What we are discussing g today?• Sustainability and sus stainable manufacturing• Why suddenly sustain Why suddenly sustain nability is under lime nability is under lime light? g• Sustainability rating sy ystem• Sustainability in textile chain• Measuring sustainability in textile chain• N l i l ti / B i h New legislation / Buying‐houses requirement i t• Q/A
Sustainable developm ment: It is the developme t th t meets the needs i th d l ent that t th d of the present without compromising the ability of future gen nerations to meet their own needs.
Renewable resource 6 of 42 A substance of economic valu th t A bt f i lue that can be replaced or b l d replenished in the same amo ount. Some renewable resources h have essentially an endless supply, such as solar energy, wind energy and geothermal l h l i d d h l pressure, while other resourcces are considered renewable even though some time or ef h h f ffort must go into their ff h renewal, such as wood, oxyge en, leather and fish. Most precious metals are con nsidered renewable as well; even though they are not nat turally replaced, they can be recycled because they are no ot destroyed during their extraction and use.Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Resource – rate of use 7 of 42 Fifty years ago, the world was Fift th l Consumption Discovery consuming 4 billion barrrels of oil per year and the aver rage discovery was around 30 discovery was around 30 billion 0 billion. 0 Today we consume 30 billion Today we consume 30 billion barrels per year and the discovery rate is approacching 4 billion barrels of crude p billion barrels of crude per year. per year. pDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012 Asi ia newspaper, 4 May 2005, quoted by Rob Hopkins, The Transition Handbook, p. 21
Sustainable manufactu uring 9 of 42 Sustainable manufacturing is defined as the bl f f h creation of manufacture creation of manufacture products that use ed products that use ed processes that are; I. non‐polluting, II. conserve energy and natural resources, and II conserve energy and natural resources and are III. economically sound a and safe for employees, communi i l ities, and consumers.” i d ” Source: US Department of Commerce definition Sustainable Manufacturing – National Council for Ad dvanced Manufacturing (http://www.nacfam.org/ ) ‐ DefinitionDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Sustainability 10 of 42 Banned azo dyes Formaldehyde Liquid metal CO2 Nickel Hea alth Pollution etc. water Safe working environment i Minimum wages Working hours Holidays etc.Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Our dreamsOur dreams Safe environment Clean Air Clean Air Enough water & Safe & healthy y electricity food Schools for all No GM foodNo GM food children hildEnough foodEnough food There is a growing awareness s for Sustainability because these dreams are in dan nger – and we know it. Our customers also know it.
Sustainable pracSustainable prac ctice Our commitment exxtends beyond our company and customers. company and customers Our community and y d environment are important as well.
Sustainability u i bilira ating system ating system
Main rating tools 14 of 42 U.K. and Europe U.K. and Europe Americas Rest of the World Rest of the World BREEAM (inc Eco‐homes) LEED (U.S. & C Canada) Green Star (Australia) The Green Guide to U.S. DOE (U.S S. Department of BEAM (Hong Kong Specification Energy) Desig gn Guide (U.S.) Office Scorer WBDG (Whole Building ( LEED (China and India) ( ) Design Guide) (U.S.) ENVEST HOK Sustaina HOK Sustaina Design able Design able Greenmark Guide (U.S.) (Singapore) Sustainability Checklists ada (Canada BREEAM Cana GBTool (South Africa) (e.g.) SEEDA; BRE) Environmental Impact Green Globes s (U.S. & Assessment (EIA) Assessment (EIA) Canada) Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Sources: RICS (2007) and Green Globes (2009)Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012 International Comparison of Sustainable Rating Tools
Textile industry 15 of 42 The textile industry i Th t til i d t is one of the longest f th l t and most complicate and most complicate industrial chains ed industrial chains ed of the manufacturing g industry. It involves actors from h i l f m the agricultural, i l l chemical fibre, dyes & chemicals manuf., chemical fibre dyes & chemicals manuf textile and apparel in pp ndustries, retail and , services sector, and wwaste treatment.Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Textile processing – ma ajor concern 16 of 42 • Mi i i Minimise pollution: ll ti – air water and land air, water and land • Optimise resources Optimise resources – energy, water, chemicals gy, , • Worker safety • Consumer safety and satisfaction Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Textile value chain 17 of 42 major ecological & soc cial challenges Water Effluent Energy Chemistry Land Society Cotton cultivation Spinning Weaving/knitting Wet processing Garment making Moderate Larrge Very large No effect effect effe ect effect Source: Otto group 2006Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Sustainability through h chemical selection 18 of 42 in textile manufacturi ing Measurement of all impact from chemical usage Air, water and soil/lan Air water and soil/lannd CO2 emission Waste HealthDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Parameters – Sustainability mea asurement in wet processing 19 of 42 CO2 VOC’s NO2 SO2 CH4 UFP’s s Emission Water noise Product Textile Dyes & y Chemicals Solid waste Land and Textile fiber water Liquid waste q pollution Energy EnergyDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Changing market dyna amics 20 of 42 • Chi – textile invigorating plan 2009 – 20 China il i i i l 2009 2011 – Energy: 5 % reduction pe year for whole industry Energy: 5 % reduction pe er year for whole industry er – Water consumption lowe ered by 7 % per year – Wastewater discharge lowered by 7 % per year • India – existing & foreseen water shortage • Bangladesh – gas shortage are prevalent • Pakistan shortage of electricity gas and water Pakistan – shortage of electricity, gas and water already exists Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012 Source: Texworld, New York – Jan. 2012
Reducing water g r consumption pand saving energy are among g gy g the highest priorities in the textile industry today.
Cost analysis of a cotto on t‐shirt 22 of 42 Fiber 70 % Utilities 15 0 % 15 – 20 % Labor 08 – 10 % Dyes & Chemicals 03 – 05 % Biggest potential for Fiber cost reduction t d ti Utilities Labor Dyes & ChemicalsDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Measuring sustainability – textile manufacturing 25 of 42 Life cycle assessment of textile Lif l t f t tiles Carbon footprint Water footprint Resources utilization Resources utilization Water Energy Chemicals Assessment of Social responsib bilityDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
What is life cycle asses ssment (LCA)? 27 of 42 • Enables estimation of cumula ative environmental impacts results from all stages of the product life cycle • A “cradle‐to‐grave” approach “for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product by; p p p p y; – compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a system – evaluating the potential en nvironmental impacts associated with these inputs and outp with these inputs and outp puts – interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objective es of the study.” (ISO 14040)Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Textile product lifecycle 28 of 42 Life cycle of a T‐shirt Supply Chain Footprint Product Footprint Raw Electricity Production Product supply & Start of End of Material transportation t i product life d lif product life d lif Growing Spinning Tra ansportation Washing Disposal cotton Knitting Drying Dyeing Ironing T‐Shirt p productionDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Carbon footprint 29 of 42 Carbon footprint (CF) – also named Carbon Carbon footprint (CF) also named Carbon profile is the overall am profile ‐ is the overall am mount of carbon mount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (e.g. m methane, laughing gas, etc.) associated with a p product*, along its supply‐chain and someti l h i d times including from i l di f use and end‐of‐life reco use and end of life reco overy and disposal. overy and disposalDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Definition – Water foot tprint (WFP) 30 of 42Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Solutions 31 of 42 I. The solutions are complex, and made more so by I The solutions are complex, and made more so by the lack of a definitive “sus stainable” textile. II. It is not as straightforward as “natural fibres are better than synthetic better than synthetic”. III. When using natural fibres, the energy, water, and chemical use in cultivation, , production and consumer use, washing and care needs to be consumer use, washing and care needs to be considered, as do issues su uch as environmental damage, and workers expo damage and workers expo osure to hazardous osure to hazardous chemicals, dust and fumes.Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
Chemicals consumed b by textile industry 32 of 42 25 % 75 % 25% worldwide chemical go 25% worldwide chemical go direct or indirect in textile oes direct or indirect in textile oes industry Chemical consumption Chemical consumption synthetics textiles synthetics textiles cotton textiles cotton textilesDr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012 110 ‐ 820 g/kg 350 ‐ 1,500 g/kg
Sustainable apparel ind dex 33 of 42 Evaluate the impacts of t the entire life cycle of apparel products: mater apparel products: materrials, manufacturing, rials manufacturing p packaging, transportatio g g p on, use, and end of Life. Areas of consideration: Areas of consideration: Water use and quality; Energy use and greenhouse gases; Waste; chemicals and to i it W t h i l d toxicity; and d Social and labor.Dr. S. P. Abbas Oct. 2012
New legislation fN l i l ti f for sustainability t i bilit