconized acrylic latex A flexible material that can be used on joints in wood, metals, glass, and tile up to ½ in wide. It is highly resistant to weathering and can last 20-30 years outdoors. • • Ethylene copolymer Works on most materials, but not plastic. It has many of the same properties as siliconized acrylic latex, but it breaks down much more quickly due to its sensitivity to uv light. • • Polysulfide Difficult to apply, may require the mixing of two products, may require primers, therefore their use is very limited. • • • • Urethanes Like polysulfide however they have better adhesion to most surfaces. Silicone Some silicone products are not compatible with concrete, they have otherwise good adhesion to most surfaces. They have the widest range in service temperatures (-65-130 degrees)
  4. 4. Weather-stripping, door thresholds and door sweeps can prevent pests from gaining entry into a structure. These can easily be installed by a pest control technician or the homeowner and can be purchased at a local hardware store. Gaps of 1/64th inches can allow insect entry. Rats can enter through holes the size of a quarter, and mice can enter through holes the size of a dime. Technicians should always communicate to the customer when and where they find areas of intrusion, and should always be ready to do the necessary repairs themselves. As part of an ongoing service technicians should always be looking for these areas needing work, and let the customer know so the customer can make arrangements to get necessary repairs done. As part of the open communication expected within an IPM program between the service technician and the homeowner, responsibilities should be assigned. Many customers have their own handyman, and contractors that do work for them. It is within reason to allow a customer to do some work himself, or have it done by others, but the service technician should always verify that it was done properly. With issues of sanitation it will most likely be the customer cleaning, except for the few exceptions where it falls into the jurisdiction of a pest control company such as rodent urine and feces clean out programs. Part 3 Pesticides Pesticides are divided into several groups based on their “mode of action” (the way they affect an insect’s nervous system). The “mode of action” of many modern pesticides can be fatal to insects, but have little effect on the human nervous system. Different modes of action may be more effective in certain instances, and some insects react differently to specific modes of action. Cockroaches and Bed Bugs as an example tend to be more resistant to pyrethroids, making it necessary to try avoid that chemical class when treating those insects. Technicians should learn which products have which mode of action, and understand when and where to use each of them. Technicians should also learn which products are repellent and which aren’t. Neonicotinoids are synthetically derived products that mimic the mode of action found in natural nicotine. When the product bonds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor it overloads the nervous system causing eventual insect death. Neonicotinoids bond readily with the receptor in the insect body but do not affect the human nervous system in the same way. Neonicotinoids are systemic in plants and work great when treating insects that feed on plants. This systemic action however has been criticized in recent years and some critics believe that it
  5. 5. is contributing to the declining bee population. These products should never be used on flowering plants while bees are actively foraging and some neonicotinoid products may have specific restrictions in regards to bees. Neonicotinoid Product Examples: Trade Name Active Ingredient: Optiguard Flex CS: Thiamethoxam Premise 2/Prothor SC2: Imidicloprid Safari: Dinotefuran Pyrethroids are the most common chemical family used as a pesticide. The active ingredients used in pyrethroids mimic the action found in natural pyrethrins. This mode of action stops chemical signals from traveling along the nerve axons. This happens when the product bonds to the sodium channel of nerve cells. Pyrethroids are synthetically created and enhanced for better efficacy. They have a longer residual than their natural counterparts, and are more effective without generally needing a synergist. Synergists are almost always required for pyrethrins to be effective but as pyrethroids have been developed and been enhanced over the years the need for a synergist has become obsolete. Pyrethroids while generally not water soluble have heavy restrictions with regards to ground water in as a result of being the most commonly used chemical family. There are very specific regulations that include limiting treatments in the days around increment weather, avoiding run off and controlling drift. Pyrethroid product examples Trade Name: Active Ingredient: Talstar P/Maxxthor SC/UpStar Gold: Bifenthrin Suspend SC: Deltamethrin
  6. 6. Cy-Kick CS: Cyfluthrin Tempo SC/WP/20 WP: Cyfluthrin Demon WP: Cypermethrin Some of the products that are regulated may have even more restrictions. As an example some products do not allow, or may have restrictions on the treating of eaves. A good technician always reads a product's label before making an application. Products with a dual mode of action combine two very unique active ingredients to increase the efficacy of the overall treatment. This is however not the same thing as synergy. Synergy involves blocking an insect’s ability to fight a specific mode of action, but a dual mode of action involves both ingredients attacking the nervous system at the same time. With synergy one mode of action is enhanced. These products with dual modes of action have several advantages. In the case of pyrethroid resistant insects such as bed bugs it becomes more effective. With a second active ingredient and a second mode of action, insects find it harder to fight off the effects. In some cases a product can be more effective than its parts, even when used at a lower rate. In the case of temprid or bithor the product will be more effective on ants partially because of its low active ingredient percentage. Lower rates mean that the product is slower acting, and less repellent. However either ingredient alone might not be as effective at such a low rate. The combination of products makes it harder for an insect’s body to adapt, and the low repellency makes it harder for insects to avoid. The most common and most effective combination of products is a neonicotinoid combined with a pyrethroid. These two products seem to complement each other better than any other combination and have become important in controlling many pests. These active ingredients are generally low toxicity to humans and combining them does not generally increase their mammalian toxicity. They may in some cases be even lower impact since they are used at lower rates. Less exposure to any one product means less risk from that product.
  7. 7. Dual Mode of Action Product Examples: Trade Name: Active Ingredients: Neonicotinoid/Pyrethroid Transport Mikron/ GHP: Acetemipid/Bifenthrin Temprid SC: Imidicloprid/Cyfluthrin Bithor SC: Imidicloprid/Bifenthrin Pesticide products can also be divided into groups based on their repellency. The repellency is determined by the way insects detect and try to avoid the product. A highly repellent product will almost always be detected by insects, and the most sensitive insects will attempt to avoid it. Low repellency products can usually be applied at the label rate and repel only the most sensitive insects. A few products are non-repellent and insects generally cannot detect them, but a good technician never over-applies these products because there is still some risk of repellency involved. In fact, it is generally accepted that the higher the label rate a product is applied at, the higher the repellency of that product. Products that are low in repellency can eventually become high repellency if applied at higher label rates, or over applied. Technicians should keep the repellency low in the soil along the foundation of any structure. This means generally using low or non-repellent products at the foundation of the house in most cases. The repellency could force unwanted pests inside, trap pre-existing pests inside, or even trap pests inside that were forced in by the product. Ants as an example can be forced to look for new areas to travel while trying to avoid the repellent product. These ants will appear in new areas of the home, or other account, and may become a more cumbersome issue for the customer. These ants will be harder to control, and certain species may start new colonies inside of hollow walls, or other void areas.
  8. 8. Many times in apartment buildings tenants will treat with “ready to use” foggers from the local grocery store. These foggers release a repellent mist that kills a few of the pests that can be seen, and force the rest deep into the walls, or into the neighboring units. The tenants believe they have corrected their problem until a neighboring unit hires an inexperienced pest control company that uses highly repellent flushing agents and sends the insects right back. The problem becomes compounded as a result of bad product choices. The products could be switched with the first tenant using the pest control company, and second fogging, or both of them doing the same of either and the result would still be the same. It is however up to the pest control technician to identify whenever possible the reasons for an infestation, and to be able to decide what is appropriate to control it. Flushing agents have their use, and so do “ready to use” foggers, and a good technician knows when, and when not to use them. Through a behavioral trait referred to as Necrophoresis, ants will remove the dead bodies found in their path by sensing the chemical smell of oleic acid in the dead workers. This allows them to protect themselves from the decay, and any diseases present within the dead workers. This behavioral trait however is exploited to the benefit of pest control technicians, since these dead bodies often have pesticide residues on them. The undertaker ants carrying the dead away will get the product on them, and then take it back to the colony. This is great, especially with slow acting products that will spread throughout the colony before ants have time to adapt. The problem however is that undertaker ants will often ignore those dead bodies treated with even moderately repellent products. These ants will never get picked up, and the product will never make it back to the colony. Ants therefore should almost always be treated with non-repellent, or low-repellency products.
  9. 9. Product Repellency No or Low Repellency These products are generally not repellent unless over applied or applied above label rates. Product/ Active Ingredient Termidor sc: Fipronil Optiguard flex cs: Thiamethoxam Premise 2/ prothor sc2: imidicloprid Bithor sc: Imidicloprid/bifenthrin Advion: Indoxicarb Moderate Repellency Both products become high repellency when used above lowest label rate! Product/ Active Ingredient Termprid sc: Imidicloprid/ cyfluthrin Talstar p/maxxthor sc: bifenthrin High Repellency These products are generally always repellent Product/ Active Ingredient Onslaught Fastcap:Esfenvalerate/Prallethrin Microcare 3% CS: Pyrethrins Tempo sc/ultra wp: Cyfluthrin ECO-PCO WP-X: Pyrethrins Exciter: Pyrethrins
  10. 10. Part 4: Outdoor Applications Due to the new laws in regards to most pesticides, and varying modes of actions, it is crucial to use the right products in the right place. For exterior services it is acceptable to use several different products, applied in several different places. Due to pyrethroid restrictions it makes the most sense to use products containing pyrethroids against the foundation of the house, and to pin stream treat the sidewalk edges and other similar areas where runoff is less likely. With repellency in mind, use either a low repellency product, or a product with a dual mode of action applied at a low rate. Bifenthrin is the lowest repellency pyrethroid active ingredient. Temprid SC, while having a more repellent pyrethroid active ingredient(cyfluthrin), is about the same repellency as Talstar P or Maxxthor SC (bifenthrin based products) because the Pyrethroid is applied at a much lower label rate. Remember that some products such as Temprid SC can be applied much lower than the lowest listed label rate, and can be very effective to treat lawns, and plants for ants. However keep in mind that no pyrethroids have been found to be completely non-repellent. If dealing with insects that are over sensitive you may consider using another chemical class. One important rule of thumb that a good technician should keep in mind is that repellent products should be kept away from the foundation of a structure whenever possible. Ants, and other insects can be forced inside by a repellent product, and insects inside can be trapped or even worse, insects forced inside can be trapped inside. As an alternative to pyrethroids Termidor SC can be used twice yearly for ants on the exterior, and Arilon can be used all year long. Both products are completely non-repellent but each has its own specific uses, with places and times you shouldn’t use it, and specific restrictions are listed for each product on the label. Pesticide granules can be divided into two basic forms. The first of which is a clay based granule that is used as a carrier for a specific active ingredient. These granules are generally water activated and as they get wet they release product into the treatment areas. These granules, unless otherwise labeled, should be used on the soil outside. In some cases they are put on top of a liquid treatment, in others they are applied starting where the liquid treatment ends, but a very common use would also be an application without any liquid treatment. Treating overtop of a liquid can enhance the efficacy if moisture is expected to break down that first part of the application, but a good technician is careful because this will also increase repellency in the treatment area. Treating in most cases is done by applying a band of granules outward where the liquid treatment ends thereby avoiding the problem of repellency, and extending the barrier outward from the foundation. The case in which one would apply granules with no liquid treatment is also common. If it is raining or rain is expected. Then the liquid treatment may be pointless, when the rain hits the granules it will activate them, causing them to release the active ingredient.
  11. 11. The second basic form of granules is granular bait. Granular baits are generally very specialized, but tend to have broad labels. This means that while the label would have you believe they are great for many pests, the food attractant in them may not attract all of the bugs all of the time. Baits should be used judiciously with specific pests in mind. Niban G and Mother Earth G are great for crickets and cockroaches, while more specific baits are generally used for ants, and may be species specific. Some ants will eat the large granules of Niban G and Mother Earth G, but Niban FG has much smaller granules that are easier to pick up. Since the food attractant found in those products may not always be appetizing to ants and the low efficacy of the product with boric acid as the active ingredient, Advance and Ascend granular baits provide an alternative. Part 5: Interior Treatments Interior treatments, while not always necessary, are common in the pest control industry. Some insects are only found indoors which means that controlling them is probably done from indoors. In many cases as well outside pests work their way in, and some form of treatment is required to control them. A good technician knows that he has a responsibility to limit his use of pesticides on a property, and to be judicious as possible with application types, and locations. Crack and crevice treatments are the most effective, and are a low Impact method for applying liquid products. Spot treatments are a limited solution for a limited area and whenever possible should be used in place of a broadcast treatment. Broadcast treatments should be done only when deemed necessary, and should be limited to areas of possible insect activity. These types of precise treatments limit customer exposure, and usually control insects better. There are several interior products that work very well at controlling general pests, but usually interior treatments are very specialized. In many cases a customer will have a specific pest problem inside that may require something specific. Temprid SC, which is also used outside, is labeled for use on many pests, but it’s most effective interior use is for Bed Bugs. Cirkil CX on the other hand is designed solely for Bed Bugs. Zenprox EC is a special pyrethroid designed to affect insects that would otherwise be immune to products containing pyrethroids. Zenprox also had a broad label, including Bed Bugs, and Spiders, but its best use is on adult fleas. Phantom SC is a very low toxicity product that destroys an insect’s cell’s ability to supply energy to the insect. The active ingredient is inactive inside of the product, but when metabolized by an insect it becomes a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor. It is selective to insects because mammals lack the enzyme necessary for the metabolism to occur that creates the toxic effect. Phantom SC is also slow acting, therefore when dealing with social insects such as ants it will spread through the colony before an effect is noticed. Phantom SC is generally used for ants due to its slow action, and non-repellency. Phantom SC and Zenprox EC both have seemingly different uses. The advantage of either of these products over the general use pesticides otherwise found is that they are applied at a more concentrated rate. This is
  12. 12. advantageous when using them as a crack and crevice treatment since you are applying more into insect hiding areas. Phantom SC is generally applied at .5% ( ½ of 1%) but Termidor which is similar is applied outside at .06% (06/100 of 1%). Zenprox EC is applied at .25% (1/4 of 1%) while Tempo SC is generally applied outside and inside at .05% (.05/100 of 1%) These two products are designed to be used at these relatively high concentrations and they provide adequate control as part of a proper IPM Program. Interior baiting is a good solution in many cases and sometimes removes the need for a liquid treatment all together. Because of their relatively low toxicity, and low application amount, baits poses little to no threat to people and pets and can be applied in semi-open areas. Some bait comes in ready to use stations but those stations may be less attractive, and thereby less effective due to the necessity for insects to go inside to get a lethal dose. Oxidiazine based baits such as Advion have a tertiary kill. This means that the product will metabolize inside the insect's body, making it more toxic, and the metabolized active ingredient will spread from dead insects to live ones as a result of insects eating their own dead, a behavioral trait referred to as necrofagia. Cleaning and correcting sanitation issues are the most important part of a baiting program. Food debris, decaying organic matter, and other competing food sources can keep insects away from the bait, making the bait useless. While vacuuming on the initial service the technician should focus on cupboards, and kitchen floors where food debris is often left behind. Garbage disposals may need to be cleaned as well. In many cases the rubber gasket at the top of the garbage disposal will have a buildup of organic matter in it that provides a food source for insects. As part of regular inspections a technician should always be looking for water leaks and the accompanying fungus that can attract unwanted insects. Dusts can be helpful in a proper treatment program as well. Interior dusting should most of the time be done using boron dusts. Boron dusts are very low toxicity, and provide a kill through stomach poisoning. For some cases more specific dusts may come in handy, but when dealing with general insects Zone Defense, Board Defense, Ni-Bor, Boracide, and Tim Bor can all be interchanged for proper control. The dust should be applied to void areas, where no human contact is expected, or to cracks and crevices. The most humid rooms in the house are the best places to apply these dusts. Kitchens and bathrooms are an insect’s ultimate destination, and their freeway is the power lines. Therefore treating the electrical outlets in these rooms is a safe bet. In fact customers generally complain about roaches and ants coming from these outlets. Dusting should continue with dust being applied to plumbing penetrations, and lightly into cracks and crevices below the sinks. Bath traps and other plumbing access points can be exposed and dusted. Finally when dealing with extreme situations, a small hole can be drilled to treat below cabinet bases, or into wall voids.

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