2. TYPES OF
• The most basic pesticide formulations include
suspensions, and emulsions.
• As formulations get more advanced there are several
kinds of formulations that are similar to the basic
formulations, but function quite differently.
• These advanced formulations include capsulated
suspensions, microemulsions, water dispersible
granules, and many others.
3. TYPES OF PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS AND
pesticide efficacy by
enhanicing the mode of
action found within a
without increasing the
toxicity or increasing
the effectiveness of a
specific mode of action.
4. TYPES OF PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS AND
Many products used
in conjunction with
others will add to the
overall level of
Spraying alone isn't
5. TYPES OF PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS AND
• Soluble products form a true
dilution when the active
ingredient is dissolved completely
• The most common product used
for general pest control was
orthene, but that is no longer
6. TYPES OF PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS AND
The most common soluble
pesticide used today is
Boron can be purchased
under several trade names
• Tim-Bor, Ni-Bor, and
Board Defense are a few
Boron in the soluble form
is used generally for wood
7. TYPES OF
When applied on wood it
penetrates the cellular structure
of the wood making the wood
toxic to termites.
In a dry form it can be used for
ants, and cockroaches. It absorbs
small amounts of water out of the
air, and is sweet tasting.
8. WETTABLE POWDERS AND SUSPENSIONS
• These carrier agents want to settle and require
frequent agitation to continue floating in the
• A huge advantage of products carried in a
suspension is that they don’t burn plants like many
• Once the product is dry it doesn’t move through
the soil it stays in place until no longer active.
9. WETTABLE POWDERS AND SUSPENSIONS
These carrier agents want to settle and require frequent agitation to
continue floating in the product.
A huge advantage of products carried in a suspension is that they don’t burn
plants like many emulsions do.
Once the product is dry it doesn’t move through the soil it stays in place
until no longer active.
• Emulsions are formed when an emulsifier is
used to combine two parts of a finished
solution or product, that otherwise wouldn’t
• Generally, active ingredients are mixed in an
• Oil and water do not mix!
• Therefore an emulsifier is required for the
active ingredient to float evenly in the finished
Because of the oil base emulsions are more readily absorbed
through the insect cuticles making them more likely to kill on
Oils in the product also cause faster skin absorption in
humans, and therefore applicators should be especially careful
about getting it on their skin, and on non-target organisms.
13. • The EC in product names signifies that the product is an emulsifiable
• Zenprox EC contains an ether pyrethroid that bonds differently to the nerve
cell than other pyrethroids.
• Because of it's unique mode of action and formulation it is less likely to cause
insect resistance and is very effective for interior treatments.
• Because it is held in an emulsion it penetrates the insect cuticle faster and has a
• A microemulsion is designed with much
smaller particles in mind that allow for
better control in specific uses.
• Transport Mikron is a microemulsion
that contains two active ingredients
making it unique also because it has a
dual mode of action.
Acetamiprid, the first active ingredient,
has a high rate of lateral transfer which is
enhanced by the small particle size.
The second active ingredient,
bifenthrin, leaves a long residual.
The small particles make it likely
to penetrate the insect cuticle,
and soil surface even faster than
A microemulsion particle is 100
times smaller than a particle from
a standard emulsion and 1000
times smaller than a microcap.
The product does contain label restrictions beyond what is normally
found with regards to neonicoinoids, and even pyrethroids
Transport Mikron is well suited for smaller insects like psocids due
to it's small particle size, absorption rate, and dual mode of action.
18. MICROENCAPSULATED SUSPENSIONS
• The acronym CS implies that a product is a "capsulated
• Small capsules are evenly divided in the carrier agent (water).
• These microcaps are relatively small and are about 30
microns in size.
• Because the micro-caps break down slowly the products tend
to leave behind a good residual but are generally slow acting.
19. MICROENCAPSULATED SUSPENSIONS
The residual benefits of these products are enhanced by the fact that
the active ingredients are protected from the elements, harsh weather,
UV rays, and the high PH levels found on brick and concrete.
Some products can have as many as 10,000 micro-caps per square
20. ONSLAUGHT FASTCAP
• Onslaught fastcap is a pyrethroid based polymeric
• It has 3 active ingredients
• The first two are pyrethroids, and the third is synergist
that enhances the effectiveness of the product.
• This is a-typical product not only because it has two
pyrethroids in it, but also because modern pyrethroids
don't generally come with a synergist.
• The synergist (PBO) enhances pyrethroids specifically
and makes this product one of the strongest pesticides
for spiders and scorpions.
• The synergist also helps to make the product fast acting
unlike some other micorencapsulated products, but the
product retains it's long residual due to the formulation.
• The product is highly repellent and consideration
should be taken when applying since it can create new
problems with ants, cockroaches, and other highly
• Arilon is an example of a product held in
water dispersible granules.
• Despite containing minerals Arilon has not
been shown to stain any surfaces.
• The granules are evenly suspended in water
after mixing and disperse evenly on surfaces
• The active ingredient of Arilon, indoxicarb, has
been shown to have exponential control since
the product has a high rate of lateral transfer.
23. WATER DISPERSIBLE GRANULES
The product is target specific and through it's Meta-
Active activation it can differentiate from between target
pests and non-target organisms.
It works great on cockroaches, but terrible on bees.
24. WATER DISPERSIBLE GRANULES
When it is inside of an
insects it combines with
enzymes and forms the
As an example, the Meta-
Active compound can
often be found in the
spewtum of cockroaches
several generations after
the first the cockroach fed.
• Exciter is a common product containing a
synergist, and is mixed with other products to
• Exciter does not leave a residual treatment
on surfaces, instead it has a rate of contact
• The combination of exciter with residual
products has the knockdown that is common
with exciter and the residual of the other
Synergists are products
or active ingredients that
enhance the toxic effect
of a specific pesticide or
The most common
synergist is Piperonyl
• Generally PBO is
used to enhance
the mode of action
found in pyrethrins
PBO blocks the mode of
action found in sodium
channel inhibitors by
blocking an insects natural
defense to those
27. • Surfactants are a type of adjuvant that add to the efficacy of a pesticide without adding to
the toxicity level, or enhancing the effect of a specific mode of action.
• Surfactants enhance the ability of water molecules to naturally bond together which
creates a more uniform distribution of a spray mixture on plant leaves and on ground
• Surfactants are also wetting agents.This means that they allow water and products to
more easily penetrate soil.
• Adding surfactants to products in a suspension will force
them to penetrate soil that they otherwise might not.
Surfactants also force products that tend to penetrate the
soil to move deeper.
• Yuccah is a surfactant made from the Yucca
Schidigera plant found in the dessert.
• TheYucca Schidigera plant produces it's own
chemical compounds to help it manage water
• It is perfect for use with any pesticide or
fertilizer and when used by itself can enhance
the vitality of plants and even correct some
• Baits enhance treatments by adding to the
effectiveness of spray treatments.
• Granular baits can be put into gardens and yards.
• Boron based baits such as Niban, and Mother Earth G,
last longer than the average spray application and can
extend the effective life of a pest control treatment
since they will remain active once the liquid
application has lost it's residual action.
Abamectin based baits such as Advance 375A have been shown to limit
reproduction of ants. They should be used in spring when reproduction is at its
highest levels and can accompany boron based baits, or be used as the sole bait
on a property.
Boron based baits such as Niban last beyond one month and continue to work
as they break down.
Bifenthrin in a suspension will last up to 30 days (Maxxthor; according to the
32. PESTICIDES AND THEIR FORMULATIONS
Microcare 3% CS
Premise 75 WP
Tempo SC Ultra
Tempo Ultra WP
Water soluble granules
Wettable Powder (Suspension)
Wettable powder (suspension)
Pesticides and Their Formulations