2. IPM BASICS
THE IPM APPROACH TO PEST MANAGEMENT DIFFERS IN SEVERAL
WAYS FROM "CONVENTIONAL" OR "TRADITIONAL" URBAN PEST
CONTROL THAT RELIES PRIMARILY UPON PESTICIDE USE. FIRST, IT IS
NOT MERELY A REACTION TO A PEST PROBLEM. IT IS A PROCESS
WHICH WHEN FOLLOWED, PROVIDES EFFECTIVE CONTROL. LEVELS.
3. IPM BASICS
• Second, it considers threshold levels of pest presence.The
third difference between conventional pest control and the
IPM approach is the application of two or more pest
management procedures to reduce or limit population
4. IPM BASICS
A final difference is that pest management involves a truly
integrated approach where all pests are considered in the
development in the pest management process.
Included in this course is sanitation, mechanical control,
cultural control, chemical control and the evaluation of the
effectiveness of your plan.
5. INSPECTION THE FIRST STEP IN ANY IPM PROGRAM IS A
THOROUGH INSPECTION.THERE ARE SEVERAL REASONS FOR
INSPECTING THE PREMISES INCLUDING:
▪ Determine the location of the infestation
▪ Determine the extent of the infestation
▪ Note damage to the structure or commodities
▪ Determine conditions conducive to the infestation
▪ Identify harborage areas
▪ Identify sanitation deficiencies
▪ Identify avenues of possible entry
▪ Identify items or factors which would impact program development
▪ Before an effective integrated pest management program
can be developed and implemented, it is necessary to know
the pest or pests with which we are dealing.
▪ Identification is an integral part of any IPM program.
▪ This knowledge enables us to determine what control
measures to employ and when, where and how to employ
7. • Without a thorough understanding of the pest and its habits,
habitat, life cycle and biology, we cannot be effective.
• In addition, several states require that any chemical
applications performed be for a specific pest and that this pest
be listed on the treatment record.
8. ▪ In addition, the damage they may cause can vary
greatly. Similar looking beetles, for example, may
damage wood members, stored products, carpets
and houseplants. Each would require a different
control method. It is important, therefore, to assure
that proper identification is made.
Once a pest has been correctly identified, its food preferences,
harborage sites, behavioral patterns, biology, habits, potential
for damage and options for control measures may be
An important adjunct to identification is submitting information
detailing when and where the collection was made, and the
name of the collector.
10. ESTABLISHMENT OF THRESHOLD
The concept of threshold levels originated in the area of
agricultural pest control.
The pest population levels at which control measures are
undertaken are called "economic thresholds" and are based
upon the value of the commodity (or its anticipated market
value), the amount of damage the pest population could
cause, and the cost associated with implementing particular
11. ESTABLISHMENT OF THRESHOLD LEVELS
• Although the cost of potential control measures in an urban setting can be
determined, it is difficult to assign a value to the economic consequences
of an infestation.
• For example, while the presence of cockroaches in some locations within
a facility may be tolerated, their presence in the food preparation or
consumption areas would not.
• Consequently, in this case, the threshold level would be zero.
• Occasionally, a pest management decision may depend upon the cost of
potential control measures as weighed against the benefits received.
12. As a result,
1. health and safety danger created by the pest
2. legal restrictions on pest infestation
3. the levels of pest tolerance exhibited by the customer
13. AS A RESULT OF THE
ABOVE, URBAN PEST
INFLUENCED BY THREE
health and safety danger
created by the pest
legal restrictions on pest
the levels of pest tolerance
exhibited by the customer
OF TWO OR
▪ It is at this stage of the pest
management process that we
see the true integrated
approach come into play.The
primary objective of an IPM
approach is to design a
program that uses more than
one strategy or control
15. THE STRATEGIES CHOSEN SHOULD BE ONES
▪ least disruptive of natural
▪ least hazardous to human
▪ least toxic to non-target
▪ least damaging to the
▪ most likely to produce a
permanent reduction of the
▪ easiest to carry out
▪ most cost-effective over the
short and long term
▪ Mechanical, or physical control involves the use
of traps, caulks, seals or barriers to prevent
pests from entering, establishing and living in
an undesired location. It may include any or all
of the measures listed on the next slide
•Excluding (pest proofing) pests using barriers, including
screens, seals, nets and caulking
•Manually removing pests using hands, snares or by
•Setting traps, including sticky, electric, light, multiple catch
and snap types
•The use of heat or cold to destroy pests
▪ Cultural control involves manipulation of the pest's
environment to make it less favorable for the pest to exist.
▪ It may also be referred to as habitat modification or
▪ To accomplish this, the customer may have to change some of
their normal practices or habits and thus make it harder to the
pest populations to become established or to spread.
▪ Biological control is the use of parasites, predators, or
pathogens to control or manage pests.
▪ When available or sufficiently developed, biological control
strategies tend to be among the least environmentally
disruptive pest control measures.
▪ Nematodes, fungus, parasitic wasps, and even IGR's are all
examples of biological control agents in the urban arena.
20. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS
▪ The final step in the Integrated Pest Management
process is the evaluation of effectiveness.
▪ Follow-up inspections enable the pest management
professional to assess and adjust the control
measures that have been employed.
21. ▪ Determine effectiveness of
▪ Identify areas overlooked
▪ Eliminate entry points
▪ Enhance program
▪ Reapply or revise any pest
management procedures as
▪ Maintain good customer
relations and satisfaction
There are several reasons for re-inspecting the account
23. THE IPM TEMPLATE IS A FORMULA WITH WHICH THE PEST
MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL CAN DETERMINE THE
APPROPRIATE CONTROL MEASURES TO USE. IT MAY BE
EXPRESSED USING THE FOLLOWING FORMULA:
Account Type + Pest(s) - Restrictions = Control Measures
The key components of the formula are the account type, the pest or pests for
which control is desired, and any restrictions imposed by various factors
including the customer, environmental and legal restrictions.The result is the
appropriate control measure or measures to be employed.