Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Crear wbs para proyectos de software

498 views

Published on

Crear wbs para proyectos de software

Published in: Education
  • Get Instant Access to 12000 SHED PLANS, Download plans now. ☺☺☺ https://t.cn/A62YdyaM
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Get access to 16,000 woodworking plans, Download 50 FREE Plans... ■■■ https://bit.ly/2SyPceJ
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • There are over 16,000 woodworking plans that comes with step-by-step instructions and detailed photos, Click here to take a look ➤➤ http://tinyurl.com/y3hc8gpw
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The #1 Woodworking Resource With Over 16,000 Plans, Download 50 FREE Plans... ●●● http://tinyurl.com/yy9yh8fu
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Get access to 16,000 woodworking plans, Download 50 FREE Plans... ■■■ http://ishbv.com/tedsplans/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Crear wbs para proyectos de software

  1. 1. 5 - PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT 5 5.4 Create WBS The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs for Create WBS in Section 5.4 of the PMBOK® Guide are equally applicable for creating work breakdown structures for predictive life cycle software projects. Comparable techniques for adaptive software projects are described in Section 5.4.2.5 of this Software Extension. Section 5.4 of the PMBOK® Guide includes the following statement: “In the context of the WBS, work refers to work products or deliverables that are the result of activity and not to the activity itself.” The PMBOK® Guide distinguishes between organizing a WBS by phase or by major deliverables at the second level. For software projects, the top level of the WBS subdivides the project by life-cycle process or activity. The work products and deliverables are shown as outputs of activities and tasks at lower levels in the WBS. This form of WBS is referred to as an activity-oriented WBS (Section 5.4.2.3 of this Software Extension provides an example). Activity-oriented work breakdown structures are desirable for most software development projects because software is the product of the cognitive processes of software developers and does not involve fabrication of physical work products or deliverables in media such as wood, metal, plastic, or silicon. Work packages for the tasks in a software WBS include specification of the work activities and the work products or deliverables to be created or modified by those work activities, as well as the acceptance criteria for the work products or deliverables. Activity-oriented work breakdown structures are also applicable for other kinds of knowledge-based work. Considerations for developing an activity-oriented WBS for a predictive life cycle software project can proceed top-down as follows: (a) by first specifying the project activities at the top level and decomposing each top-level element into subordinate activities and tasks; (b) by first identifying the lowest-level tasks to be performed and grouping them into successively larger groupings (activities); or (c) by working “middle out” by identifying intermediate-level activities and decomposing them downward and grouping them upward. In practice, all three approaches are typically used to produce an activity-oriented WBS. Predefined templates for work breakdown structures and work packages, plus examples designed to fit the local situation, make the task of constructing a software WBS much easier than starting without guidance. ©2013 Project Management Institute. Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide Fifth Edition 73
  2. 2. 5 - PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT The PMBOK® Guide distinguishes between organizing a WBS by phase or by major deliverables. Using the technique of embedding the work to produce deliverables in an activity-oriented WBS and specifying the deliverables and acceptance criteria in the work packages, as described in Section 5.4.2.3 of this Software Extension, merges this distinction for software projects and other kinds of activity-oriented projects. 5.4.1 Create WBS: Inputs The inputs in Section 5.4.1 of the PMBOK® Guide are equally applicable for creating an activity-oriented software WBS. 5.4.1.1 Scope Management Plan See Section 5.4.1.1 of the PMBOK® Guide. 5.4.1.2 Project Scope Statement See Section 5.4.1.2 of the PMBOK® Guide. 5.4.1.3 Requirements Documentation See Section 5.4.1.3 of the PMBOK® Guide. 5.4.1.4 Enterprise Environmental Factors See Section 5.4.1.4 of the PMBOK® Guide. 5.4.1.5 Organizational Process Assets See Section 5.4.1.5 of the PMBOK® Guide. 5.4.2 Create WBS: Tools and Techniques The decomposition technique for creating a WBS described in Section 5.4.2 of the PMBOK® Guide is equally applicable for creating an activity-oriented WBS for a software project. Additional considerations are presented in Sections 5.4.2.2, 5.4.2.3, and 5.4.2.4 of this extension. 5.4.2.1 Decomposition See Section 5.4.2.1 of the PMBOK® Guide. 74 ©2013 Project Management Institute. Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide Fifth Edition
  3. 3. 5 - PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT 5 5.4.2.2 Expert Judgment See Section 5.4.2.2 of the PMBOK® Guide. 5.4.2.3 Activity-Oriented WBS An example of an activity-oriented WBS is illustrated in this section of the Software Extension; it is descriptive of an approach to creating a WBS for a software project; it is not intended to be prescriptive. The top level of an activity-oriented WBS for a software project includes the full scope, at a high level, of all the work required to complete the project successfully, as illustrated in Figure 5-3. The top level of an activity-oriented WBS is reflected in, and can provide an input for refining the project scope statement. The subordinate levels can provide an input for refining the product scope statement because the elements of work to produce the product components are embedded in an activity-oriented WBS. The lowest level elements of work for the software construction activity of the WBS produce specific deliverables. The tasks for Activity 3.2 in Figure 5-3 include work to reuse, construct, and buy some software components. For brevity of presentation, the example includes only the subordinate elements of Construct Software. Embedding product scope in an activity-oriented software WBS is depicted in Figure 5-3, which illustrates a partial WBS for developing the software for an automated teller machine; the product components are indicated in bold font. The figure in Section 5.4.2.4 of this Software Extension illustrates further decomposition of the “Construct FINAT” element of the WBS in Figure 5-3. ATM Project 3. Construct Software 4. Verify Software 3.2. Construct FINAT 3.3. Construct MAIND 3.4. Buy COMM ATMSD: Software Drivers FINAT: Financial Transactions MAIND: Maintenance & Diagnostics COMM: Communication Package Analyze and Design LEGEND 2. 5. Validate Software 3.1. Reuse ATMSD 3.5. Integrate and Test ATMSD, FINAT, MAIND, COMM Figure 5-3. Partially Decomposed Activity-Oriented WBS 1. Manage Project 6. Deploy Software ©2013 Project Management Institute. Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide Fifth Edition 75
  4. 4. 5 - PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT The PMBOK® Guide distinguishes between project scope and product scope. The two scopes can be integrated in an activity-oriented WBS for software projects because of the nature of software and the way in which software is developed or modified. As illustrated in Figure 5-3 product structure is embedded in the activity-oriented software WBS. Work packages can be used to document the tasks in a software project WBS. Factors documented in a work package for constructing software components include: • Estimated duration, • Number of personnel by skill level, • Additional resources needed, • Software component or components to be developed or modified, • Acceptance criteria for the software component or components developed or modified, and • Risk factors. Risk factors are potential problems that may inhibit successful completion of the software component or components using the allocated effort and additional resources. Other factors that can be included in an activity-oriented work package include predecessor and successor task for the task being documented and work products to be placed under version control. 5.4.2.4 Rolling Wave Elaboration of WBS According to Section 6.2.2.2 of the PMBOK® Guide: rolling wave planning is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a more general level. It is a form of progressive elaboration. Therefore, work can exist at various levels of detail depending on where it is in the project life cycle. Rolling wave planning is a valuable technique for progressively elaborating the work to be accomplished when using an activity-oriented WBS for a predictive life cycle software project, based on the following considerations (the equivalent of rolling wave planning for adaptive life cycle software projects is presented in Section 5.4.2.5 of this Software Extension). Every software project results in a unique product, either new or modified, because replication of existing software is a simple process as compared to the replication of physical artifacts. Most software projects thus require innovation and creative problem solving to satisfy new and evolving needs. For predictive life cycle software projects, an activity-oriented WBS is elaborated in a rolling wave manner as the details of constructing the software product are elaborated with increased understanding of the problem to be solved. Some rolling wave modifications of work to be accomplished using an activity-oriented WBS may be accomplished within the overall scope constraints of schedule, budget, resources, and technology, while other elaborations may require renegotiation of the project scope constraints. 76 ©2013 Project Management Institute. Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide Fifth Edition
  5. 5. 5 - PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT 5 An example of rolling wave elaboration of the WBS for the ATM project (see Figure 5-3) is illustrated in Figure 5-4, where the details of constructing the financial transaction component have been added, perhaps after some prototyping and feasibility analysis once the project was underway. The work package for the financial transaction component in Figure 5-3 (FINAT) is decomposed into work packages shown in Figure 5-4 for the four subordinate software components plus the FINAT integration and test task. Note that the product components are denoted in boldface font. Also, note the decision to reuse existing recorder software from another software product. A work package for a software construction task includes the work needed to accomplish detailed design, coding, unit testing, and integration and testing of the composite software module (e.g., the validator module in Figure 5-4). Rolling wave elaboration of an activity-oriented software WBS is typically accomplished periodically, perhaps monthly, to accommodate increased understanding of the problem to be solved. Rolling-wave elaboration also may be accomplished as circumstances dictate, such as changes to requirements, schedule, budget, resources, or technology. ATM Project 3. Construct Software 4. Verify Software 3.2. Construct FINAT 3.3. Construct MAIND 3.4. Buy COMM 3.2.2. Construct Processor 3.2.3. Reuse Recorder 3.2.4. Construct Terminator ATMSD: Software Drivers FINAT: Financial Transactions MAIND: Maintenance & Diagnostics COMM: Communication Package Analyze and Design LEGEND 1. Manage Project 2. 5. Validate Software 6. Deploy Software 3.1. Reuse ATMSD 3.5. Integrate and Test ATMSD, FINAT, MAIND, COMM 3.2.1. Construct Validator 3.2.5. Integrate & Test Validator, Processor, Recorder, and Terminator Modules Figure 5-4. Rolling Wave Elaboration of Activity-Oriented WBS ©2013 Project Management Institute. Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide Fifth Edition 77
  6. 6. 5 - PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT 5.4.2.5 Rolling Wave Planning for Adaptive Life Cycle Projects The scope of an adaptive life cycle software project can be progressively elaborated in a rolling wave manner, as illustrated in Figure 5-5, which is the equivalent of a rolling wave WBS. The small “boxes” in each quarter (Q1 – Q4) are feature sets at the top level with increments of functionality for the features sets in the subordinate levels. As indicated, the feature sets and increments of functionality are progressively elaborated during planning for subsequent quarters of calendar time. As stated in conjunction with Figure 5-2 of this Software Extension, it may be possible to specify an initial release plan during the planning process for an adaptive software project. In other cases, the release plan may evolve in a rolling wave manner. The elaboration in Figure 5-4 may have been developed initially or as a rolling wave elaboration across the quarters. This form of elaboration and presentation could also be used for a predictive life cycle software project that develops the product in deliverable increments of functionality (called feature sets in Figure 5.5). Feature Set 1 Time Q4 Plan Feature Set 2 Feature Set 3 Feature Set 1 Q4 Plan Q3 Plan Feature Set 2 Feature Set 3 Feature Set 4 Q4 Plan Feature Set 2 Feature Set 3 Figure 5-5. Rolling Wave Elaboration of an Adaptive Life Cycle Software Project Feature Set 1 78 ©2013 Project Management Institute. Software Extension to the PMBOK® Guide Fifth Edition Feature Set 4 Feature Set 1 Feature Set 2 Feature Set 3 Feature Set 4 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 2 Incr. 2 Incr. 2 Incr. 2 Incr. 3 Incr. 3 Incr. 3 Incr. 4 Incr. 4 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 2 Incr. 2 Incr. 2 Incr. 3 Incr. 3 Incr. 3 Incr. 4 Incr. 4 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 2 Incr. 2 Incr. 2 Incr. 3 Incr. 3 Incr. 4 Incr. 1 Incr. 1 Incr. 2 Incr. 2 Incr. 3 Incr. 4 DETAILED PLANNING FOR THE NEXT QUARTER Q1 Q2 Plan Q2 Q3 Q4 Q3 Plan Q2 Plan Q3 Plan Q4 Plan
  7. 7. 5 - PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT 5 5.4.3 Create WBS: Outputs The outputs for creating a WBS in Section 5.4.3 of the PMBOK® Guide are equally applicable outputs from creating an activity-oriented software WBS. 5.4.3.1 Scope Baseline See Section 5.4.3.1 of the PMBOK® Guide. 5.4.3.2 Project Documents Updates See Section 5.4.3.2 of the PMBOK® Guide.

×