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CHAPTER 2::Content and Contextual Analysis of Selected Primary Sources in Philippine History

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G.E. Reading in Philippine History

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CHAPTER 2::Content and Contextual Analysis of Selected Primary Sources in Philippine History

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2: Content and Contextual Analysis of Selected Primary Sources in Philippine History Prof. Penn T. Larena
  2. 2. Learning Objectives: • To familiarize oneself with the primary documents in different historical periods of the Philippines. • To learn history through primary sources. • To properly interpret primary sources through examining the contact and context of the document. • To understand the context behind each selected document.
  3. 3. The historian’s primary tool of understanding and interpreting the past is the historical sources. Historical sources ascertain historical facts. Such facts are then analyzed and interpreted by the historian to weave historical narrative. Using primary sources in historical research entails two kinds of criticism. The first one is EXTERNAL CRITICISM and the second is INTERNAL CRITICISM. EXTERNAL CRITICISM examines the authenticity of the document or the evidence being used while INTERNAL CRITICISM examines the truthfulness of the content of the evidence.
  4. 4. A Brief Summary of the First Voyage Around the World by Magellan by Antonio Pigafetta
  5. 5. Who is Antonio Pigafetta? – Famous Italian traveller born in Vicenza around 1490 and died in the same city in 1534, who is also known by the name of Antonio Lombardo or Francisco Antonio Pigafetta. Initially linked to the order of Rhodes, which was Knight, went to Spain in 1519, accompanied by Monsignor Francisco Chiericato, and was made available from Carlos V to promote the company initiated by the Catholic Monarchs in the Atlantic. Soon he became a great friendship with Magallanes, who accompanied, together with Juan Sebastián Elcano, in the famous expedition to the Moluccas begun in August of 1519 and finished in September 1522.
  6. 6. Who is Antonio Pigafetta? – He was wounded at the battle of the island of Cebu (Philippines) in which Magellan found death. The output of Seville made it aboard of the Trinity; the return, along with a handful of survivors (17 of the 239 who left this adventure), in victory, ship that entered in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz) on September 6, the designated year. In the last years of his life, he traveled by land from France to finally return to Italy in 1523. He wrote the relation of that trip, which was the first around the world, Italian and with the title of Relazioni in lathe to the primo viaggio di circumnavigazione. Notizia del Mondo Nuovo with figure you dei paesi scoperti, which was published posthumously, in 1536.
  7. 7. Who is Antonio Pigafetta? – The account of Pigafetta is the single most important source about the voyage of circumnavigation, despite its tendency to include fabulous details. He took notes daily, as he mentioned when he realizes his surprise at Spain and see that he had lost a day (due to its driving direction). Includes descriptions of numerous animals, including sharks, the Storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus), the pink spoonbill (Ajaja ajaja) and the Phyllium orthoptera, an insect similar to a sheet. Pigafetta captured a copy of the latter near Borneo and kept it in a box, believing a moving blade who lived in the air. His report is rich in ethnographic details. He practiced as an interpreter and came to develop, at least in two Indonesian dialects.
  8. 8. Pigafetta’s work instantly became a classic that prominent literary men in the West like WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, MICHEL de MONTAIGNE, and GIAMBATTISTA VICO referred to the book in their interpretation of the New World. Pigafetta’s travelogue is one of the most important primary sources in the study of the precolonial Philippines.
  9. 9. – In Pigafetta’s account, their fleet reached what he called the LADRONES ISLANDS or the “Islands of the Thieves.” He recounted: “These people have no arms, but use sticks, which have a fish bone at the end. They are poor, but ingenious, and great thieves, and for the sake of that we call these three islands the Ladrones Islands.”
  10. 10. The Ladrones Islands
  11. 11. – The Ladrones Islands is presently known as the Marianas Islands. Tendays after they have reached Ladrones Islands, Pigafetta reported that they have what he called the Isle of Zamal, now Samar but Magellan decided to land in another uninhabited island for greater security where they could rest for a few days. – On MARCH 18, nine men came to them and showed joy and eagerness in seeing them. Magellan realized that the men were reasonable and welcomed them with food, drinks and gifts.
  12. 12. – Pigafetta detailed in amazement and fascination the palm tree which bore fruits called cochos and wine. – He characterized the people as “very familiar and friendly” and willingly showed them different islands and the names of these islands. The fleet went to Humunu Island (Homonhon) and there they found what he referred to as the “Watering Place of Good Signs.” for it is in this place that they found the first signs of gold in the island. They named the island together with a nearby island as the archipelago of St. Lazarus.
  13. 13. – On March 25th, Pigafetta recounted that they saw two balanghai (balangay), a long boat full of people in Mazzava/Mazaus. The leader whom he reffered to the king became closely bonded with Magellan as they both exchanged gifts to one another. – After a few days, Magellan was introduced to the king’s brother who was also a king of another island where Pigafetta reported that they saw mines of gold. The gold was abundant that parts of the ship and of the house of the king were made of gold. This king was named Raia Calambu, king of Zuluan and Calagan (Butuan and Caragua), and the first king was Raia Siagu.
  14. 14. – On March 31st (Easter Sunday), Magellan ordered the chaplain to preside a Mass by the shore. The king heard about this plan and sent two dead pigs and attended the Mass with the other king. Pigafetta then wrote: “…when the offertory of the mass came, the two kings, went to kiss the cross like us, but they offered nothing, and at the elevation of the body of our Lord they were kneeling like us, and adored our Lord with joined hands.” This was the first Mass in the Philippines, and the cross would be famed Magellan’s Cross which is still preserved at present day. This was the same cross which Magellan explained to the kings as a sign of his emperor who ordered him to plan it in the places were he would reach and further explained that once other Spaniards saw this cross, then they would know that they had been in this island and would not cause them troubles.
  15. 15. – By April 7th, Magellan and his men reached the port of Zzubu (Cebu) with the help of Raia Calambu who offered to pilot them in going to the island. The kind of Cebu demanded that they pay tribute as it was customary but Magellan refused. By the next day, Magellan’s men and the king of Cebu, together with other principal men of Cebu, met in an open space. There the king offered a bit of his blood and demanded that Magellan do the same. – On April 14, Magellan spoke to the kind and encouraged him to be a good Christian by burning all of the idols and worship the cross instead. The king of Cebu was then baptized as a Christian. After 8 days, all of the island’s inhabitant were already baptized.
  16. 16. – When the queen came to the Mass one day, Magellan gave her an image of the Infant Jesus made by Pigafetta himself. – On 26th of April, Zula, a principal man from the island of Matan (Mactan) went to see Magellan and asked him for a boat full of men so that he would be able to fight the chief name Silapulapu (Lapulapu). Magellan offered 3 boats instead and went to Mactan to fight the said chief. – They numbered 49 in total and the islanders of Mactan were estimated to number 1,500. Magellan died in battle. He was pierced with a poison arrow in his right leg. The king of Cebu who was baptized offered help but Magellan refused so that he could see how they fought. – The kind also offered the people of Mactan gifts of any value and amount in exchange of Magellan’s body but the chief refused and wanted to keep Magellan’s body as a memento of their victory.
  17. 17. – Magellan’s men then elected Duarte Barbosa as the new captian. – Pigafetta also accounted how Magellan’s slave and interpreter named Henry betrayed them and told the king of Cebu that they intended to leave as soon as possible. Henry and the king of Cebu conspired and betrayed what was left of Magellan’s men. The king invited these men to a gathering where he said he would present the jewels that he would send for the King of Spain.
  18. 18. – Pigafetta was left on board the ship and was not able to join the 24 men who went to the gathering because he was nursing his battle wounds. – The natives had slain all the men except the interpreter and Juan Serrano who shouted at the men on this ship to pay ransom so that he would be spared but he was left on the island for they refused to go back to shore. – The fleet abandoned Serrano and departed. They left Cebu and continued their journey around the world.
  19. 19. The KKK and the “Kartilya ng Katipunan”
  20. 20. The Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK) or Katipunan is arguably the most important organization formed in the Philippine history. The two principal aims of the KKK as gathered from the writings of Bonifacio: 1. Unity of the filipino people
  21. 21. – Bonifacio came out after the failure of the reform movement headed by Rizal and M. Del Pilar. This paved way for a more radical and more active lines. He formed the Katipunan, a secret society which was founded at Tondo Manila, in a house on Azcarraga Street then numbered 314, on July 7, 1892, the same date on which Rizal was decreed to be banished to Dapitan.
  22. 22. – Rizal doubtless approved the first aim but refused to accept the second and this was the reason that he refused to go along with the “Katipuneros” (soldiers’ of the Katipunan) and voluntarily surrendered that leads him to prison and death. – To achieve unity of the Filipinos, propaganda work must be done and this was through massive education and civic trainings of the Katipuneros. To that end, Bonifacio prepared his now well-known decalogue, and Jacinto his famous “Kartilya ng Katipunan” (Primer of the Katipunan)
  23. 23. –These are the rules in Kartilya. The Kartilya can be treated as the Katipunan’s Code of conduct which contains 14 rules that instruct the way a Katipunero should behave.
  24. 24. Below is a translated version of the rules on Kartilya 1. The life that is not consecrated to a lofty and reasonable purpose is a tree without a shade, if not a poisonous weed. 2. To do good for personal gain and not for its own sake is not virtue. 3. It is rational to be charitable and love one's fellow creature, and to adjust one's conduct, acts and words to what is in itself reasonable. 4. Whether our skin be black or white, we are all born equal: superiority in knowledge, wealth and beauty are to be understood, but not superiority by nature.
  25. 25. Below is a translated version of the rules on Kartilya 5. The honorable man prefers honor to personal gain; the scoundrel, gain to honor. 6. To the honorable man, his word is sacred. 7. Do not waste thy time: wealth can be recovered but not time lost. 8. Defend the oppressed and fight the oppressor before the law or in the field. 9. The prudent man is sparing in words and faithful in keeping secrets.
  26. 26. Below is a translated version of the rules on Kartilya 10. On the thorny path of life, man is the guide of woman and the children, and if the guide leads to the precipice, those whom he guides will also go there. 11. Thou must not look upon woman as a mere plaything, but as a faithful companion who will share with thee the penalties of life; her (physical) weakness will increase thy interest in her and she will remind thee of the mother who bore thee and reared thee. 12. What thou dost not desire done unto thy wife, children, brothers and sisters, that do not unto the wife, children, brothers and sisters of thy neighbor.
  27. 27. Below is a translated version of the rules on Kartilya 13. Man is not worth more because he is a king, because his nose is aquiline, and his color white, not because he is a *priest, a servant of god, nor because of the high prerogative that he enjoys upon earth, but he is worth most who is a man of proven and real value, who does good, keeps his words, is worthy and honest; he who does not oppress nor consent to being oppressed, he who loves and cherishes his fatherland, though he be born in the wilderness and know no tongue but his own. 14. When these rules of conduct shall be known to all, the longed-for sun of liberty shall rise brilliant over this most unhappy portion of the globe and its rays shall diffuse everlasting joy among the confederated brethren of the same rays, the lives of those who have gone before, the fatigues and the well-paid sufferings will remain. If he who desires to enter (the katipunan) has informed himself of all this and believes he will be able to perform what will be his duties, he may fill out
  28. 28. An Excerpt from the Second Paragraph of the Kartilya which states that “The object pursued by this association is great and precious: to unite in ideas and purposes all filipinos by means of a strong oath and from union derive force with which to tear the veil that obscures intelligence and thus find the true path of reason and light” – The strong oath was documented and signed with the signed with the blood of the “Katipuneros” (blood (blood compact). They swore at the Katipunan creed; Katipunan creed; to defend the oppressed, fight the fight the oppressor even to the extent of supreme self- supreme self- sacrifice.
  29. 29. An Excerpt from the Second Paragraph of the Kartilya which states that – One of the most important Katipunan documents was the Kartilya ng Katipunan. – The original title of the document was “Manga (sic) Aral Nang (sic) Katipunan ng mga A.N.B.” Or “Lesson of the Organization of the Sons of Country”.
  30. 30. Reading “The Proclamation of the Philippine Independence”
  31. 31. – June 12, 1898 - The Philippine Declaration of independence was proclaimed in Cavite el Viejo (presentday Kawit, Cavite) – Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain.
  32. 32. – 1896 - the Philippine Revolution began. Eventually, the Spanish signed an agreement with the revolutionaries – Emilio Aguinaldo went into exile in Hongkong. At the outbreak of the Spanish-American war.
  33. 33. – Commodore George Dewey - sailed from Hong Kong to Manila Bay leading a squadron of U.S. Navy ships. – May 1, 1898 - the United States defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Manila Bay. – the U.S. Navy transported Aguinaldo back to the Philippines.
  34. 34. THE PROCLAMATION ON JUNE 12 Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 between four and five in the afternoon in Cavite at the ancestral home of General Emilio Aguinaldo. – The event saw the unfurling of the National Flag of the Philippines, made in Hong Kong by Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, and Delfina Herboza.
  35. 35. THE PROCLAMATION ON JUNE 12 – and the performance of the Marcha Filipina Magdalo, as the national anthem, now known as Lupang Hinirang, which was composed by Julián Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band. – The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared, written, and read by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista in Spanish.
  36. 36. THE PROCLAMATION ON JUNE 12 – The Declaration was signed by ninety-eight people, among them an American army officer who witnessed the proclamation who attended the proceedings, Mr. L. M. Johnson, a Coronel of Artillery. – The proclamation of Philippine independence was, however, promulgated on 1 August, when many towns had already been organized under the rules laid down by the Dictatorial Government of General Aguinaldo
  37. 37. THE PROCLAMATION ON JUNE 12 – The declaration was not recognized by the U.S. nor Spain and Spain later sold the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War. – Philippine-American War - The Philippine Revolutionary Government did not recognize the treaty or American sovereignty, and subsequently fought and lost a conflict with United States.
  38. 38. THE PROCLAMATION ON JUNE 12 – ended when Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by U.S. forces, and issued a statement acknowledging and accepting the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines. – Following World War II, the US granted independence to the Philippines on July 4, 1946 via the Treaty of Manila.
  39. 39. Treaty of Paris, (1898)
  40. 40. –1964 - President Diosdado Macapagal signed into law Republic Act No. 4166 designating June 12 as the country's Independence Day.
  41. 41. Thank you. Fin.

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