Solar Panels


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A project that a group and I worked on in the Solar Industry.

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Solar Panels

  1. 1. IT in the SolarEnergy Industry
  2. 2. History SolarEnergy dates back to the beginning of mankind Examples are Solar Cookers & Heating
  3. 3. History 212 BC: Archimedes applies the reflective properties of a bronze shield to focus sunlight onto the Roman Ships, which were supposedly set ablaze MythBusters recently proved set fire as “Busted”
  4. 4. History 1515: Da Vinci developed a solar collector, but was never completed 1767: De Saussure of Switzerland built the world’s first solar collector The solar collector was later used in British expeditions in South Africa
  5. 5. History 1839: Edmond Becquerrel of France discovered the photovoltaic effect 1891: Clarence Kemp of Baltimore patented the first solar water heater 1905: Einstein published his work explaining light is a wave and particle
  6. 6. History 1908: William Baily of Carnegie Steel created the first solar thermal collector 1941: Earliest known silicon solar cell invented by Russell Ohl, but only had 1% conversion efficency
  7. 7. History 1954: Daryl Chaplin, Calvin Fuller and Gerald Pearson of Bell Laboratories developed the silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell with six percent conversion efficiency Captured free electrons and converted to electrical current 1955: Bell technology used in telephone carrier system in Americus, GA
  8. 8. History 1956: Frank Bridgers designed first solar powered commercial office building Late 50’s: Numerous satellites were powered by PV solar cells
  9. 9. Late 1970’s Late 70’s: NASA Lewis Research Center installs 83 PV cell systems across the world Included was Papago Indian Reservation in Arizona which was first village complexly run by solar energy 1979: Carter installs solar panels on the White House
  10. 10. History 1983: ARCO Solar develops first solar field in central California & Solar Design Associates develops another field in Hudson River Valley 1986: 150 MW field place in Kramer Junction, CA which utilized the application of mirrors and turbines 1986: Reagan removed White House PV cells
  11. 11. History 1990’s: Decreasing costs in energy 1994: NREL new cells using gallium arsenide and gallium indium phosphide, increasing conversion efficiencies to 30% 1999: Building in Times Square built with intergraded PV panels
  12. 12. IT History ITwas not a factor in Solar Energy until large applications of panels were used Data of power consumption helped optimize usage of battery/solar energy This made sure there was no interruption in power consumption
  13. 13. CommercialApplicationsof IT and SolarEnergy
  14. 14. Energy Infrastructure Evolution Paradigm/Infrastructure Shift  Centralized Energy Systems  Distributed (Decentralized) Energy Systems
  15. 15. Centralized Energy Systems Located close to resources Flocated close to resources Economiucs of Scale  1960s begin to see decline  No longer competitvely cheap/reliable  Unable to effectively serve “remote customers Environmental Issues  Polution/Ozone depletion – Global Warming  Burning off Fossil Fuels  Coal  High CO2 emissions
  16. 16. Distributed Energy Systems Highly Decentralized/Localized  Mass produced plants  Smaller  Site-Specific  Modular architecture  Multiple generators, stores, distribution paths Integration of Clean/Renewable Energy Sources  Winds, Solar & Geothermic
  17. 17. Distributed vs. CentralizedEnergy
  18. 18. Implications on IT The Smart Grid to Improve  Reliability  Flexibility  Efficiency
  19. 19. What is the Smart Grid Computer-based automation, control, management and monitoring of energy systems Applications  Supply/Demand forecasting of energy needs  Dynamic energy resource allocation  Virtual power plants, remote control of energy distribution assets  Consumer-side power management Information Technology is the innovation driver
  20. 20. The Smart Grid
  21. 21. The Role of Renewables andthe Smart Grid Renewables will supply an increasing portion of our overall energy demands Modular infrastructure mediated by Smart Grid technology will ease integration  SG/IT to manage these resources  Supplement existing energy generation clusters "Plug and play"
  22. 22. Solar/Photovoltaic Energy andthe Smart Grid Increased adoption and development of PV technology  Enabled by SG infrastructure  Allow "on-site" photovoltaics to use existing land/structures  Distribution close to where being consumed Virtual controllers  Innovative sun-tracking capabilities on panels  Realizing greater efficiency
  23. 23. Solar/Photovoltaic Energy andthe Smart Grid Positive Business Implications  Increased cost competitiveness  Growing supporting ecosystem New Business Opportunities/Business Model Innovation  Solar Panel Development  IT Component/supporting tech  Solar Panel Integration  Installation using localized usage data  Architect large/small-scale implementation strategies  Solar Energy Management  Software development - intellegent energy management  End-to-end customer service, personalized reporting
  24. 24. Supply Chain Silicon suppliers- Asia Cell manufacturers -Asia Module manufacturers -Asia and Europe Distributors or systems integrators Asia and Europe
  25. 25. Supply Chain
  26. 26. Customer Segment Residential  Local installer, regional grid Commercial customers  Solar manufacturers and installers  Reduce electricity expenses and carbon footprints Utilities (Around the world)  own solar capabilities, systems integrators, solar manufacturers, regional utilities(PG&E, SCE)
  27. 27. PV Markets Germany, Italy, China, the United States and France
  28. 28. Information Technology in theSupply Chain Transaction category: order management, warehouse management, transportation management, and accounting Communication category: exchange information between firm locations, global sites and supply chain partners Relationship category: manage the strategic and tactical relationships between firms and their customers
  29. 29. Information Technology in theSupply Chain
  30. 30. DomesticApplicationsof IT and SolarEnergy
  31. 31. Domestic IT Advantages Advantage of this processing power is by optimizing power output. Inverters fuse panel monitoring systems to boost performance and domestic application. Sophisticated algorithms to maximize power outputs.
  32. 32. Performance is Boosted By: Power mismatch causes current variance between panels on string (3-5%) Partial shading caused by leaves, fixture shadows, leaves, and weather over multiple panels (Causes damage and reduces power by 5-25%) Under voltage caused by short strings(IV Curve reduced 15% caused by short strings and high temperatures) Suboptimal Maximum Power Point Tracking (3- 10% power losses)
  33. 33. Suboptimal Points Solar panels all have problems . Theseproblems produce variances in voltage. Since the panels must be strung together the challenges rise out of optimizing the string current.
  34. 34. IT systems in the solar industry Utilize advance calculus real-time information Create a transfer for theoretical maximum points over dynamic energy production. This allows for domestic solar panel systems to become up to 25% more efficient.
  35. 35. IT ForwardLookingApplications inSolar Industry
  36. 36. Future Trends Increase Conversion Efficiency Control System Centralized to Decentralized
  37. 37. Increase Conversion Solar Efficiency Maps Solar maps provide l solar resource information on grid cells.Computational Computers model and Simulation predict solar energy levels. What’s more, a solar simulator is a device that provides illumination Monitoring approximating Manufacturing natural sunlight. IT helps to monitor the defects and improve the quality of the solar panels.
  38. 38. Control System Data tracking& reporting: IT can help to track the power generated individually from each module and report the data. WiFi Tagging: Wireless solar-powered tags can be installed on solar system to relay system data not only to users but also to local utility suppliers. Intelligent Management System
  39. 39.  Combine Solar, heat to generate energy, increase the Provide fresh heated or cooled air according to outside parameters. Save energy, environmental friendly Remote access to monitoring system
  40. 40. Centralized to Decentralized
  41. 41. Distributed Generation
  42. 42. Questions