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### Individual slides_peigen

1. 1. Vygotsky’ Theory<br />Culture<br />Social Interaction <br />Zone of Proximal Development<br />Scaffolding<br />More Knowledgeable Other<br />Language<br />
2. 2. Issue 5<br />Desmond is struggling to grasp Mathematical concepts as his Math teacher gives formulae and expects the students to solve the Math problems. No scaffolding given.<br />
3. 3. Solution 1<br /> Teacher should provide examples to illustrate different scenarios where the formula could be used.<br />
4. 4. Justification<br />With reference to Vygotsky’s instructional principles, culturally authentic learning activities which are in context to concepts taught should be embedded during lessons. <br />Culture provides the context in which development occurs. <br />
5. 5. Example<br />When the teacher is reviewing the formula for percentage, he can present authentic examples by handing out brochures or newspaper advertisements where electronic gadgets are on sale.<br />Desmond and his classmates are expected to work on a real problem to find the discount given in percentage. <br />Since electronic gadgets are part of our culture and are familiar to the students, they can better understand why the formula is useful and how it can be applied to word problems of different situations<br />.<br />
6. 6. Solution 2<br /> Teacher can involve students in social interactions.<br />
7. 7. Justification<br />Based on the principles of cognitive learning theory, learning is enhanced in a social environment.<br />Vygotsky also views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies. He suggests that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop with help from more skilful peers - within the zone of <br />proximal development.<br />
8. 8. Example<br />Desmond and his classmates can be placed into groups of three where each group receives three different problems to solve. The higher ability learner in the group to explain the problem, since it requires an advance level of development. <br />When placed in groups, students will be actively involved in interacting as they explained their thinking to their peers. <br />The teacher can facilitate effective collaborative learning by walking around the classroom, providing help and encouragement to those groups facing difficulties.<br />.<br />
9. 9. Solution 3<br />Teacher needs to provide scaffolding.<br />
10. 10. Justification<br />Vygotsky believes that children need instructional assistance to complete tasks they cannot complete independently.<br />Effective scaffolding adjusts instructional requirements to learners' capabilities and levels of performance (Puntambekar & Hubscher, 2005). <br /> <br />
11. 11. Justification<br />With effective scaffolding from the teacher, Desmond will receive support to enhance his development.<br />The concept of the More Knowledgeable Other relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner.<br />
12. 12. Example<br />As for Desmond who finds it hard to use the formula to solve the problem, the teacher can simplify the task by explaining to him the rationale of first finding the fraction is to make a decimal then a percent.<br />The teacher should step in when Desmond needs more help, once he is able to comprehend better and less help is required, the teacher can step back and allow him to progress on his own. <br />.<br />
13. 13. Solution 4<br /> Teacher needs to identify Desmond’s zone of proximal development.<br />
14. 14. Justification<br />With reference to Vygotsky(1978), the Zone of Proximal Development is the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given - allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own - developing higher mental functions. <br /> <br />By getting Desmond to identify the fraction first, the teacher adapted his instruction to find the zone for this task, and, as a result, promoted Desmond's development.<br /> <br />
15. 15. Issue 6<br />The teacher only assesses Desmond and his classmates at the end of the lesson.<br />
16. 16. Solution <br /> The teacher can assess Desmond's understanding by observing and listening to his responses (questioning) to questions asked during different parts of the lesson and then adapts the learning activities to his developmental level.<br />
17. 17. Justification<br />According to Vygotsky encouraging children to talk about their experiences promotes both learning and development. Languages gives us a means for regulating and reflecting our own thinking (J. P & Byrnes, 2001; Winsler & Naglieri, 2003)<br /> <br />When Desmond uses language to describe his understanding, he will articulate his understanding.<br /> <br /> <br />
18. 18. Justification<br />According to Constructivist Learning Theory, John Dewey emphasises the importance of questioning and feedback to assess students' understanding so that they can advance to new stages in their growth and development (Herrick, 1996).<br /> <br />It is important to ask appropriate questions at different parts of the lesson instead of only at the end of it because all learners construct their own knowledge so their understanding will vary. It also helps learners to think critically over the period of the lesson. <br /> <br />
19. 19. Justification<br />When the teacher asks Desmond at whichever point he thinks important, he will be able to check whether his understanding is incomplete or inaccurate. Then, he can provide feedback on Desmond's understand thus making his learning a more meaningful one.<br /> <br />If the teacher only asks him at the end of the lesson, it may not be an accurate overall  assessment of the lesson.<br /> <br />.<br />
20. 20. References<br />Educational PsychologyWindows on Classrooms, 7th EditionPaul Eggen& Don Kauchak<br />Picture background credits to:<br /> http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_qLAIskTQXUc/TI17sjKyxI/AAAAAAADCk/--dfQInwhWk/s1600/happy_children.jpg<br />