Foundations Exam Key Terms


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Foundations Exam Key Terms

  1. 1. Foundations<br />Exam Key Terms<br />
  2. 2. Paleolithic Age<br />Meaning “old stone age”, the Paleolithic age is the first categorized signs of human appearance.<br />Usually involved hunter-gatherers (foraging societies), and were nomadic as well.<br />Also began pastoral societies (domestic animals).<br />Since there was less worry about food, people moved on to different aspects of life.<br />
  3. 3. Neolithic Revolution(New Stone Age)<br />Groups of people moved from nomadic life styles to agricultural life styles and town and city life.<br />Remained in the same place when they figured out they could cultivate plants, as long as their was good soil and a stable source of water.<br />Eventually lead into civilizations. Started, but haven’t led to full-blown societies.<br />
  4. 4. Animism<br />The belief that natural objects, natural phenomena, and the universe itself possess souls.<br />
  5. 5. Polytheism<br />The doctrine or belief in more than one god.<br />(Think Egyptian, Greek [Roman], Buddhism)<br />
  6. 6. Courage Culture<br />For nomadic and pastoral groups.<br />A patriarchal culture that honors value and courage.<br />
  7. 7. Civilization<br />An advanced state of human society  in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached.<br />
  8. 8. Cuneiform<br />One of the earliest known forms of written expression.<br />Emerged in Sumer around the 30th century BCE (by Mesopotamia).<br />
  9. 9. Hammurabi<br />First ruler of Mesopotamia.<br />Ruled 43 years (BCE).<br />Established Hammurabi’s code (which we all remember as those crazy set of laws…).<br />*Image from Civilization computer game, not actual photo!<br />
  10. 10. Theocracy<br />A form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities.<br />Egyptians were heavily influenced by this.<br />
  11. 11. Mandate of Heaven<br />Heaven chooses ruler. <br />Ruler loses heaven’s favor = he will lose power.<br />Developed by the Zhou Dynasty<br />
  12. 12. Feudalism<br />Once again, developed by Zhou Dynasty.<br />A political & social system based on the exchange of land or protection for loyalty and/or military service.<br />
  13. 13. Patriarchal<br />Asocial system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property.<br />Classical China was heavily influenced by this. Women were expected to obey fathers, husband, and eventually sons.<br />
  14. 14. Aryans<br />Nomadic tribes from the north of the Caucasus Mountains (near the Black and Caspian Seas). Easily defeated populations in the Indus Valley. Began to settle in Indus Valley.<br />Established religious beliefs on the Indian subcontinent, in particular their belief in reincarnation.<br />Created the basis for Hinduism, as well as the Caste System.<br />
  15. 15. Karma<br />Action, seen as bringing upon oneself inevitable results, good or bad, either in this life or in a reincarnation: in Hinduism one of the means of reaching Brahman.<br />In other words, good or bad deeds. Determines fate after rebirth.<br />Stairway to Heaven or Highway to Hell?<br />It’s your choice!<br />*Image from Fallout series.<br />
  16. 16. Dharma<br />Rules and obligations one has to follow within the caste they’re in.<br />
  17. 17. Nirvana<br />In Buddhist philosophy, it means release from selfishness & pain. No more reincarnation.<br />The word literally means "blowing out"—referring in the Buddhist context, to the blowing out of the fires of greed, hatred, and delusion.<br />IMAGE NOT FOUND DUE TO THE<br />INSANE AMOUNT OF BAND PHOTOS<br />ON GOOGLE.<br />
  18. 18. Moksha<br />The highest state of being within Hinduism.<br />
  19. 19. Four Noble Truths<br />1. Everything in life is suffering & sorrow.<br />2. The cause of all suffering is selfless desire for temporary pleasure.<br />3. Indesires = insuffering.<br />4. Follow 8 Fold Path = indesires & reach enlightenment.<br />
  20. 20. Eightfold Path<br />
  21. 21. Caste System<br />A system of levels designed to create social order.<br />Varna System is the fourth original divisions of the Caste System.<br />
  22. 22. Warring States Period(402-201 BCE)<br />Kingdom of Qin began expanding during 3rd century BCE.<br />3 Ethical Systems of China emerged:<br />-Confucianism (obedience & respect)<br />-Daoism (nature & following the force of Dao)<br />-Legalism (harsh punishment for wrongdoing)<br />
  23. 23. Filial Piety<br />In Confucian ideals, filial piety is one of the virtues to be held above all else: a respect for the parents and ancestors.<br />
  24. 24. Dao<br />A Chinese word meaning 'way', 'path', 'route', or sometimes more loosely, 'doctrine' or 'principle'.<br />Defined as a way of nature, the way of the cosmos.<br />Founded by Lao-tzu.<br />
  25. 25. Qin Shi HuangdiQin Dynasty (221-202 BCE)<br />Primary Leader. Proclaimed himself “First Emperor” of China. Used Legalism.<br />Centralized power: Disarmed local militaries | Built roads & defensive walls (Great Wall of China)<br />Demanded burning of books (no smart guys allowed).<br />Used force labor to complete public works project.<br />Had the Terra Cotta army made to protect his tomb.<br />Cool hat, bro…<br />
  26. 26. Legalism<br />A form of social order that focused on harsh punishment for wrongdoing.<br />It maintained that peace and order were achievable only through a centralized, tightly governed state. Simply put, Legalist didn’t trust human nature and, therefore, advocated the need for tough laws.<br />By adopting Legalism, the Qin Dynasty was able to accomplish the unification of China swiftly and completed of large projects such as the Great Wall of China.<br />
  27. 27. Han Wudi (Wu Ti)<br />Ruled 141-87 BCE. Supported Confucianism/Legalism.<br />Had 2 goals: Centralize government and expand the empire.<br />Reforms: expanded bureaucracy, Confucianism examination system introduced, expanded Silk Roads.<br />At that time, inventions such as paper, sundials, and calendars came along.<br />
  28. 28. Bureaucracy<br />A way of organizing government tasks by department, or bureau, so that different parts of the government could specialize and stabilize.<br />
  29. 29. Mean People<br />Unskilled people of the Zhou Dynasty<br />Kind of like Untouchables.<br />
  30. 30. Ashoka (268-232 BCE)<br />Conquered most of India.<br />-Used elephants in warfare | Battle of Kalinga- very bloody battle; Ashoka became Buddhist after it.<br />Reforms<br />-Pillars of Ashoka to spread Buddhism | Centralized bureaucracy| Expanded agriculture | Built roads to promote trade.<br />Promoted the spread of Buddhism, although Hinduism always remained dominant religion.<br />Empire declined after Ashoka’s death.<br />
  31. 31. Jati<br />The term used to denote clans, tribes, communities and sub-communities in India.<br />
  32. 32. City-State<br />Loosely-connected areas made up of an urban center and the agricultural land around it.<br />These city-states were sometimes combined onto one because they shared common cultural characteristics; but they were also independent of each other in many ways and often competed with each other.<br />
  33. 33. Hellenism<br />The culture, ideas, and pattern of life of Classical Greece.<br />Take Rome, for example.<br />
  34. 34. Julius Caesar<br />Part of the triumvirate (three rulers) along with Pompey & Crassus.<br />Became dictator for life in 44 BCE.<br />Reforms: south to relieve tension between the classes.<br />Executed by aristocratic conspirators.<br />
  35. 35. Augustus Caesar<br />Established Roman Empire (31 BCE-476 CE).<br />Continued military expansion.<br />Established PaxRomana.<br />
  36. 36. PaxRomana<br />Latin for “Roman Peace”.<br />Tolerated local customs & religions.<br />Laws & patriotism held empire together.<br />Women status during PaxRomana improved.<br />-First social welfare: bread and circuses.<br />
  37. 37. Paul of Tarsus<br />Spread Christianity through missionary work.<br />Originally an extreme anti-Christian, who was converted by a vision of Christ and became a principle figure in propagating the new religion.<br />
  38. 38. Huns<br />A group of nomadic people who, appearing from east of the Volga, migrated into Europe c. AD 370 and established the vast Hunnic Empire there.<br />Dominations include Gupta Dynasty, Western Rome, and ancient Greece.<br />