CONTENTS                               TABLE OF            SPOTLIGHT            ON APPLICATIONS.            FOR A BETTER  ...
CONTENTSTABLE OF           INTRODUCTION           PerkinElmer Spotlight on Applications e-Zine – Volume 10           Perki...
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CONTENTSTABLE OF            Case           study         Environmental                       Driving Productivity         ...
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CONTENTSTABLE OF           USEFUL LINKS           View previous issues of our Spotlight on Applications e-Zine           •...
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Spotlight on Analytical Applications e-Zine - Volume 10


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This document provides key analytical applications to help laboratories address the pressing concerns of the changing global landscape. Specifically, Volume 10 includes applications for Energy & Industrial, Environmental, Food & Beverage, and Pharmaceuticals & Nutraceuticals.

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Spotlight on Analytical Applications e-Zine - Volume 10

  2. 2. CONTENTSTABLE OF INTRODUCTION PerkinElmer Spotlight on Applications e-Zine – Volume 10 PerkinElmer knows that the right training, methods and application support are as integral to getting answers as the instrumentation. That’s why PerkinElmer has developed a novel approach to meet the challenges that today’s labs face, delivering you complete solutions for your application challenges. We are pleased to share with you our Spotlight on Applications e-zine, which delivers a variety of topics that address the pressing issues and analytical challenges you may face in your application areas today. Our Spotlight on Applications e-zine consists of a broad range of applications you’ll be able to access at your convenience. Each application in the table of contents includes an embedded link which that take you directly to the appropriate page within the e-zine. We invite you to explore, enjoy and learn! Be sure to receive future issues by subscribing here. PerkinElmer
  3. 3. CONTENTS TABLE OFCONTENTSConsumer Products• Analysis of Consumer Products by Headspace Trap GC/MS using the Clarus SQ 8• Spectroscopic In Vitro Method for the Calculation of Sunscreen SPF Values AEnergy Industrial• ICP-OES Analysis of FeCr Alloys Prepared by Sodium Peroxide Fusion• ifferential Scanning Calorimetry Performance Comparison D• he Determination of C1 to C5 Hydrocarbons in Gas Streams Using the T PerkinElmer Swafer Technology• nalysis of Wear Metals and Additive Package Elements in New and Used Oil A Using the Optima 8300 ICP-OES with Flat Plate Plasma TechnologyEnvironmental• Driving Productivity and Increasing the Speed of Analysis• etermination of As, Se and Hg in Waters by Hydride Generation/Cold Vapor D Atomic Absorption SpectroscopyFood Beverage• oxic Trace Metals in Edible Oils by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry T• he Qualitative Characterization of Fruit Juice Flavor using a TurboMatrix HS Trap and T a Clarus SQ 8 GC/MS• nalysis of Pb, Cd and As in Tea Leaves Using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption A Spectrophotometry• uantification of Essential Metals in Spice Mixtures for Regulatory Compliance Q Using the Flame Atomic Absorption SpectrophotometryPharmaceuticals Nutraceuticals• nalysis of Ginsenosides in Ginseng Root with the PerkinElmer Flexar FX-15 System A Equipped with a PDA Detector• nalysis of Drug Substances in Headache Medicines with the PerkinElmer A Flexar FX-15 System Equipped with a PDA Detector PerkinElmer
  4. 4. CONTENTSTABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry Author Ruben Garnica Andrew Tipler PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA Analysis of Consumer Fragrant soaps and detergents are a ubiquitous part of our modern society and Products by Headspace add a certain romance to what would otherwise be mundane household chores. Trap GC/MS using Great care and expense is spent in formulating the exact mixture of fragrant the Clarus SQ 8 organic compounds to differentiate “apple blossom” or “crisp apple” from simple “apple” scent. At the other end of the spectrum are “fragrance-free” products – products that contain no fragrance producing organics, natural or otherwise. Unfortunately the term “fragrance-free” is unregulated and the actual composition of these products is left to the manufacturer’s discretion. For both situations a comprehensive analytical technique is necessary to measure both composition and quality of any volatile organic compounds present. In this application brief we describe a quick and simple analytical technique using headspace trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine the volatile fragrance compounds contained in various consumer products. Download Entire Application Note
  5. 5. CONTENTS TABLE OF CASE Consumer ProductsSTUDYA SpectroscopicIn Vitro Method Introduction The sun produces ultraviolet (UV) A and ultraviolet B Authorfor the Calculation rays that reach the Earth, which are part of an elec- tromagnetic spectrum. UVA ray wavelengths range Jillian F. Dlugosof Sunscreen SPF from 400 nanometers to 320 nanometers, while UVB rays range from 320 nanometers to 290 nanometers. Glenelg High School Glenelg, MD USAValues UVA can penetrate both the upper layer of skin, the PerkinElmer, Inc. epidermis, as well as the lower layer of skin, the Shelton, CT USA dermis. It is most often responsible for damaging keratinocytes in the epidermis, where skin cancer is typically found. UVB, although it does not penetrate the dermis, is more intense because of it’s shorter wavelengths. However, both can be extremely harmful to humans, as they can cause sunburns, skin cancer, and other skin damage. In order to prevent these problems from happening, sunscreen use is recommended. Sunscreen protects skin by either absorbing or reflecting the harmful ultraviolet rays, preventing them from reaching the skin. Using sunscreen while exposed to the sun can greatly reduce the chances of damaging skin cells and developing cancer. For this study the PerkinElmer® LAMBDA™ 1050 equipped with a 150 mm integrating sphere will be use to collect scatter transmission data for sunscreen placed on a tape substrate. Testing sunscreen on a tape model of human skin to calculate the SPF value is more convenient and economical than testing on human skin.Download Entire Case Study
  6. 6. CONTENTSTABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e ICP-Optical Emission Spectroscopy Author Chady Stephan PerkinElmer, Inc. Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada ICP-OES Analysis Introduction Ferroalloys, alloys of iron with sufficient of FeCr Alloys amounts of one or more other elements present (V, Mo, Cr, etc.), are important as Prepared by Sodium a source of various metallic elements in the production of all types of steels. They Peroxide Fusion usually have low melting points and can be incorporated readily into molten steel where they provide a certain chemical composition with specified properties.1 The ferrochrome alloy is produced by electric arc melting of the mineral chromite (FeCr2O4). It is largely used for the production of stainless steels. Increasing the amount of chromium content in the steel allows for increased corrosion and oxidation resistance. Other alloying elements, such as nickel (Ni) or molybdenum (Mo), aid in making the steel more passive and increasing its stainless properties.2 The presence of unwanted impurities in the metal and slag may alter reaction temperatures and cause undesirable reactions of their own.1 The chemical analysis of the chromite ore and its final products are mandatory to assess the quality of the chromite ore and to optimize the grade of stainless steel production. Analysis of waste products is also needed to optimize recovery of chromium and other additives.2 Download Entire Application Note
  7. 7. CONTENTS TABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e Thermal Analysis Author Justin Lang Ph.D. PerkinElmer, Inc. 710 Bridgeport Avenue Shelton, CT 06484 Differential Scanning Introduction Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a commonly used Calorimetry technique for studying polymeric, pharmaceutical, and energetic materials. When considering which type of DSC to use to per- Performance form a specified measurement one typically chooses either a Power Compensation, or Heat Flux design. These instruments Comparison are often referred to as double and single furnace DSC respec- tively. PerkinElmer is the only vendor to provide both designs to customers, because we believe that both technologies provide unique advantages and users can choose the best type of DSC to meet their specific need. One of the more common questions is how do the instruments data compare when perform- ing a standard measurement? To answer this question, a standard polystyrene (PS) and low- density polyethylene (PE) sample are tested using the conventional heat-cool-reheat method. DSC 8000/8500 • PerkinElmer’s new flagship DSC 8000 and DSC 8500 was developed for the user’s need for greater sensitivity and accuracy. They can be used for many applications including QA/QC applications, studying processes in plastics and pharmaceuticals. • The DSC 8000 provides outstanding sensitivity and reproducibility. It features PerkinElmer’s proprietary double-furnace technology, which directly measures the heat flow between two independent furnaces. It provides the most precise energy measurements over the whole temperature range of any DSC in order to meet the most demanding applications. There is an optional 96-position autosampler available and the DSC 8000 can be upgraded to a DSC 8500. • The DSC 8500, while providing all of the features of the DSC 8000, also offers HyperDSC® heating and cooling with extremely fast controlled scanning rates and in-situ ballistic cooling important for applications such as isothermal crystallization, polymorph/amorphous-material studies and high sensitivity measurements.Download Entire Application Note
  8. 8. CONTENTSTABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e Gas Chromatography Author: A. Tipler PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA The Determination of Introduction C1 to C5 Hydrocarbons The determination of light hydrocarbons in refinery and in Gas Streams Using other gases is typically performed through the use of packed columns and mechanical rotary valves. For example ASTM® the PerkinElmer Method D-2597 adopts this approach. A gas sampling valve delivers a small metered quantity of the sample gas into Swafer Technology a non-polar packed column. The C1 to C5 hydrocarbons are allowed to elute from this column and into a second packed column with a polar stationary phase. At that point a rotary valve is actuated to reverse the flow of carrier gas through the precolumn and backflush any residual sample in that column to a detector to determine the total C6+ content in the sample. In the meantime, chromatography of the C1 to C5 content proceeds on the second column for separation, identification and quantification. The whole analysis takes about 20 minutes and getting acceptable chromatographic separation is often a challenge because of normal variations in the columns. In this application note, a new method is described for this analysis that uses a Swafer™ backflushing technology with capillary columns under isothermal conditions to both improve the chromatographic separation and to reduce the analysis cycle time to just over 5 minutes. Experimental For this analysis, an S-Swafer is used to manage the backflushing operations on the precolumn rather than a more conventional mechanical valve. The S-Swafer uses the Deans pressure balanced technique to reverse gas pressures across a GC column to initiate the backflushing process. Such systems have been widely used for 50 years – particularly for capillary columns where low thermal mass, inertness and low dead volumes are critical. Download Entire Application Note
  9. 9. CONTENTS TABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e ICP-Optical Emission Spectroscopy Author David Hilligoss PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT USA Analysis of Wear Metals and Additive Package Introduction Elements in New and The analysis of new and used oil for concentration trends of wear metals and for formulation or depletion of additive package Used Oil Using the metals has been around for over 30 years. Wear metals such as copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) may indicate wear in an engine Optima 8300 ICP-OES or any oil-wetted compartment. Boron (B), silicon (Si) or sodium (Na) may indicate contamination from dirt or antifreeze leading with Flat Plate Plasma to a failure. Additive elements such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus Technology (P) and zinc (Zn) are analyzed for depletion which contributes to wear since these elements contribute to certain key lubri- cation characteristics. A sound maintenance program, which routinely measures metals in the lubricating oils, not only reduces the expense of routinely dismantling the components for visual inspection, but can indicate unexpected wear before component failure. Atomic absorption spectrometers (AAS) were first used for these applications in the early- to-mid 1960s. As the number of elements and samples grew over the years, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES) were used for oil analysis. Today, many oil analysis labs will handle between 500 to 2000 samples per day and analyze from 15 to 24 elements per sample. Many improvements to ICP technology have taken place over the years with the most recent being the replacement of the helical load coil used to generate the plasma. The Optima™ 8x00 ICP-OES series (Figure 1 – Page 2) utilizes the new Flat Plate™ plasma technology that replaces the traditional helical coil design used since the inception of the inductively coupled plasma. The Flat Plate plasma technology utilizes two flat induction platesDownload Entire Application Note
  10. 10. CONTENTSTABLE OF Case study Environmental Driving Productivity and Increasing the South West Water is responsible for maintaining Speed of Analysis and monitoring the quality of drinking and bathing waters and the sewage system network in a region of England. They do this effectively through a central analytical facility. In early 2010, as part of the rolling replacement programme, the ICP-MS instrument was identified as due for renewal. The analytical team were looking for an instrument that could be relied upon to have minimum downtime and be a workhorse for high sample throughput; but also offer flexibility to adapt to changing business requirements and complete investigative work if required. After the evaluation of the top three suppliers, the NexION® 300 ICP-MS from PerkinElmer was selected. The flexibility offered by NexION having both a collision and dynamic reaction cell ensures that the lab is future proofed. Being fully prepared to handle any changes in sample matrices and still benefit from sensitive, reproducible results day in day out. Download Entire Case Study
  11. 11. CONTENTS TABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e Atomic Absorption Author Aaron Hineman PerkinElmer, Inc. Ontario, Canada Determination of As, Introduction Contamination of industrial and municipal water Se and Hg in Waters by supplies with arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) can occur from natural deposits, industrial Hydride Generation/ discharge, runoff from mining, landfill and agricultural operations. Consumption of contaminated water can Cold Vapor Atomic cause skin damage (As), kidney and nervous system damage (Hg) and numbness in the fingers and toes Absorption Spectroscopy (Se).1 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) have guidelines on the concen- tration of As, Se and Hg for the protection of marine and freshwater aquatic life and the protection of agriculture.1,2 Due to the low levels of these guidelines for As, Se, and Hg, it is important to have analytical measurements that are precise and accurate with low amounts of noise. Hydride generation (HG) is a very effective analytical technique developed to separate hydride forming metals, such as Se and As, from a range of matrices and varying acid concentrations. The heated quartz tube atomizer is particularly useful for the determination of arsenic and selenium because the absorption wavelengths for these elements are below 200 nm in an area subject to intense interference from flame radicals that can significantly affect detection limits. Mercury can be easily reduced in solution to generate elemental mercury, otherwise known as cold vapor (CV). This technique is also effective at separating mercury from a range of matrices. These analytical techniques can improve detection limits by a factor of approximately 3000 times that of flame detection limits and typically have less interference than graphite furnace techniques.Download Entire Application Note
  12. 12. CONTENTSTABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e Atomic Absorption Authors Surasak Manarattanasuwan Senior Inorganic Product Specialist PerkinElmer, Inc. Thailand Toxic Trace Metals Introduction Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectropho- in Edible Oils by tometry (GFAAS) has been widely applied to the determination of trace elements in food due to Graphite Furnace its selectivity, simplicity, high sensitivity, and its capability for accurate determinations in a wide Atomic Absorption variety of matrices. Edible oils are generally low in trace element concentrations, however, Spectrophotometry metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and selenium (Se) can be found and are known for their toxicities which affect the health of consumers. The determination of toxic elements from naturally occurring or production-contamination sources in oils can be determined by using GFAAS or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). When only a few elements are being analyzed, GFAAS is the preferred choice. It is easy to learn, faster in setting up, and simpler to use than ICP-MS. GFAAS is also lower in initial capital investment and has a lower operating and maintenance cost. Sample pretreatment procedures for edible oils are normally required prior to instrumental analysis in order to eliminate the organic matrix. Wet, dry or microwave digestion, dilution with organic solvent, and extraction methods can be time consuming and require more operator training than a direct analysis method. Download Entire Application Note
  13. 13. CONTENTS TABLE OF A P P L I C AT I O N N O T E Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry Author A. Tipler, Senior Scientist PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA The Qualitative Characterization of Fruit Juice Flavor using a TurboMatrix HS Trap and a Clarus SQ 8 GC/MS Introduction The PerkinElmer® TurboMatrix™ Headspace Trap system coupled with a Clarus® SQ 8 GC/MS is a very convenient means of identifying low concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in foodstuffs. In this application note, the VOCs in various fruit juices were investigated. Sample preparation simply involved dispensing a fixed volume of fruit juice into a sample vial and sealing it. The analysis was fully automated.Download Entire Application Note
  14. 14. CONTENTSTABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e Atomic Absorption Author Praveen Sarojam, Ph.D. PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA Analysis of Pb, Cd and As in Introduction Tea is drunk by about half of the world’s Tea Leaves Using Graphite population. It is widely cultivated and consumed in Southeast Asia. Tea is rich Furnace Atomic Absorption in many trace inorganic elements.1,2 In addition to many essential elements Spectrophotometry required for human health, some toxic elements may also be present in tea leaves. This could be due to polluted soil, application of pesticides, fertilizers or industrial activities. There is often little information available about the safety of tea leaves and finished tea products with respect to heavy metal contamination. Due to the significant amount of tea consumed, it is important to know the toxic metal contents. The toxicity and effect of trace heavy metals on human health and the environment has attracted considerable attention and concern in recent years. Among the heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) are especially toxic and are harmful to humans even at low concentrations. They have an inherent toxicity with a tendency to accumulate in the food chain and a particularly low removal rate through excretion.3 Exposure to heavy metals above the permissible level can cause high blood pressure, fatigue, as well as kidney and neurological disorders. Heavy metals are also known to cause harmful reproductive effects.4 A major challenge in the analysis of tea leaves is the extremely low analyte levels and the very high matrix levels. For many years, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) has been a reliable technique and the preferred method for this analysis. The use of longitudinal Zeeman background correction and matrix modifiers help to achieve extremely low detection limits in high matrix samples such as tea leaves, making GFAAS an indispensible tool for carrying out such analyses. Download Entire Application Note
  15. 15. CONTENTS TABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e Atomic Absorption Author Praveen Sarojam, Ph.D. PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA Quantification of Introduction Foods, together with water, provide the major proportion of Essential Metals the total daily intake of trace elements by humans. Spices and vegetables are some of the most common foods in the in Spice Mixtures human diet around the world. Besides polluted soil and water, foods can also be contaminated with trace metals by for Regulatory the introduction of mechanized farming, the increasing use of chemicals, food processing and packaging, etc. In order Compliance Using to minimize adverse impact, it is important to measure and continuously monitor the levels of trace elements in various Flame Atomic kinds of food materials. Trace element food composition data are also important for both consumers and health professionals. Absorption In recent years, food labeling legislation has enforced this Spectrophotometry requirement. Trace element determination in complex matrices, such as food, often requires sample preparation prior to determination by instrumental techniques.1 Cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) are all essential elements, not only for mammals, but also for plants. They play important roles in many biological processes including carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.2 For example, a daily copper intake of 1.5 - 2.0 mg is essential and copper at nearly 40 ng/mL is required for normal metabolism of many living organisms.3 However, copper at higher levels is toxic to the circulatory system and kidneys. The trace element content of food items for all the essential elements mentioned above must be controlled on a daily basis.Download Entire Application Note
  16. 16. CONTENTSTABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e UHPLC Author Njies Pedjie PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA Analysis of Ginsenosides Introduction The root of the panax genus plant (also in Ginseng Root with the called Ginseng) has been used as an herbal medicine in Asia for over two thousand PerkinElmer Flexar FX-15 years for its purported various health benefits, including (but not limited to), System Equipped with a antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti- inflammatory, antihypertensive and PDA Detector anti-diabetic. The pharmacologically active compounds behind the claims of ginseng’s efficacy are ginsenosides; their underlying mechanism of action although not entirely elucidated appears to be similar to that of steroid hormones. There are a number of ginseng species, and each has its own set of ginsenosides. In fact, more than forty different ginsenosides have been identified. Ginsenosides are a diverse group of steroidal saponins with a four ring-like steroid structure with sugar moieties (Figure 1); they are found exclusively in ginseng plants and are in higher concentration in their roots. There are two main groups of ginsen- osides: the panaxadiol group or Rb1 group that includes Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3, Rh2, and Rh3; and the panaxatriol group or Rg1 group that includes Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2 and Rh1. Download Entire Application Note
  17. 17. CONTENTS TABLE OF a p p l i c at i o n n o t e UHPLC Author Njies Pedjie PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT 06484 USA Analysis of Drug Substances Introduction Acetaminophen and aspirin are the drugs in Headache Medicines of choice used to relieve the symptoms of common headache. Acetaminophen, with the PerkinElmer Flexar which is also called paracetamol, is widely used as a pain reliever (analgesic) and FX-15 System Equipped fever reducer (antipyretic). Because of its fast onset (eleven minutes after intake), with a PDA Detector acetaminophen is very effective. However, every year its misuse (dose exceeding the daily adult limit of four grams) can cause fatal liver damage. In fact, acetaminophen toxicity is the main cause of acute liver failure and accounts for most drug over- doses in the United States. The other common active ingredient in headache medicines is acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), which is an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug. Despite its usefulness, aspirin has a harmful side effect. For many people it can cause or exacerbate gastrointestinal ulcers by destroying the mucosal lining. This is a major setback for a medicine that is otherwise very inexpensive and can also be used for its antiplatelet effect to prevent heart attack and stroke. In formulations specially designed to treat common headaches (tension headache), acetaminophen and aspirin are often combined with caffeine. In these formulations, caffeine not only increases the effectiveness of the two drugs but it also stimulates the central nervous system and temporarily wards off tiredness.Download Entire Application Note
  18. 18. CONTENTSTABLE OF USEFUL LINKS View previous issues of our Spotlight on Applications e-Zine • Volume 1 • Volume 4 • Volume 7 • Archives • Volume 2 • Volume 5 • Volume 8 • Volume 3 • Volume 6 • Volume 9 Access our application archives By Industry: • Consumer Products • Energy • Environmental • Food, Beverage Nutraceuticals • Forensics • Lubricants Pre-Order Today: • Pharmaceutical Development Manufacturing • Polymers/Plastics Analytical Consumables • Semiconductor Electronics 2012-13 Catalog By Technology: Atomic Spectroscopy, Chromatography and • Atomic Absorption (AA) Materials Characterization • Elemental Analysis • Gas Chromatography (GC) • GC Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) • Hyphenated Technology • ICP Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) The Universal OQ (UOQ) • Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES ICP-AES) is now available! • Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR IR) • LIMS Data Handling Harmonize your lab compliance by streamlining • Liquid Chromatography (HPLC UHPLC) your OQ documentation across all major • Mass Spectrometry manufacturers of LC instrumentation. • Raman Spectroscopy • Thermal Analysis • UV/Vis UV/Vis/NIR PerkinElmer, Inc. 940 Winter Street Waltham, MA 02451 USA P: (800) 762-4000 or (+1) 203-925-4602 For a complete listing of our global offices, visit Copyright ©2012, PerkinElmer, Inc. All rights reserved. PerkinElmer® is a registered trademark of PerkinElmer, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 010044_01