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  1. 1. EROS Word-Sensibility Model Theory & Components Introduction EROS 1
  2. 2. 2 Index EROS • Introduction………………………………….3 • Dynamical Context.….………………….4 • Micro-Topic ………………………………..5 • Quadranym ………………………………..6-11 • Quadranym & Polynym………………..12-13 • Coherent Bias……………………………..14-17 • Ecological Perspective………………….18-21 • Contextual Timelines…………………….22 • Acquisition & Knowledgebase……….23-24 • Commonsense Representation……..25 A Theoretical Look at the Role of Words for AI: Metaphoric Relation & Commonsense Ontology BuildIntuit.com
  3. 3. 3 Introduction EROS Word-Sensibility: Commonsense knowledge is widely considered to be one of the most difficult issues in AI. In our approach, we introduce a Word-Sensibility Model as a different way to represent commonsense knowledge. As an application, it is a schema and knowledgebase to assist textual analysis. Sensibility is about our relationships to things and the responses that are generated. Consider that there are things we use and don’t use – drawn to or repelled by – make us excited or relaxed. Sensibility is a term often used to denote these kinds of responses. We suggest, that our responses are repurposed where the dynamic sense of them become part of our communicative nature and inform topical as well as contextual orientations. The aim is to present an anatomy for sensibility similar to the way formal logic presents an anatomy for rationality. The word-sensibility model provides an ecological systems perspective on how humans share responsive orientations that factor into commonsense knowing and metaphorical thinking. Theoretically, word-sensibility is not about different ways of reasoning but about different ways of coping. Here, coping reflects the social-dependent nature of the human species, a dependence that language represents. And that speaks to things like, the benefits of learning a foreign language, for instance, or the pressures we feel on our personal attitudes and behaviors as we move from one social group to another. The model implies that what we are, what we know of the world and ourselves, what we believe— isn't bordered or contained or firm. It’s a cloud and can change easily like a crossfade into another situation. At its core, word-sensibility is that which prescribes internal and external distinctions to contextual units. That is, it aims to model an agents internal responses to external occurrences at different nested levels in the system.
  4. 4. 4 Dynamical Context EROS The Quadranym Model of Word-Sensibility (Q): An Ecological Systems Perspective On Word-Level-Concepts & Contextual Unitizations. In application, the aim is to assist machine access to lexical data (dictionaries) as pertaining to commonsense situations in text. It is a method concerned with computational lexicography and ontology for AI. It involves meta-lexicography as it aims to deal with accessing word sense by using special paradigms to search words and simulate the human ability to sense dynamic relations between signs. In Q analysis, the signifier requires two different systems of context to be signified. A distinction is made between the Situational Context (conditions in the world) and the Dynamical Context (organismic responsiveness or umwelt). The model is inspired by an ecological system of agency for accessing knowledge.
  5. 5. Micro-Topics (a.k.a. word-topics); help organize, characterize or summarize lexical information. They’re pre-textual micro-unit renderings of context used to anchor focus given to words, sentences and to contextual development. The basic idea is for machines to have the ability to learn to abstract the human experience of contextual expectation, building that abstraction up from the word-level, and in this way machines can make better sense of the things that people typically know. Metaphoric analysis is our primary goal. In this theoretical approach, we apply a paradigmatic relationship layer to a lexicon in which the data components are related to form micro-topics. The product resembles a thesaurus. The project includes a wiki, schema, source code, various acquisitions & interfaces. Extracting from text is a current goal. 5 Micro-Topic EROS
  6. 6. E = expand: open O = object: barrier N = Topic Name: door S = subject: passage R = reduce: close Expansion-Reduction (ER-mode) and Objective-Subjective (OS-state). Quadranym EROS What is a Quadranym? Quadranyms (are one way to) represent Micro-topics. We define Quadranym as a four-part conceptual construct using a dual-axis Mode-State model. It operates as a virtual unit of orientation and constraint. A Quadranym represents a virtual unit of responsiveness. It is inspired by embodied language processing involving motor and sensory perception and experiential traces. 6
  7. 7. Quadranym EROS 7 The Quadranym is a simple organizing construct that is reasonably explained in minutes. Below is an introductory outline of the Quadranym dimensions. The Prime Dimensions & Meta-Dimensional Role Examples: •E: Expansive (potential mode) term examples: potential, active, unity, group, over, all, new, implicit, big, learning, playing, expand (or a kind of child like view of life where the world is constantly unfolding), mystery, sustain, spatial openness. •R: Reductive (actual mode) term examples: actual, passive, plurality, it, that, you , me, fact, in, down, measure, explicit, focus, small, reduce (or a kind of adult view of life where the world needs controlling), familiar, deny, spatial closeness. •O: Objective (potential state) term examples: potential, becoming, condition, variant, practice, decide between, interpersonal, social, object, temporal endings. •S: Subjective (actual state) term examples: actual, being, coherent, core, constant, perspective, beliefs, desires, intrapersonal, subject, temporal beginnings.
  8. 8. The Quadranym Square 8 Quadranym EROS Active sense initiates a micro-topics function and argument. Passive sense is when the function and argument is finally configured for the situation. Actual state is the source. Potential state is the target. Various metaphysical notions apply to the Quadranym prime dimensions, such as, part/whole, plurality/unity, being/becoming, time and space. Note that actual-state refers to a unit’s actual state of being. This mainly refers to the context of being, core sense or self-centered bias. When referring to physical properties and laws, actual is a situational context belonging to The Objective Field, i.e., real-world entities. An actual-state is a contextual orientation that virtually seeks to optimize its relations to The Objective Field. Objective and subjective Q states refer to contextual influences on ontological categories. hemispheres hemispheres levels levels axes R mode passive actual O state passive potential S state active actual E mode active potential Active (left side) is the class of content that is learned to apply to a situation. Passive (right side) is content that the active side can infer.
  9. 9. The hemispheres provide the general template configuration for representation: •Left Side, Superset-Active, E_Mode(s_state) = E_Active_Potential(s_active_actual) •Right Side, Subset-Passive, R_Mode(o_state) = R_Passive_Actual(o_passive_potential). •The superset is the source condition. •The subset is the target variable. space(x) → Infinite{…)(void{…}) ⊇ Finite{…}(between{…})x door(x) → Open{…)(passage{…}) ⊇ Close{…}(barrier{…})x 9 void between_x passage barrier_x source target Space States Door States Quadranym EROS Note: the Source Condition is also called the Coherent Bias.
  10. 10. 10 Quadranym EROS Independent & Dependent Variables. Dependent Potential Infinite Independent Actual Finite Condition Potential Between occupants capacity room growth time size far near distance open close door Above, occupants is dependent on capacity to target room. Growth is dependent on time to target size. The next two examples seem to be interchangeable. However, because Quadranyms are nested units this is correct. Far and open are nested under infinite. Near and close are nested under finite. The source condition of the spatial unit is referenced on void. If there is no other condition then void is the infinite condition otherwise between is the target condition. In this particular Quadranym, space anchors on infinite dependent on finite, on between as the target variable (a.k.a. condition potential) and on void as the zero-point. Actual_Source_Condition_Void
  11. 11. 11 Utility Weight Climate 1.0 Security 0.3 Privacy 0.2 Aesthetic 0.1 close x barrier = climate variance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 To vary climate, open is dependent on closed. Represented are the changes that occur when a door is open or closed in a climate situation. passage + close = warm 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% Contextual Inference more closed Less closed passage open y Quadranym EROS Keep in mind that door is not just utility, it’s also metaphoric opportunity that occurs between nested units. less cold more cold Consider climate inferring door utility. Text: ”Close the door because it’s cold outside." Any variability in climate is dependent on the division of spatial modes. All space = all temperature non-discrete. In the door realm, any variance is dependent on barrier. All Quadranyms can conform in this way in some manner.
  12. 12. 12 5 parts × Relations of Locations = [space, door, distance, direction, container] Quadranym & Polynym EROS Topic Name Expansion Reduction Objective Subjective space infinite finite between void door open close barrier passage distance far near relation position direction there here to from container out in full empty •Conceptnet relations, e.g., between isA barrier, open motivatedBygoal out. •Also, relations can cross rank topic terms, e.g., out obstructedBy barrier. Because door is a subset of the spatial domain it is nested in spatial dimensions as illustrated in the matrix of nested spatial topics below. The matrix represents a Polynym. Each topic name represents one of its dimensions (ranks). Polynyms have any number of dimensions. Although the matrix provides word relations, it’s less about word relations and more about the dynamic factors for word relations.
  13. 13. Consider the assertion, “Science makes predictions.” Several topics come together to form a Polynym. The terms in each of the (EROS) columns tend to fill in a tantamounting or pervading sense. 13 Quadranym & Polynym EROS A Quadranym knowledge base aims to add a supplemental layer to any knowledge base that provides word relations (directed edges). Specifications come from WordNet or other lexicons.
  14. 14. 14 The Coherent Bias EROS Generally, the coherent bias represents an experiential trace and can act like a heuristic bias. Essentially, it’s an instance of coherent sense. That is, coherent sense refers to the orientation of interactivity that a community shares. One orients with another. In the model, there is a distinction to be made between the coherent sense of orientation and the potential conditions it may aim at in the world.
  15. 15. 15 The Coherent Bias EROS In the model, once motivated, the listener’s intention is to find cues in the content so to sync with oscillating coherent and conditional factors. Intimating Mental States. What is required here is the most basic topic and its source condition, a condition that the agent and the patient can share. Any other knowing requirements involves nesting more micro-topics. (∀x) eat(x) ⟹ [Sate(hungry) ⊇ Starve(food)x] • Modes provide measure • States provide arguments • hungry anchors orientation • food is the target variable
  16. 16. Find Mousse Find Mousse The Coherent Bias EROS 16 Topic Name: Eat(x) Weights (∀x) eat(x) ⟹ [Sate(hungry) ⊇ Starve(food)x] 1.0 (∀x) eat(x) ⟹ [Swallow(mouth) ⊇ Chew(food)x] 0.7 (∀x) eat(x) ⟹ [Intact(chew) ⊇ Fragment(substance)x] 0.6 (∀x) eat(x) ⟹ [Available(consume) ⊇ Deplete(resource)x] 0.5 (∀x) eat(x) ⟹ [Stable(corrode) ⊇ Disintegrate(material)x] 0.1 Micro-topics are virtual orientations shared between people. Just like there are different word senses, there are different orientations of micro-topics. Consider the different orientations for the topic eat below.
  17. 17. 17 Utility Weight Crave 1.0 Nutrition 0.6 Growth 0.5 Life 0.4 starve x food = craving variance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Represented is the amount of starvation in the context of eating in a craving situation. To vary craving, sate is dependent on starve. In this situation, starve rates low (30%) and crave = taste rates high (8.3). Hungry is your body telling you it's time to eat. Starvation is when you burn more energy than you take in. In this realm, hungry for something anchors the sense of craving something. If Marie is diabetic or in someway needing what she craves, then starve increases. If another utility is dependent, say nutrition, then the output changes according to the situation. Any variability in craving is dependent on the division of eating modes. All eating = all sate non-discrete. In the eating realm, any variance is dependent on food. In the state sense, hungry targets food to intend eat. In the mode of action, sate is dependent on starve to measure eat. hungry + starve = crave 90% 70% 50% 30% 10% Contextual Inference more starve Less starve The coherent bias = hungry sate y The Coherent Bias EROS less crave more crave Craving dessert is a measurable situation in this eating realm. “I want chocolate mousse!” Starve addresses the lack of food. In this case, food is likely a sweet dessert to satisfy a sweet tooth. In this Quadranym, starve acts as the actual measure of food for a number of utility dependencies.
  18. 18. In the model, a conservation of order is virtually provided by micro-topics. In other words, a conflict between coherent and conditional factors will virtually generate new micro-topics. When people have conflicting responses to new input, there is a social motivation to produce like minded objectives. This is a reciprocal relationship between people to influence outcomes in the world. The aim is to represent these kind of relations between intra-subjective units. 18 Virtual Perspective: Each Quadranym represents a discrete dynamical system. All systems draw upon the environment and then (in response) give back to it, thus participating in an ecology of dynamical systems. Ecological Perspective EROS
  19. 19. 19 •Representing environmental resources is a flux. •Representing organismic resources is a unit. 1.flux is double brackets: [b] → [a] 2.unit is single brackets: [a → b] •flux: a dynamic sense driven by the environment. •unit: how that sense has been driven before. In this approach, what implicates a sensibility are the skills and resources available to address new developments. Environments change behaviors and these changes are represented in micro-units. A reciprocal causation between an organism and its environment: Ecological Perspective EROS Ultimately, the process depends on the strategic ability to layer scripts into Contextual Timelines. Meaning is in the world. Influencing meaning is in the organism. •Contextual Timelines refer to procedural constraints e.g., when you get up for work; take shower, brush teeth, have breakfast, rush out etc… work forms the contextual timelines.
  20. 20. 20 Hierarchical layers represent Contextual Timelines. Some layers cycle more generally and others more specifically. The more new units appear in a layer the more specific it is to a task. Strategies may supplement or replace layers or rearrange hierarchical orders. Procedural layers are mixed and matched to optimally describe an agents condition of responsiveness given the occurrent situation. The primary advantage of layers is the ability to create various hierarchical orders. In this way, an act can be constrained by different motivations. Consider for instance a chimpanzee who smashes small stones with a big rock. Maybe the act continues just for the dynamic sense of it, the impact and stones fractured into fragments. Now consider the act repurposed to crack nuts. A new motivation, a new system of responsiveness is organized. Contextual Timelines EROS
  21. 21. 21 Units when linked together form scripts. The system generally consists of Units, Scripts and Layers. Ecological Perspective EROS Consider how music might feel in this kind of cycle. Musical composers incorporate notions of anticipation and resolution to keep listeners engaged. King Fisher Fishing Script
  22. 22. 22 Upper scripts constrain lower scripts. Unattended & Attended Layers → Goal: General Layer:[Urge(survive) → Resolve(nutrition)] General Layer:[Urge(nutrition) → Resolve(hunger)] General Layer:[Urge(hunger) → Resolve(food)] Specific Layer:[Urge(food) → Resolve(water)] Specific Layer:[Urge(water) → Resolve(fish)] Scripts can run linearly or can be broken into contextual timelines (layers) and run simultaneously. These structures are saved and repurposed in new modal systems. Ecological Perspective EROS
  23. 23. 23 Acquisition & Knowledgebase EROS We introduce a method to acquire commonsense and interdisciplinary knowledge. It is a practice of collecting and organizing idea sets: sets of terms, their area, their source and their relations. Essentially, an idea set is a set of terms representing a certain number of dimensions used to strategically unfold, frame or simplify a concept. A dimension number is called a polynym i.e., mononym, duonym, trionym, tetranym, pentanym and so on. A collection of idea sets resembles a kind of thesaurus. The content can be used to help populate knowledgebase systems and enhance queries. Quadranyms and polynyms when pertaining to system processes form a matrix that represent a general and overarching cognitive framework. It is an ecological systems approach to a commonsense ontology based on dynamic orientation. In the system, the program uses quadranyms as the orientational answer for data. An Orientation will initiate and follow with more specific orientations. The most efficient Quadranym is ultimately used where the rules for targeting the situation-potential can be fine tuned.
  24. 24. As a public interface, Quadranyms are represented on y mode and x state axes. mode expansive reductive state subjective objective y x 24 Acquisition & Knowledgebase EROS Below is a basic Quadranym Interface. There are a variety interfaces and games developed for the project, and more being developed. Phrasal templates (phrases containing Quadranym dimensions) are created to help fashion and test Quadranym effectiveness. A goal is to develop Quadranym extraction methods using word-sensibility analysis.
  25. 25. 25 Check out About Page and System Page for more information. Contact us. We look forward to any questions and suggestions. Creative ambitious developers welcomed, contact us! Thank You J Q: Commonsense Representation EROS To conclude, the aim was to bring some understanding to word-sensibility theories and components. The full idea involves unpacking a multi-organizational dynamic system. The model is a method for commonsense representation that introduces the idea of motivated-dynamical-contexts anchoring word-level concepts, we refer to it as Word-Sensibility. Any word in the system can be considered a motivated-dynamical-context. Central to this process is the idea that there is the immanent and what necessarily must transcend the immanent, by which this implicates the skills, volition and resources that one has to cope in the world. Word-sensibility is proposed as a hypothetical construct pertaining to affective and conative components. It’s about social instincts, habits, emotions and volition reinforced by the environment. The primary advantage of standardizing a model of word-sensibility is that experiential myths, or metaphorical mappings about experience may be characterized using universal themes in a domain general framework. The current goal is to build a knowledgebase populated with basic thematic realms such as, spatial, temporal, metabolical, emotional and social.
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