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Complete Green and Organic Pest Control (1).pptx

  1. 1. Green and Organic Pest Control as part of an advanced IPM plan
  2. 2. Part 1
  3. 3. Defining Green Pest Control ► Green pest control is thought of by many as an environmentally conscious solution providing an alternative to traditional pest control treatments and the word green is used to imply it is a more environmentally sound solution. ► Green pest control when put to action however, does not have a unifying set of standards. – In fact! Green pest control does not have the same definition to everyone. ► “Green” can in many cases be used as a marketing term by those looking to sell their products and services, or it can mean to some the exact product of organic pest control.
  4. 4. Defining Organic Pest Control ► “Organic” is a specific term. ► Its primary use is almost always to describe a specific process, and commodities created under the process. ► While some may think of the term organic with regards to safety, the term Implies something unrelated when describing pesticide products. ► Organic, actually can have two distinct meanings. ► As a process, such as with organic pest control, it is meant to imply a certain level of safety, especially when compared to non-organic methods. ► As for the chemicals used in the process, the term organic does not imply safety. An organic pesticide in some cases may be just as dangerous as a synthetic one. Therefore, further research beyond a pesticides composition may be needed to determine a pesticide’s safety level. ► Organic pesticides are related to organic pest control but are not a necessary part of it.
  5. 5. Biorational Pesticides ► The pesticides used in organic pest control are often referred to as biorational pesticides. ► Pesticides that are made with naturally occurring residual active ingredients that are low risk, and some synthetic compounds with little to no risk are referred to as "Bio-Rationals." (Bio meaning "Biological" and Rational meaning "Sensible.") ► Biorationals include several categories and they contain the products that are generally used in organic pest control. ► Because of the many steps required and the prerequisites of organic pest control, using an organic pesticide alone does not equate to performing organic pest control. ► Organic pest control is more complicated and involves the use of biorational pesticides combined with specific IPM protocols. ► Generally pesticides containing synthetic active ingredients can not be considered biorational or organic. However, some synthetic products such as soaps and oils that leave no residual and have only a contact kill are considered biorational and can be used in organic pest control.
  6. 6. Three Important Terms ►Organic (as a strategy or process) ►biorational (with regards to products used) ►IPM (integrated pest management) ► These terms are important and if an Organic process is not used, non- biorational pesticides are used, or IPM isn’t included in the process, then a treatment should not be considered “organic” and by rational standards the term “green” should also not be applied because while there is no common standard, it would be misleading.
  7. 7. Connecting Green Pest Control and IPM ► A green pest control program should be as intricate as possible. ► Planning should be heavily focused on the details as well as the larger picture. ► Focusing on both the micro and the macro provides for almost every necessity, prepares for almost every mistake, and considers the environmental impact of every aspect of the service. ► Because all pest control services have some form of environmental impact, care should be taken to determine environmental issues which may occur from treatments. ► Non-target sites and non-target insects and animals can be affected by a treatment. ► Some effects can go unknown indefinitely.
  8. 8. Integrated Pest Management ► Traditionally pest control has been centered around the use of pesticides, but in the last few years it has moved to a more complete approach with the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM). ► IPM (Integrated Pest Management) is a solution incorporating multiple techniques for enhanced control with a lower impact on the human health and the environment. ► Due to the multiple steps involved in the process chemical application is less important and monitoring the property for pest activity is necessary. ► Pesticide applications, when they occur should be as precise as possible and always have a specific reason. ► Pesticide limits are a self-imposed action which helps further decrease exposure and are thought-out in such a way that the perfect amount of pesticide is used and never too much. ► Crack and crevice treatments, spot treatments, and void treatments are considered a better solution and have replaced the “more the better” approach to pest control. ► They are Ironically also more effective generally
  9. 9. Part 2
  10. 10. The 5 Steps of IPM ► 1. Inspecting and monitoring infestation levels ► 2. Assessing the problem and determining the level of infestation ► 3. Determining tolerance levels and setting action thresholds ► 4. Implementing the pest management plan which starts first with non- chemical control methods and may continue with pesticide applications ► 5. Evaluating, monitoring, and communicating to assess the success of the pest management plan.
  11. 11. Inspecting ► Inspecting and determining the problem are the most crucial steps in the process. ► If an insect is misidentified, it’s reason for being there and the proper method for control may be lost to the technician. ► Inspecting properties should always be done before any treatment strategy is put into place. ► Look not just for pests and their evidence, but for conducive conditions which may be the reason for the pest problem, or a foreshadowing of a problem to come. ► Pests need Food Water Harborage ► Correct issues which relate to the things above and any type of structural defect which empowers their infestations, or creates the problem to begin with.
  12. 12. Determining Infestation Levels ► How many pests are found help determine what steps to take ► If one or two insects are found, there may be no way to lower infestation levels ► At some point pesticides are appropriate, but if infestations are so low that non-pesticidal methods will lead to control, pesticides should not be used. ► One main goal of Green or Organic pest control is to limit pesticide use – pesticide use should be avoided when not necessary. ► Glue traps, pheromone traps, and other monitoring devices should be used in conjunction with inspections. ► Inspections should be set up for the most reasonable times, and should be in depth.
  13. 13. Establishing Tolerance Levels ► Pest tolerance levels are the levels at which a pest problem becomes intolerable and specific actions are warranted. ► …such as pesticide applications ► …but not always ► In some cases you may have another predetermined treatment method. ► It’s all about planning ahead! ► An idea of tolerance levels may be like this: ► An ant on the countertop may not be considered a reasonable point at which pesticides are applied but when a trail is found, pesticide applications may commence. ► Rodents caught in small numbers in traps may be adequate but in large numbers there may be a point at which the use of rodenticides is considered appropriate. ► A few spiders found in glue boards may not warrant treatment but webs on the outside of a structure may warrant a cleaning. Continued persistence may lead to pesticide application.
  14. 14. Implementing a plan
  15. 15. Part 3
  16. 16. Making a plan ► A detailed planning of services is the best way to assure the desired level of control is reached on a property. ► When performing IPM based services like organic pest management, one of the most important variables in planning is the determination of whether and when pesticides should be used. ► Because action thresholds are pre-defined, pesticide applications always have a defined purpose. ► Choosing action thresholds is one of the most important steps in making a plan. ► An action threshold is the predetermined point at which some action is taken to control the pest problem. ► This is typically established by reaching predetermined tolerance levels; pesticides should only be applied when tolerance levels are met.
  17. 17. IPM Specifications ► Homeowners should pay attention to pest related issues on their properties, focusing on conditions which could add to the severity and likelihood of an infestation. ► homemade IPM plans should focus on correcting all possible issues before applying any pesticides ► As part of a professionally drafted plan, corrections may be required before any pesticide application. ► Conducive conditions and other defects should always be corrected before pesticide applications are made. ► Pest control professionals should require this as part of their IPM Plans ► Pest problems can be made worse by applying a pesticide before a pest is identified and before conducive conditions are corrected!
  18. 18. Responsibilities ► Homeowners, occupants, and property managers should remember to define their own ► Pesticide tolerances (when shouldn’t applications happen/ why shouldn’t they). ► Pest tolerances (when are there too many bugs). ► They must also ► Verify the correction of all issues. ► Monitor the levels of pest activity for changes. ► Communicate with IPM coordinators and those performing services. ► Pest Control Professionals have the responsibilities of ► Applying pesticides when appropriate ► Some sanitation and correction work ► Creating the IPM Plan used on the property ► Assigning pest related responsibilities on the property – ► The PMP does not do everything – he relies on those on the property to do what he can’t
  19. 19. Communication ► Open communication is expected throughout any pest management program. ► Spoken and written communication between those performing services and others involved in control is a necessity. ► Responsibilities should be pre-defined and communicated to everyone involved in control. ► Written communication leaves a record. ► Contracts, service tickets, and customer emails are all forms of communication. ► For more complex properties, problem areas reminder logs and trend logs should be used to determine the extent of pest problems, and the efficacy of control measures.
  20. 20. Documentation ► Service tickets are used to convey what was done on an individual service. ► The have the which products were used, their active ingredient percentages and amounts. ► They typically have noted on them what the target pest was and you may even note where products were applied. ► If a folder or file is left on the property these tickets should be left in there along with other documentation. ► Pest problem areas reminder logs ► This form is used by those on properties like hotels, restaurants, and other commercial, and semi-commercial settings ► employees, tenants, and management use these to document what has been seen, heard, and otherwise found. ► Pest technicians can verify the corrections of issues and what measures were employed to correct it and document on the form what was done. ► Trend logs ► Trends logs are filled out on a regular basis after a review is performed on the service tickets and Problem areas logs to see if any trends are occurring. ► An ongoing or newly discovered trend might lead to a change in strategies.
  21. 21. Site map ► Many professionals create a sitemap with a drawing of the structure(s) to be controlled and the surrounding property. ► These sitemaps will usually show locations of ► Ongoing and previous pest issues. ► Conducive conditions. ► Likely conducive conditions. ► Locations of monitoring equipment such as bait stations and pheromone traps. ► Other areas of interest. ► Site maps should be updated annually or when necessary. ► The more current a site map is, the more likely it is to be accurate.
  22. 22. Part 4
  23. 23. Non-chemical control methods ► Control under Organic pest management is done through a process. ► The first step before applying pesticides to attempt some form of non-chemical control. ► When all non-chemical control methods have been exhausted biological control or biorational pesticides may then be used. ► Conducive conditions include any ongoing situation that may aid in the healthy living of pest species. ► Mechanical exclusion is usually an appropriate first step for larger bugs and for mice and rats. ► Sanitation is used to remove or control conducive conditions that may be causing a pest problem.
  24. 24. Water, filth, and harborage ► Accumulated water and filth can create pest issues. ► Standing water may seem innocuous in many cases but mosquitoes and other issues come from standing water. ► Roaches feed on decaying organic matter such as piles of wet leaves, and other yard debris. ► Rats can drink from standing water ► Other issues of sanitation include trash accumulation, moss growing on buildings and sidewalks, mold from excessive moisture and many other things. ► Overgrown plants provide for harborage for rats and other animals. ► Likewise fleas and other insects may be found on or under these overgrown plants. ► Cleaning and sanitizing lowers the need for pesticide applications.
  25. 25. Mechanical exclusion/ Environmental Alterations ► Open doors, and windows with no screens will provide insects with an obvious entrance to the structure. ► Not so obvious entry comes from improperly sealed doors and windows. ► Inadequate doors and windows should be corrected with weather-stripping, door thresholds, door sweeps or other forms of exclusion to deter entry. ► Pipes and conduits going through stucco and siding are great entry points for insects, and they should be sealed using caulking or sealants. ► Damaged vent screens should be repaired or replaced. ► Cracks in stucco and concrete may provide pest entry and harborage. ► Rodents can find access through multiple locations including roof soffits, weep screeds, and otherwise non- suspicious areas. ► Mechanical exclusion is a necessary step in any IPM plan because it lowers the need for chemical application. ► Exclusion can in many cases can lower pest intrusion with a goal to eliminate pesticide applications all together. ► Exclusion can be used to enhance a chemical application or in many cases can be used to replace it.
  26. 26. Non-Pesticidal Repellents ► Some pesticides can have repellency to insects or other pests and these repellent pesticides can be used sparingly as part of an appropriate pest management plan. ► Likewise the same type of repellency can be found in many non-pesticidal compounds. ► In many cases cinnamon, nutmeg, and other spices are used as an organic pest control solution. ► The disadvantage of spices and other compounds with a powerful built-in repellency is the tendency of these products to force insects into unexpected areas, and scatter social insects such as ants, and roaches. ► A good pest control solution uses a pests behavior against them, but in many cases repellent products of any kind can cause an unwanted change to behavior and ultimately increase the level of a pest problem.
  27. 27. Castor Oil Treatments ► For gophers and moles, castor oil is used as a natural repellent. ► It has both advantages and disadvantages with animals reacting immediately, but quickly adapting to excessive applications. ► When it is applied strategically it can be very effective. ► It has been shown to work by making soil undesirable to burrowing animals because it irritates pests enough to push them out of the area. ► Many brands come with surfactants in the bottle to drive the castor oil deeper into the ground. ► Safety concerns are put to rest by the ultra-low toxicity of diluted castor oil because castor oil at these low rates poses no reasonable threat to any wildlife.
  28. 28. Biological control and Bio-Pesticides ► In many cases, living organisms are used to control pests as the primary method for biological control. ► Biological control includes the use of ► lady bugs ► green lacewings for general pest control ► predatory wasps for caterpillars ► nematodes for fleas ► bacteria containing pucks for mosquitos
  29. 29. Part 5
  30. 30. Biorational pesticide applications ► it is the duty of any pest control technician to select the appropriate pesticides for every job, and to base his opinion on multiple factors. ► Pesticide selection should always have a balance of effectiveness vs safety and necessity vs tolerance. ► IPM should be the primary focus of any organic pest control program. ► Pesticides made with naturally occurring residual active ingredients or with specific synthetic compounds believed to be low or non-risk are referred to as biorational pesticides. ► (bio meaning biological and rational meaning sensible) ► Organic pest control and organic pesticides do not equal the same thing. ► Organic pesticides provide peace of mind to customers who think product selection is important ► Only some organic pesticides are appropriate for use as part of an organic pest management service. ► Organic Pest (control) management, which is more involved than simply using organic pesticides, provides the more viable option with regards to safety and control.
  31. 31. The types of biorational pesticides ► Low impact organic pesticides ► While many people assume organic means safe, the word organic means something completely different. Organic, when describing pesticides, means the pesticides are made from naturally occurring compounds containing carbon. ► Inorganic pesticides ► while inorganic products do not contain carbon they are also derived from naturally occurring compounds. ► Low toxicity soaps and oils ► Generally, pesticides containing synthetic active ingredients are not labeled for use in organic pest control sites except for soaps and oils with little or no residual action. ► Bio-Pesticides ► As previously mentioned these are biological organisms such as predatory nematodes or bacteria sprays.
  32. 32. Commercial and residential settings ► Organic pest control procedures are defined by the USDA under the NOP (National Organic Program) and are reviewed by the OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute). ► A list of pesticides currently labeled for use in organic production is available online at the OMRI website. ► As part of the prescribed uses of pesticides under the NOP programs, their use is limited in many cases and in others banned. ► As an example no residual pesticide can be used inside of an organic food warehouse under the NOP's rules and when applications of non-residual products are made the warehouse must have no products in it, and be closed. ► Anticoagulant baits have traditionally been banned for use in organic accounts, but in rare instances some baits have been labeled by the OMRI. Trapping, and exclusion are the preferred and most widely available solutions for rodent control with regards to organic accounts. ► Organic pest management within residential structures includes many of the requirements found within warehouses but considers the differing nature of the residential environment. ► Some pesticides not found in the OMRI list are still appropriate for organic pest management in non-commercial settings, but every product on the OMRI list is appropriate for non- commercial settings when used properly.
  33. 33. Calling pesticides “safe” ► The term’s "safe" and “non-toxic” are generally not appropriate for any pesticide because it may imply a level of safety higher than is expected for specific products in non-specific situations. ► While basic safety can be assumed through a proper application, one could with some effort, possibly find a situation where even the most innocuous products could pose some type of danger ► Some low toxicity products are labeled as GRAS ► GRAS (generally regarded as safe) implies a level of safety which can be assumed when all label directions are followed, and all appropriate safety concerns are met. ► The term GRAS cannot be associated with all pesticides since a pesticide must be specifically registered with the term in mind. ► It applies to many neem oil based products such as Cirkil and many other plant oil based products.
  34. 34. Pesticide toxicity and LD50 ► Pesticide Toxicity is measured in 3 basic ways, ► LD50 for dermal exposure ► An LD50 measurement is determined by the amount of pesticide absorbed through the skin causing death in 50 percent of a test population. ► LD50 for ingestion ► An LD50 measurement is determined by the amount of pesticide ingested causing death in 50 percent of a test population ► LC50 for inhalation hazard. ► An LC50 measurement is determined by the amount of pesticide inhaled causing death in 50 percent of the test population. ► For all of these values, the lower the number, the more toxic it is.
  35. 35. Pyrethrum ► Pyrethrum is made of 6 compounds ► pyrethrin I, Pyrethrin II, cinerin I, cinerin II, jasmolin I, jasmolin II ► The products works as sodium channel modulator and blocks nerve signals along the nerve axons by binding to the sodium channel forcing the sodium channel to stay open. ► This mode of action is more toxic to insects than people making it a low toxicity active ingredient. ► It is made from the chrysanthemum flower. ► Synthetic pyrethroids mimic this mode of action but are recreations of pyrethrum made in lab. ► Pyrethrum breaks down very quickly and has little to no residual therefore a synergist is almost always required for it to be effective. ► Many insects have developed resistance to pyrethrum as a result of it's over use.
  36. 36. Essential Plant Oils ► Plant oils work differently than pyrethrum and are generally more preferred by organic pest control customers. ► Plant oils bond to a chemical found in insects called octopamine. Octopamine is used by insects as a neurotransmitter to regulate movement, heart rate, and metabolism. ► Plant oils that block octopamine cause organs and muscles to shut down. ► Mammals do not have octopamine receptors in their bodies, and therefore products containing these plant oils are very low toxicity and usually fall under the GRAS category. ► Essentria IC3 is a common example of a plant oil based product. It contains rosemary oil, geraniol, and peppermint oil. ► IC3 has its own adjuvant in the bottle, whereas the addition of an adjuvant is required for most other plant oil based products. ► The product is exempt from EPA registration due it's low toxicity, and the natural components found within. It can be used near open water since it is considered safe around fish and other aquatic life. ► Another essential plant oil used in insect control is made from cedar.
  37. 37. Neem Oil ► Neem Oil is an organic oil that is made from the neem seed. ► It kills insects through growth regulation and by altering feeding habits. ► The active ingredient has been used for many years on lawn and garden pests, but has now been adapted for use on bed bugs. ► Cirkil is made from cold pressed neem oil and works to kill bed bugs that are resistant to pyrethroids. ► Neem oil does have an odor and Cirkil tends to be very potent.
  38. 38. Orange Oil ► The active ingredient in orange oil is d-limonene. ► It is manufactured from citrus peels, and vapor distilled to make the active ingredient. ► Orange Oil's mode of action is believed to be the overstimulation of sensory and motor nerves. ► The overstimulation eventually leads to paralysis. ► Orange oil is marketed as an alternative to all other forms of termite treatment, but orange oil alone is however not as effective compared to fumigation, and many other types of local treatment. ► A more appropriate biorational approach that is more effective is the use of borates since borates have a long term residual compared to orange oil, and boron has a higher efficacy. ► Many pest control companies have added boron application to the orange oil treatment for the higher efficacy. In fact, a boron application on top of an orange oil treatment tends to eliminate the colonies that are left behind after an orange oil application.
  39. 39. Surfactants ► Surfactants are a type of adjuvant designed to give additional efficacy to a pesticide mixture without adding to the toxicity level, and without enhancing the effect of a specific mode of action which is the case with synergists. ► Surfactants have several uses, including being used as spreaders. ► They make water molecules bond together more easily which creates a more even distribution on plant leaves and on ground surfaces. ► Finished solutions containing surfactants can also penetrate the soil easier making them wetting agents. ► Wetting agents lower surface tension on soil allowing pesticides to more easily penetrate the soil surface. ► Pesticide sprays come in several types of formulations and with several types such as wettable powders, suspensions, and microencapsulated products, soil penetration does not happen as readily as it does for pesticides formulated as emulsions. ► An extract from the yucca schidigera plant is used as a surfactant in many pesticide formulations and is one example.
  40. 40. Diatomaceous Earth ► Diatomaceous earth is usually applied as a fine powder, and it comes in several forms. ► Although it’s active ingredient, silica dioxide, is an inorganic compound, it comes from natural sources. ► The term diatomaceous, refers to fossilized diatoms, which are the algae it is made from. ► Diatoms have a unique cellular structure with the inclusion of silica which is not common among other types of algae. ► This silica becomes abrasive when fossilized and absorbs the waxy coating on the outside of an insect’s body. ► It is best applied in small amounts when used within a structure. Too much of it can become repellent and can create new insect issues.
  41. 41. Borates ► Borates are chemical compounds containing the mineral boron. ► These boron based products must be ingested for them to have a toxic effect on insects. ► Borates kill protozoa, and dysentery in the gut of many insects interfering with their metabolism, and in many cases starving insects to death by taking away their ability to eat. ► The common term "boron" is used to describe DOT (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate). ► Boric Acid is made when "boron" is combined with hydrochloric acid. ► Boron can be mixed with water to form a solution and when applied to wood will penetrate the cellular structure making a termite colonies food source toxic to them. ► Boron dusts, and baits can be used to control ants, cockroaches and many other pests.
  42. 42. Green and Organic Pest Control All content of this presentation is intellectual property belonging to Andrew Dzieman A.C.E. All copyrights and trademarks are property of their respective owners.The book, “The Definitive Guide to Green and Organic Pest Control by Andrew Dzieman,” associated with this presentation is available at and other online retailers. Used with permission of the author.