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Chapter 2: Ethical Principles of Research

Practical Research 1 :This course develops critical thinking and problem-solving skills through qualitative research.

This power point made possible by : Prof. JOBIEN S.DAYAO, MA, Prof. Roel Jumawan MTP,MAEM AND Prof. Penn T.Larena ,CPS,MPA

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Chapter 2: Ethical Principles of Research

  1. 1. Chapter 2: Ethical Principles of Research
  2. 2. In doing research; • How can we say that we have done the right thing? • Can we strike a balance between what is right and what is moral? • Are things we have done widely accepted by the community?
  3. 3. Definition of Ethics • Ethics? It is anchored on the moral standards that we follow. • Morality? Is is a set of “unwritten” rules that guides us on the things that we should or should not do in order to attain harmony and orderliness in any undertaking.
  4. 4. Importance of Ethics in Research • Ethics is important in research because it keeps the researcher from committing errors while seeking knowledge and truth. It promotes essential values that help researchers working on a topic to have a common understanding of how things should go about. • Since research may involve experts coming from different fields of expertise, ethics binds them together by considering the important values such as accountability, cooperation, coordination, mutual respect, and fairness among others.
  5. 5. Some Research Ethics Rules Be Honest • As researcher, we should maintain intellectual honesty in all times especially in reporting findings in our investigation. Be objective • Being objective means avoiding bias in research at all times.
  6. 6. Be a person of integrity. • We should be consistent with all our thoughts and actions. We should act with sincerity and should be able to keep our words true. Be caring. • We should be after the welfare and benefit of our subjects especially when dealing with human participants or animal subjects.
  7. 7. Be open. • Be willing to share your ideas, results, and resources. Also, be willing to accept suggestions and comments for the improvement of your work. Be careful. • Ideas of others must be acknowledged. We should treat our colleagues fairly and justly.
  8. 8. Be trustworthy. • We should keep confidently of all data and information contained in our research unless otherwise needed to be known by the public. Be responsible. • Consider the legalities, rules, and regulations of an institution or government when conducting a study. Be of help in publishing research which aim to advance knowledge and which could help promote social welfare, minimize harm and risk, and maximize the benefits for the target population.
  9. 9. Ethical Consideration in Animal Research • Some animal rights and animal welfare advocates are trying to justify that it is not necessary to involve animals in research while some groups of researchers would say that it is better to use animals to minimize the harm for human beings.
  10. 10. The debate about research involving animals has two fundamental questions. • First, does the scientific use of animals lead to valid, useful, beneficial, and relevant results? • Secondly, is it allowable for one species to cause pain, suffering and death to another to achieve benefits for the former species?
  11. 11. The 3R’s Principle • Reduce. In sampling in biomedical or animal research, it is much appreciated if we will use the least number of possible participants in a research study. • Refine. Researchers should see to it that procedure done in animal research be examined carefully to minimize the pain and suffering of the animal participants. • Replace. If there is possibility that animals can be replaced by other materials or other non- biological subjects, the researcher should opt for its replacements.
  12. 12. Republic Act. No. 8485: The Animal Welfare Act of 1998 • The purpose of this act is to protect and promote the welfare of all animals in the Philippines by supervising and regulating the establishment and operations of all facilities utilized for breeding, maintaining, keeping, treating or training of all animals either as objects of trade, subjects of research or as household pets.
  13. 13. • It is also stated in the law that there shall be no person, association, partnership, corporation, cooperative or any government agency or instrumentality including slaughter houses shall establish, maintain and operate any pet shop, kennel, veterinary clinic, veterinary hospital, and stockyard, corral, stud farm, or zoo for the breeding, treatment, sale or trading or training of animals without first securing from the Bureau of Animal Industry a certificate of registration.
  14. 14. The IACUC (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee) (1) Chairman who takes the lead in the reviews and approves the procedures of the proposals submitted to them (2) Qualified Scientists who is a specialist under a specific field or discipline.
  15. 15. (3) A Civic Society Member who is concerned about animal welfare (4) Registered Veterinarian who will ensure that all procedures stated in the approved protocol will be carried out correctly.
  16. 16. • Here in the Philippines, all IACUCs are registered under the Bureau of Animal Industry of Department of Agriculture. • This is the government’s regulating body for all activities concerning animals and animal welfare. Other nongovernmental entities or organization are also concerned with these thrusts like the Philippines Association for Laboratory Animal Science (PALAS).
  17. 17. Rights of Human Research Participants Right to voluntary participation. • All human participants should participate in a research study out of his free will. Right to informed consent. • All participants must know all things above the research they will be participating in. They should be informed of all procedures, risk, and potential benefits the research will bring to participants.
  18. 18. Right to be protected from harm. • It is researcher’s responsibility to protect the participants from any form of harm that may affect them. Right to confidentiality. • All personal information about the participants shall be made confidential and should not be brought out to the public.
  19. 19. Right to anonymity. • The participant may choose not to disclose his or her identity to anyone including the researchers themselves.
  20. 20. The Data Privacy Act of 2012 • Republic Act No. 10173, also known as the “Data Privacy Act of 2012, is an act protecting individual personal information and communications systems in the government and the private sector creating for this purpose a national privacy commission, and for other purposes.
  21. 21. • An independent body known as “National Privacy Commission was created to administer and implement the provisions of this act and to monitor and ensure compliance of the country with international standard set for data protection • This act is based on standards set by the European Parliament and at par with the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Information Privacy Framework standards. The Data Privacy Act of 2012 mandates the public and private institutions to protect and preserve the integrity and confidentiality of all personal data that they might gather, in compliance with international data security standards.
  22. 22. Scientific Misconduct • As researchers, we are expected to follow the rules and the proper conduct in making research. All of the ethical considerations must be adhered to. Moral and social values are always considered and should be given much importance.
  23. 23. Areas of Scientific Dishonesty (1) Fabrication and falsification of data. • This is sometimes called as ‘cooking the data’. Here, data are produced without actual experimentation or the data is altered in recording. (2) Non-publication of data. • In contrast with the first, this time, instead of making up data that will support the hypotheses, the researcher choose not to include the data gathered from the participants which do not conform to the hypotheses.
  24. 24. (3) Faculty data-gathering procedures. • This can be brought about by errors in measurements or errors in the measuring instruments, like faulty measuring equipment. This may also be cause by in appropriate treatment of the subjects, invalid procedures and poor data recording. (4) Plagiarism. • This refers to using of others as your own.
  25. 25. Plagiarism • Plagiarism is an act of owning one’s ideas, work or publication as your own. This happens very often specially in scientific publications.
  26. 26. Types of Plagiarism • Clone. An act of submitting other’s work, word- for-word, as one’s own. • Ctrl+C (copy-paste). A written piece that containes significant portions of text from a single source without alterations. • Find-Replace. The act of changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source in a paper. • Remix. An act of paraphrasing from other sources and making the content fit together seamlessly. • Recycle. The act of borrowing generously from one’s own previous work without citation. This is called “self-plagiarism”.
  27. 27. • Hybrid. This act of combining perfectly cited sources with copied passages – without citation – in one paper. • Mash-up. A paper that represents a mix of copied materials from several different sources without proper citation. • 404 Error. A written piece that includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources. • Aggregator. This paper includes proper citation, but contains almost no original work. • Re-tweet. This paper includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the text’s original wording and/or structure.
  28. 28. Young Professors in Research that would take good care of you

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Practical Research 1 :This course develops critical thinking and problem-solving skills through qualitative research. This power point made possible by : Prof. JOBIEN S.DAYAO, MA, Prof. Roel Jumawan MTP,MAEM AND Prof. Penn T.Larena ,CPS,MPA

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