History SolarEnergy dates back to the beginning of mankind Examples are Solar Cookers & Heating
History 212 BC: Archimedes applies the reflective properties of a bronze shield to focus sunlight onto the Roman Ships, which were supposedly set ablaze MythBusters recently proved set fire as “Busted”
History 1515: Da Vinci developed a solar collector, but was never completed 1767: De Saussure of Switzerland built the world’s first solar collector The solar collector was later used in British expeditions in South Africa
History 1839: Edmond Becquerrel of France discovered the photovoltaic effect 1891: Clarence Kemp of Baltimore patented the first solar water heater 1905: Einstein published his work explaining light is a wave and particle
History 1908: William Baily of Carnegie Steel created the first solar thermal collector 1941: Earliest known silicon solar cell invented by Russell Ohl, but only had 1% conversion efficency
History 1954: Daryl Chaplin, Calvin Fuller and Gerald Pearson of Bell Laboratories developed the silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell with six percent conversion efficiency Captured free electrons and converted to electrical current 1955: Bell technology used in telephone carrier system in Americus, GA
History 1956: Frank Bridgers designed first solar powered commercial office building Late 50’s: Numerous satellites were powered by PV solar cells
Late 1970’s Late 70’s: NASA Lewis Research Center installs 83 PV cell systems across the world Included was Papago Indian Reservation in Arizona which was first village complexly run by solar energy 1979: Carter installs solar panels on the White House
History 1983: ARCO Solar develops first solar field in central California & Solar Design Associates develops another field in Hudson River Valley 1986: 150 MW field place in Kramer Junction, CA which utilized the application of mirrors and turbines 1986: Reagan removed White House PV cells
History 1990’s: Decreasing costs in energy 1994: NREL new cells using gallium arsenide and gallium indium phosphide, increasing conversion efficiencies to 30% 1999: Building in Times Square built with intergraded PV panels
IT History ITwas not a factor in Solar Energy until large applications of panels were used Data of power consumption helped optimize usage of battery/solar energy This made sure there was no interruption in power consumption
Energy Infrastructure Evolution Paradigm/Infrastructure Shift Centralized Energy Systems Distributed (Decentralized) Energy Systems
Centralized Energy Systems Located close to resources Flocated close to resources Economiucs of Scale 1960s begin to see decline No longer competitvely cheap/reliable Unable to effectively serve “remote customers Environmental Issues Polution/Ozone depletion – Global Warming Burning off Fossil Fuels Coal High CO2 emissions
Distributed Energy Systems Highly Decentralized/Localized Mass produced plants Smaller Site-Specific Modular architecture Multiple generators, stores, distribution paths Integration of Clean/Renewable Energy Sources Winds, Solar & Geothermic
Implications on IT The Smart Grid to Improve Reliability Flexibility Efficiency
What is the Smart Grid Computer-based automation, control, management and monitoring of energy systems Applications Supply/Demand forecasting of energy needs Dynamic energy resource allocation Virtual power plants, remote control of energy distribution assets Consumer-side power management Information Technology is the innovation driver
The Role of Renewables andthe Smart Grid Renewables will supply an increasing portion of our overall energy demands Modular infrastructure mediated by Smart Grid technology will ease integration SG/IT to manage these resources Supplement existing energy generation clusters "Plug and play"
Solar/Photovoltaic Energy andthe Smart Grid Increased adoption and development of PV technology Enabled by SG infrastructure Allow "on-site" photovoltaics to use existing land/structures Distribution close to where being consumed Virtual controllers Innovative sun-tracking capabilities on panels Realizing greater efficiency
Solar/Photovoltaic Energy andthe Smart Grid Positive Business Implications Increased cost competitiveness Growing supporting ecosystem New Business Opportunities/Business Model Innovation Solar Panel Development IT Component/supporting tech Solar Panel Integration Installation using localized usage data Architect large/small-scale implementation strategies Solar Energy Management Software development - intellegent energy management End-to-end customer service, personalized reporting
Supply Chain Silicon suppliers- Asia Cell manufacturers -Asia Module manufacturers -Asia and Europe Distributors or systems integrators Asia and Europe
Customer Segment Residential Local installer, regional grid Commercial customers Solar manufacturers and installers Reduce electricity expenses and carbon footprints Utilities (Around the world) own solar capabilities, systems integrators, solar manufacturers, regional utilities(PG&E, SCE)
PV Markets Germany, Italy, China, the United States and France
Information Technology in theSupply Chain Transaction category: order management, warehouse management, transportation management, and accounting Communication category: exchange information between firm locations, global sites and supply chain partners Relationship category: manage the strategic and tactical relationships between firms and their customers
Domestic IT Advantages Advantage of this processing power is by optimizing power output. Inverters fuse panel monitoring systems to boost performance and domestic application. Sophisticated algorithms to maximize power outputs.
Performance is Boosted By: Power mismatch causes current variance between panels on string (3-5%) Partial shading caused by leaves, fixture shadows, leaves, and weather over multiple panels (Causes damage and reduces power by 5-25%) Under voltage caused by short strings(IV Curve reduced 15% caused by short strings and high temperatures) Suboptimal Maximum Power Point Tracking (3- 10% power losses)
Suboptimal Points Solar panels all have problems . Theseproblems produce variances in voltage. Since the panels must be strung together the challenges rise out of optimizing the string current.
IT systems in the solar industry Utilize advance calculus real-time information Create a transfer for theoretical maximum points over dynamic energy production. This allows for domestic solar panel systems to become up to 25% more efficient.
IT ForwardLookingApplications inSolar Industry
Future Trends Increase Conversion Efficiency Control System Centralized to Decentralized
Increase Conversion Solar Efficiency Maps Solar maps provide l solar resource information on grid cells.Computational Computers model and Simulation predict solar energy levels. What’s more, a solar simulator is a device that provides illumination Monitoring approximating Manufacturing natural sunlight. IT helps to monitor the defects and improve the quality of the solar panels.
Control System Data tracking& reporting: IT can help to track the power generated individually from each module and report the data. WiFi Tagging: Wireless solar-powered tags can be installed on solar system to relay system data not only to users but also to local utility suppliers. Intelligent Management System
Combine Solar, heat to generate energy, increase the Provide fresh heated or cooled air according to outside parameters. Save energy, environmental friendly Remote access to monitoring system