Classification All cultures have categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race religion, or nationality. Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories, such as Rwanda and Burundi, are the most likely to have genocide.
Classification Example During the holocaust, Aryans were the highest class. To Hitler, if you were not Aryan, you were to be destroyed.
Symbolization We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people “Jews” or “Gypsies”, or distinguish them by colors or dress; and apply the symbols to members of groups. Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to the next stage; dehumanization.
Symbolization (cont.) When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups: the yellow star got Jews under Nazi rule, the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia.
Symbolization Example Nazis forced Jews to wear this badge of a Jewish star. This allowed Nazis to keep track of the Jews.
Dehumanization One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of a group are equated with animals, vermin, insects, or diseases. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder. Hate propaganda in print and on hate radios is used to vilify the victim group.
Dehumanization ExamplesJews were forced into tight Jewish prisoners sufferedquarters, starved, and tortured by greatly and were extremelythe Nazis. malnourished.
Organization Genocide is always organized, usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility. Sometimes organization is informal or decentralized. Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Plans are made for genocidal killings.
Organization Example During the Holocaust, the Nazis organized and trained millions of soldiers to exterminate non- Aryans, especially Jews.
Polarization Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction.
Polarization (cont.) Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. Moderates from the perpetrators’ own group are most able to stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed.
Polarization Example Nazi propaganda against Jews stating “He who wears this symbol is an enemy of our people.”
Preparation Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is expropriated.
Preparation (cont.) They are often segregated into ghettos, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine- struck region and starved
Preparation Examples Jewish ghetto in Warsaw, Poland.
Extermination Begins and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide.” It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human.
Extermination Examples Millions of Jews were killed at the hands of the Nazis who wanted to destroy all Jewish people.
Denial The eighth stage that always follows a genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses.
Denial (cont.) The perpetrators deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. ○ They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile. ○ In exile, they remain with impunity, like Pol Pot or Idi Amin, unless they are captured and a tribunal is established to try them.
Denial Example Even in today’s generation, there are still people that deny that the Holocaust even happened.
The Darfur Genocide The Darfur genocide is occurring in Darfur, a region in Sudan.
Who is involved? ○ Muslims are involved. Some are nomads and some are farmers.
What happened? 2003: 2 Darfuri rebel movements took action against the Sudanese government These movements include the Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement Sudan responded by sending Arab militias known as Janjaweed to attack villages in Darfur The Janjaweed displaced over 2,500,000 people and five thousand people are killed each month. There were many attempts to try to regain peace but none of them have been effective.
When did it happen? February 2003 to the present The Janjaweed Darfur Village during Genocide
Where is it happening? Darfur, Sudan Darfur is located in the western part of Sudan, bordering on Libya, Chad, and the Central African Republic. Aerial view of Darfur
Why is it happening? The Sudan Liberation Army and the Justice and Equality Movement complained about the marginalization of Darfur and the failure to protect people from nomad attacks. The Sudan Liberation Army
Making Connections Classification: In Darfur, there are many classes involved in the genocide that include black African farmers and Arab Africans. Symbolization: Skin color is used to decipher between Black Africans and Arab Africans. Dehumanization: People are mistreated and put into slavery. Organization: Arab militias known as Janjaweed were organized.
Making connections cont. Polarization: Sudan’s president took the side of Arab Africans. Preparation: Militias were prepared and trained for the extermination of the Black Africans. Extermination: Villages were burned, people were killed and villages looted. Denial: Sudanese government officials deny the genocide.