Language teaching methodologies


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Language teaching methodologies

  2. 2. OVERVIEW  In this unit we will look at different types of Language Learning Methodologies in the TESOL context.  Generally when an ESL teacher contracts out to an Asian school , State, or Private, the syllabus has already been decided upon by the school principal and is already in place. The ESL teacher has to quickly gather all the information to start participating in teaching the ESL syllabus. Sometimes, his could be the next day after landing in the contracting Asian nation with little, or no preparation.
  3. 3. ORIENTATION PROCEDURES: One of the constants for all ESL teaching positions is that the first lesson in any teaching syllabus is the Orientation class, that is defined by standard procedures, facilitated by the ESL teachers. The opportunity to fully implement the Orientation lesson procedures is more likely when the ESL teacher is in a private school situation and has absolute control of the ESL classroom , These procedures are:  have general hand-out messages on hand that relate to aspects of the Orientation class procedures.  making an attendance register
  4. 4. ATTENDANCEREGISTER In China and Korea attendance registers are usually drawn up with national given names. During orientation the ESL teacher discusses with the students whether or not they would like to adopt English names for the duration of the course, inviting the students to choose an English name for lesson purposes. At the same time, is to circulate a form with a column of male and female English names, a column for the student's native names, and a column for the student's adoptive English name, the ESL Teacher can then enter the English names in the roll register. In some ESL situations students decline to use English names presenting the ESL teacher with the task of learning many foreign names. In this case asking students to wear name tags is not unreasonable.
  5. 5. ORIENTATION  Orientation can then proceed with student introductions by getting the students to introduce themselves by name, city, (country, if a multinational classroom), and the school attend, and how they travel to school each day, e.g. bus, train, bicycle or car.  If the class level is Beginner, a readable handout, or speech prompts written up on the whiteboard, modelled by the ESL teacher, will help students introduce themselves to the rest of the class. The value here is that the ESL teacher learns a little about each student through their response to the roll call, and a little about the student's personal language ability profile, e.g. speech ability, comprehension of what they have been asked to do by the teacher, personal mannerisms, attitude, and deportment (each student is required to stand up before speaking).
  6. 6. ORIENTATION  For the Orientation class the ESL teacher will have acquired a lesson timetable, and will be able to give students general information about the course time frame, how the general coursework syllabus will run, the lesson time table, and any different classroom room locations such as language laboratory and library. The ESL teacher will inform the students of:  Any ESL prerequisites required by students to be enrol in the particular being started  room number and free S-T contact times  teacher phone number, and email address
  7. 7. TEACHERS IN ORIENTATIONS  The ESL/TESOL teacher will issue a mission statement to the students that tell the students of the teacher's requirements of the students during the course. This first part of the mission statement will talk about homework, essays, and project drafts being returned on the due date, and late submission penalties, e.g.10% deduction from final course work mark.  Project drafts (1500 words, UI, and A levels) are prerequisite for the final examination's oral presentation, which will not be permitted if drafts 1st, 2nd and the final draft have not been completed, submitted to the teacher for feedback, and signed off by the teacher. Failure not to fulfil the project prerequisites will result is a course failure. TESOL Teachers
  8. 8. TEACHERS IN ORIENTATIONS  The ESL teacher also informs the students of teacher commitments to the students, which will include the following:  to be on time and prepared for all lessons  to make sure that the lesson material is presented clearly  to listen to, and encourage students who have difficulty with any aspect of the course work or with reading, writing, speaking. comprehension of texts and, or grammar material  to set time aside, and be available for individual T-S tutorials  prompt marking of practice tests,  to give students test feedback  to give students classroom aid on request  to administer practise tests before the end of course final testing  make sure all classroom resources are available to students at all limes  to moderate an solve any student problems that may arise ESL Teachers
  9. 9. DURINGORIENTATION During Orientation the teacher shows the students a weekly time table and explains that a weekly update will be found posted on the students notice board, on display somewhere in the classroom .  The aims and objects of the ESL course are defined for each student level (B,I.A), and the ESL coursework books are discussed. For private schools these are likely to be a classroom text book and a student homework book. The teacher will have a teacher's book with lesson guidelines, tests and answer keys.  Any free time near the end of the Orientation can be used in playing vocabulary games (hangman), or by asking for, and writing up on the whiteboard, vocabulary from the word set used during the orientation, or asking for knowledge about word classes, etc..
  10. 10. LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY  The actual Language Teaching Methodologies for delivering ESL course work are many and various, and are often characterised by an individual ESL teacher's own teaching personality. For the prospective new ESL teacher, good policy would be to discover if they have a particular teaching bias in their personal approach to language teaching, and most beneficial would be to for a new ESL teacher to research each of the most prominent styles of Language Teaching Methodology.
  11. 11. ACC MATERIALS  Australia City College (ACC) has a comprehensive, three part, Language Teaching Methodology teaching unit component to both their ACCTESOL 111, and ACCTESOL 1V, teacher training courses. In either of these ACC TESOL courses trainee ESL teachers learn to contrast different teaching methodologies and elucidate the effects that they have on the student's learning environment.
  12. 12. PUTATIVE AUDIO-LINGUAL LANGUAGE TEACHING METHOD  An example of a Language Teaching Method in use, is the putative Audio-lingual Language Teaching Method, where an ESL teacher predominantly presents lessons that underpin the phonemic, morphological and syntactical elements of English language grammar that are biased towards language modelling, text, and vocabulary drills, where the students are asked to practice language use through repetitions of phrases, whole sentences, pronunciation and intonation drills and choral vocabulary drills, for accuracy of learning.
  13. 13. TEACHING METHODOLOGIES Several other Language Teaching Methodologies are shown in Table 1 taken from the ACC TESOL 1V teacher training course workbook (2004). This comprehensive ACC TESOL 1V unit is in three parts: 1. Part one is a history of Teacher Training Methodologies, that compares and contrasts two common teaching methodologies and evaluates their effectiveness. 2. Part two identifies various communicative teaching strategies, encourages implementation of those communicative teaching strategies in TESOL environments or simulations, and evaluates the strength/weaknesses of effective communicative teaching. 3. Part three identifies and describes the various styles of teaching, identifies the weakness and strengths, of particular styles in relation to the learners in the TESOL context, and identifies the weaknesses of trainee teacher's own teaching style.
  14. 14. In part two TESOL trainee ESL teachers will learn how to evaluate the stages learning acquisition, and use language promoters to stimulate speaking activities in the ESL classroom, and further promotes the use of various given examples of c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t i v i t y t h a t e n c o u r a g e communication. These activities take the form of Pairs Interviews e.g. conducting role play interviews between two students and presenting to the rest of the class, Pairs comparison, e.g. comparing a selection of picture taken from a pictorial resource, and placed in a grid pattern for comparison by the active Picture differences, a self evident activity, etc. there are sections on fluency and communication, as well as Drama and role play In part three teacher trainee will evaluate four teaching styles:  formal authority ~ the teaching is focused on content, the teacher provides and controls the flow of information, the student is expected to receive and internalise the content  demonstrator or personal model ~ teacher centred, with a lot of demonstrations and modelling  facilitator ~ teacher is focused on activities with the emphasis on student learning, student initiative to accomplished given tasks.  Derogatory ~ focused on developing students ability to design and compliment Part Two Part Three
  15. 15. Theses four styles can become nebulous when teaching in the ESL as they tend to overlap style depending on the student body, or the particular teaching format prevalent in the ESL classroom at anyone time. The ESL teacher needs to undertake:  classroom control  organise  be a capable assessor of student performance  be able to prompt a student who is lost for words or chokes up when asked a question, in the classroom  the ESL teacher needs to be able to become integral with student activities or roll play in the classroom, but not in the teacher's position and without being dominant  in certain activities the ESL teacher may only be required to be the student's resource, and not participate in any part or of their activities.  to be tutor  an to be an observer in order to provide feed back on their endeavours These roles are constantly interchanging in the ESL teaching environment and improve with ESL teaching experience.
  16. 16. TEACHING METHODS AND TEACHER & Lear Nerd ROLES Method Teacher Roles Learner Roles Situational Language Teaching environment Context setter Error Corrector Imitator Memoriser Audio-lingualism Language Modeller Drill Leader Pattern Practician Accuracy Enthusiast To dedicated Communicative Language Teaching Needs Analyst Task Designer Improviser Negotiator Total Physical Response Commander Action Monitor Order Taker Performer Community Language Learning Councillor Paraphraser Collaborator Whole Person The Natural Approach Actor Props User Guesser Immerser Suggestopedia Auto-hypnotist Authority Figure Relaxer True-Believer Table 1 ( from ACC TESOL 1V teacher training course work book, 2004
  17. 17. Well, that ends this very brief introductory overview of ACC's TESOL full on Teacher Learning Methodologies unit. I hope that you have enjoyed the journey through this introductory ACC4300-2 Learning unit: Teacher Training Methodologies overview of the topic, and I will see in the next unit, ACC4300-3 Learning unit Teacher training. Bye for now!