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218
JELTII
Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration
Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019
JELTII
Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration
Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019
An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving
Motivation for English Students
Muhammad Azizul Chakim1
, Haris Dibdyaningsih2
STKIP Al Hikmah
Surabaya, Indonesia
azizchakim17@gmail.com1
Abstract: Speaking is defined as a reflection of the students’ ability to
communicate in English. Compared to the other language skills,
speaking is considered to be more difficult because it occurs in real
time, and when we speak we cannot edit and revise what we want to
say, as we can do in writing. Speaking skill was considered as a
difficult skill to be maintained; therefore, an extensive practice is
required to perform. However, students tend to be silent in the
classroom since they lack of self-confidence. Students need more
practice, so that they could learn to express their feeling, thought, idea,
emotion and intention, whereas, teachers should create a good
situation in teaching learning process in the classroom. Gallery walk is
one of the most learner centered activities which provides good
situation in teaching learning process. It is a presentation method in
which individual learners or groups displayed their products, and they
walked around the room viewing others’ work. The purpose of this
paper is to describe gallery walk technique to teach speaking in Senior
High School. This technique seems to be suitable to provide fresh
atmosphere in teaching English especially in Speaking.
Keywords: Teaching Speaking, Gallery Walk
.
INTRODUCTION
It becomes increasingly difficult to ignore the typical speech situation involving
a speaker, a hearer, and an utterance by the speaker. There are many kinds of acts
associated with the speaker’s utterance. The speaker has performed acts within the class
First Received:
24 April 2019
Revised:
27 June 2019
Accepted:
28 June 2019
Published:
15 July 2019
219
Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih
An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students
which includes making statements, asking questions, issuing commands, giving report,
greeting, and warning. That is delivered by the teacher or the students in the class, that
is speech acts. The utterance can be used to perform the act of ending your employment
(Yule, 1996). So, we can define a speech act is the action that is performed by a speaker
with an utterance (Yule, 2010).
Moreover, in producing an utterance that consist of three which related with
acts. There are a locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary act. Hence, this paper
will examine the way in which the illocutionary act of the speaker. Searle (1999)
categorized five different types of illocutionary acts; assertive, directive, commissive,
expressive, and declarative. Declarative has a principle that words change the world,
assertive is used to represent the world as the speaker believes it is (Yule, 1996),
expressive that speaker wants to show what he/she feels about particular situations,
directive that the speaker wants to get someone to do something, commissive express
promises, threats, refusals, or pledges (Basra, S. M., and Thoyyibah, L., 2017).
The objectives of this paper are to determine the teacher’s speech act in giving
motivation and to analyse the teacher’s speech act in giving motivation in illocutionary
act.
LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Speech Act
According to Austin (1962), he stated that sometimes, when people utter an
utterance, it is not always to describe something, whereas by uttering utterances, they do
something. Speech act is the utterance which tend to perform the action. We use the
term of speech act to describe actions such as “requesting”, “commanding”,
“questioning” or “informing”. So, we can say that speech act is a speech act as the
action performed by a speaker with an utterance (Yule, 2010).
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JELTII
Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration
Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019
Based on Grundy (2008), he stated that there are three categories or dimensions
of speech acts. So, when the people say something, they can involve in the three
dimensions which are locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and perlocutionary acts.
A. Locutionary Acts
Locutionary acts are the basic utterance that uttered by people in the right
grammar and understandable vocabulary (Basra, S. M., and Thoyyibah, L., 2017). In
locutionary act, if you feel difficulty to produce the sounds correctly and words to create
a meaningful utterance in a language (for example, because it’s foreign or you’re
tongue-tied), then you might fail to produce a locutionary act. Producing ‘Aha mokofa’,
of course in English will not normally count as a locutionary act, whereas [1] will.
[1] I’ve just made some coffee.
So, for the foreign who have tongue-tied that they still cannot produce the
sound in English normally and then they might fail to produce a locutionary act.
Therefore, in locutionary act, we don’t just produce well-formed utterances with no
purpose, but we form an utterance with some kind of function in mind.
Moreover, locutionary acts include phonetic acts, phatic acts, and rhetic acts.
Phonetic acts are acts of pronouncing sounds, phatic acts are acts of uttering words or
sentences in accordance with the phonological and syntactic rules of the language to
which they belong and rhetic acts are acts of uttering a sentence with sense and more or
less definite reference (Oishi, 2006). And based on Yule (1996), he said that both the
speaker and the hearer share the same language, otherwise there will be
misunderstanding or the meaning intended will not be understood by the hearer.
b. Illocutionary Acts
According to Yule (1996), he stated that the term “illocutionary acts” is often
closely associated with the term speech act. So, when the people have communication in
saying an utterance, it means that they are performing an utterance. Based on Searle
(1999), he classified five different types of illocutionary acts. They are assertive,
221
Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih
An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students
directive, commissive, expressive and declarative acts. Firstly, assertive act is used to
represent the world as the speaker believe it is. These are the examples of speech acts
with assertive act.
[1] The earth is flat
[2] Roses smell good
(Yule, 1996)
Mostly, the speaker who expresses an assertive act is used to inform what the
speaker believes to be the case or not the case. Secondly, directive act is used to
perform speech acts that the speaker wants to get someone else to do something (Yule,
1996), for example like giving commands and orders.
[3] Go away!
[4] Don’t touch that!
Based on those two examples above that the speaker wants to get someone to
express what the speaker wants. The speaker commands, orders, requests and
suggestions someone. Even, it can be positive or negative statements. It depends on the
speaker’s intention and utterance. So, in using a directive act, the speaker attempts to
make the world fit the words (via the hearer). Thirdly, commissive is used to commit
themselves to some future action, they express what the speaker intends. They can be
performed by the speaker alone or the speaker as a member of a group such as
promises, threats, refusals, pledges (Yule, 1996). For example:
[5] I’ll be back.
[6] I’m going to get it right next time.
[7] I promise to buy you ice cream after school.
Hence, when the speaker uses a commissive act, they act to make the world fit
the words (via the speaker). [7] It has something to do with showing speaker’s
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Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration
Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019
intention in the future. So, the speaker shows the speaker’s intention to commit the
hearer. Fourthly, expressive is used to show what he/she feels about particular
situations. Usually, the speaker expresses psychological state such as likes and dislikes,
joy, sorrow, pain, and many else. For example:
[8] a. I’m really sorry!
b. Congratulations!
c. Oh, yes, great, mmmm, ssahh!
From the example above, they can be caused by something the speaker’s
experience. So, the speaker that express the expression based on the speaker feels.
Finally, declarative is used to change the world via the utterance. The speaker should
have a special institutional role, in specific context and in order to perform a
declaration appropriately (Yule, 1996). It means that speech act uttered by the speaker
changes the world or the situation. For example:
[9] Police officer: You are under-arrest!
(Basra, M. S., and Thoyyibah, L., 2017)
The example above that when the police officer says the utterance [9] to person
who doing a crime. It should be changing the situation of the criminal. We can know
the status of a free man and after the person doing the crime is put in jail. Moreover, if
the utterance [9] is uttered by the teacher to the student, it must be the utterance doesn’t
make any difference or change the status of the student because the ones who have the
rights to say the utterance [9] are only police officers. So, it depends the situation also.
According to Yule (1999), he represented a table of the five speech acts classification
based on the theory of Searle.
Speech act type Direction of fit S = Speaker; X = Situation
Declarative Words change the world S causes X
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Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih
An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students
Assertive Make words fit the world S believes X
Expressive Make words fit the world S feels X
Directive Make the world fit words S wants X
Commisive Make the world fit words S intends X
Table 1. Speech Act Classification (Yule, 1999)
c. Perlocutionary Act
According to Yule (1996), he stated that who pointed out that perlocutionary
acts bring the-so-called perlocutionary effect. This is the example of illustrating the
situation when the feeling speaker is sad of being left out, he says “I am useless” to a
friend. By hearing the utterance, the hearer is affected and feel sorry. So, feeling sorry is
the effect of the perlocutionary acts of the utterance “I am useless”. Actually, the
affecting behavior does not necessarily mean getting the hearer to do physical
movements, it also deals with the change of thought or habit of the hearer. The people
(the speakers) that perform perlocutionary acts by expecting to affect other people’s
behavior (the hearer).
d. Motivational Speech
Giving motivation is very important to do to someone who get under pressure or
low motivation. In teaching process, it also needed to increase the student’s enthusiasm
to reach their dream or their want. Basically, motivation is a way of creating high level
of enthusiasm to reach organizational goal and this situation is accommodated by
satisfying some individual employee’s need or demands (Haque, M. F., Haque, M. A.,
and Islam, M. S., 2014).
According to Ouchi, W. G. (1987), he explained that the importance of
motivation as related to productivity. Improving productivity is one big challenge that
engages the attention of employers. The concept relates to the work context specifically
and includes the influence on work behavior of both environmental forces and those
inherent in the person. The fact that motivation is the most important factor for
productivity and quality is not a new discovery.
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Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration
Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019
Moreover, giving motivation is very important for the students and also the
teacher itself, it used to know and understand why people behave differently at
workplace and how to manipulate their behavior. So, they exert their best efforts to
achieve organizational goal or their dream. As we know, an individual performance is
very much connected with the productivity or output of the organization. So, the
motivation is one of the vital factors for development of an organization. It can change
the profit figure of the organization such as its improving productivity.
METHODOLOGY
This study was classroom action research (CAR) study. Burns (2010) states that
action research is related to the idea of reflective practice and the teacher as a researcher.
It involves taking a self-reflective, critical, and systematic approach to exploring our
own teaching context. It also enables teachers to investigate their classrooms such as
their method of teaching, students’ learning, assessment used, etc. intended to improve
their teaching and learning process.
This study aimed to improve students’ speaking skill through gallery walk
technique. The researcher observed how the teacher implemented the technique. Valid
and reliable speaking test was conducted to measure the improvement of the students
speaking skill. Moreover, this study was conducted at one of the state school on Kalasan,
Sleman, Yogyakarta. The participants of the research are 32 students in grade X which
consisted of 10 male and 12 female students. This study was conducted into two cycles;
each cycle consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection. In planning, the
teacher prepared the materials, made lesson plan, designed the steps in doing research,
prepared list of students ‘names, determines teaching aids, prepared classroom
observation, and determined the rubric to assess students’ speaking skill. In action, the
plan of classroom action research was implemented; the teacher committed to follow the
plan, however the teacher still taught naturally to get accurate information. In observing,
camera was used to record so that the whole process could be observed. Finally,
reflection would be conducted whether the technique had fulfilled the aim of the
research or not.
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Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih
An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This section shows the findings and their interpretation, organized in terms of the
sequence based on the interview and recording in Intermediate English class. The class
is Physics students about five students. The teacher delivers the material in front of them
closely like a private class.
1. Classification of Speech Acts Used by the Teacher in Giving Motivation to the
Students
Based on the interview that have recorded that the teacher when giving
motivation to the students in the class is spontaneously and depend on the students. So,
from the interviewed that the teacher uttered motivation in many terms of illocutionary
acts. So, the result of the interview and recording will make classification of
illocutionary acts.
8; 23%
14; 40%
7; 20%
1; 3%
5; 14%
Speech Act Classification
Assertive Directive Commissive Expressive Declarative
Diagram 1. Speech Act Classification
226
JELTII
Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration
Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019
A. Assertive (23%)
The teacher when teaching Intermediate English class, she told them about the
review of the whole of meeting. Moreover, in teaching process she delivered some
utterances that related with giving motivation to the students. From the result that the
teacher uttered the statement to the students to deliver her material. Based on the theory,
this act used to state what speaker believes to be the case or not the case (Yule, 1996).
So, this act is often to use to deliver the statement or the material in the class.
Usually, the teacher used it to give some statements it can be comment or
suggestion to the students. The students when the teacher is giving motivation, they pay
attention to the teacher and listen carefully. So, the teacher almost used it in the whole
class.
B. Directive (40%)
Based on the result, directive act is the most useful in teaching Intermediate
English. She always giving motivation to the students through directive act. She used it
because the students need to give the motivation and they still have a low motivation to
study English. So, start from opening the class until the end of the class, she used it to
deliver some motivation to the students.
Based on the theory, directive act is used to perform speech acts that the speaker
wants to get someone else to do something (Yule, 1996). Therefore, the teacher often
uses it to give motivation to students. Usually, the teacher used it because the students
do something impolite and mistakes. So, the teacher give a motivation to don’t do that
again directly.
C. Commissive (20%)
Based on the result, the teacher also used commissive act when teaching in the
class. She used it is about 20% in giving motivation to English students. When the
teacher deliver some questions to the students, she always makes a good intention to
improve their skill. The teacher offered them to study abut self-assess program that will
227
Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih
An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students
be held in the next semester. So, the teacher hopes that they will struggle to increase
their knowledge and skill in teaching using English.
Based on the theory, they can be performed by the speaker alone or the speaker as
a member of a group such as promises, threats, refusals, pledges (Yule, 1996). So, the
teacher must behave a good intention to improve student’s ability in English. During the
teacher teaching in the class and do this act, the students will have a good perspective.
Because, they want to improve their skill in English.
D. Expressive (3%)
Based on the result, the teacher rarely to use this act, because this act only used to
expresses psychological state such as likes and dislikes, joy, sorrow, pain, and many
else (Yule, 1996). So, the teacher uttered expressive only once in that meeting. The
teacher said:
Ari, Congratulations!
The teacher only said once for the whole of class. The teacher said like that
because she felt about particular situations that happy. So, the teacher appreciate him to
get more spirit to study English.
E. Declarative (14%)
The teacher when teaching in the class, she also used declarative act when uttered
the sentences. The teacher used it is about five times to the students. The teacher uttered
this act because the teacher want
Based on the theory that the speaker should have a special institutional role, in
specific context and in order to perform a declaration appropriately (Yule, 1996). So, it
means that speech act uttered by the speaker changes the world or the situation. For
example:
You are a teacher!
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Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration
Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019
Therefore, the students when the teacher said like that, they want to be a teacher.
The utterance will change their world that before they are a students and then want to be
a teacher. But, the teacher uttered this act is depend on the situation.
2. The Teacher’s Reasons of Using Directive in Illocutionary Act Dominantly
Based on the interview with the teacher, she mostly used the directive act while
teaching Intermediate English. Below is the argument she pointed out related to her act
in using directive acts while giving motivation to the students.
“the reason why I used directive acts mostly in my teaching because I want to my
students to talk more. I give them chance to speak up regularly. They can speak
English when the teacher asks something to them. I just want my students to talk and
express their opinion, because they wanna be a teacher. so, they have to able speak
and teach in English. So, in my teaching I use communicative language teaching
(CLT), it means that I have to give them the chance to speak as much as they need.”
CONCLUSION
Based on the findings and discussion, five classifications of speech acts are found
from the recording and interview the teacher directly. The total of utterances in giving
motivation that uttered by the teacher in one meeting of teaching and learning is 35
utterances. Five classifications have different portions, with directive acts are the
dominant one, taking over 40% of the utterances. The second dominant classification is
assertive and commissive acts for 23% and 20%. The declarative and expressive have
small portions, namely 14% and 3%, respectively. Moreover, the teacher argued that her
reasons of using more directive act are only to get students to talk more and to carry out
the principle of communicative language teaching as what she believes.
REFERENCES
Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard
University Press.
Basra, S. M. and Thoyyibah, L. (2017). A Speech Act Analysis of Teacher Talk in an
EFL Classroom. International Journal of Education, volume 10 (1), pp. 73-81.
229
Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih
An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students
Grundy, P. (2008). Doing pragmatics (3rd
) edition. London: Hodder Education.
Haque, M. F., Haque, M. A., and Islam, M. S. (2014). Motivational Theories – A
Critical Analysis. ASA University Review, January-June, volume 8 (1), pp. 62-68.
Leech, G. N. (1983). Principles of Pragmatics. Longman: New York.
McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Cambridge
University Press. Pp. 118- 126
Oishi, E. (2006). Austin’s Speech Act Theory and the Speech Situation. Esercizi
Filosofici 1, pp. 1-14.
Ouchi, W. (1987). Management in action, Theory Z, is it the key to the motivation? In
W. Ouchi, Fundamentals of Managements (6th
ed.). Homewood Juinpis: Business
Publication Inc.
Searle, J. R. (1999). Mind, Language and society: Philosophy in the real world.
Phoenix: Guernsey Press Co.
Thomas, J. (1995). Meaning in Interaction. Longman. New York.
Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford University Press. New York.
Yule, G. (2010). The Study of Language: Fourth Edition. Cambridge University Press.
New York.

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An Analysis Of Teacher Speech Act In Giving Motivation For English Students

  • 1. 218 JELTII Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019 JELTII Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019 An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students Muhammad Azizul Chakim1 , Haris Dibdyaningsih2 STKIP Al Hikmah Surabaya, Indonesia azizchakim17@gmail.com1 Abstract: Speaking is defined as a reflection of the students’ ability to communicate in English. Compared to the other language skills, speaking is considered to be more difficult because it occurs in real time, and when we speak we cannot edit and revise what we want to say, as we can do in writing. Speaking skill was considered as a difficult skill to be maintained; therefore, an extensive practice is required to perform. However, students tend to be silent in the classroom since they lack of self-confidence. Students need more practice, so that they could learn to express their feeling, thought, idea, emotion and intention, whereas, teachers should create a good situation in teaching learning process in the classroom. Gallery walk is one of the most learner centered activities which provides good situation in teaching learning process. It is a presentation method in which individual learners or groups displayed their products, and they walked around the room viewing others’ work. The purpose of this paper is to describe gallery walk technique to teach speaking in Senior High School. This technique seems to be suitable to provide fresh atmosphere in teaching English especially in Speaking. Keywords: Teaching Speaking, Gallery Walk . INTRODUCTION It becomes increasingly difficult to ignore the typical speech situation involving a speaker, a hearer, and an utterance by the speaker. There are many kinds of acts associated with the speaker’s utterance. The speaker has performed acts within the class First Received: 24 April 2019 Revised: 27 June 2019 Accepted: 28 June 2019 Published: 15 July 2019
  • 2. 219 Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students which includes making statements, asking questions, issuing commands, giving report, greeting, and warning. That is delivered by the teacher or the students in the class, that is speech acts. The utterance can be used to perform the act of ending your employment (Yule, 1996). So, we can define a speech act is the action that is performed by a speaker with an utterance (Yule, 2010). Moreover, in producing an utterance that consist of three which related with acts. There are a locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary act. Hence, this paper will examine the way in which the illocutionary act of the speaker. Searle (1999) categorized five different types of illocutionary acts; assertive, directive, commissive, expressive, and declarative. Declarative has a principle that words change the world, assertive is used to represent the world as the speaker believes it is (Yule, 1996), expressive that speaker wants to show what he/she feels about particular situations, directive that the speaker wants to get someone to do something, commissive express promises, threats, refusals, or pledges (Basra, S. M., and Thoyyibah, L., 2017). The objectives of this paper are to determine the teacher’s speech act in giving motivation and to analyse the teacher’s speech act in giving motivation in illocutionary act. LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Speech Act According to Austin (1962), he stated that sometimes, when people utter an utterance, it is not always to describe something, whereas by uttering utterances, they do something. Speech act is the utterance which tend to perform the action. We use the term of speech act to describe actions such as “requesting”, “commanding”, “questioning” or “informing”. So, we can say that speech act is a speech act as the action performed by a speaker with an utterance (Yule, 2010).
  • 3. 220 JELTII Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019 Based on Grundy (2008), he stated that there are three categories or dimensions of speech acts. So, when the people say something, they can involve in the three dimensions which are locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and perlocutionary acts. A. Locutionary Acts Locutionary acts are the basic utterance that uttered by people in the right grammar and understandable vocabulary (Basra, S. M., and Thoyyibah, L., 2017). In locutionary act, if you feel difficulty to produce the sounds correctly and words to create a meaningful utterance in a language (for example, because it’s foreign or you’re tongue-tied), then you might fail to produce a locutionary act. Producing ‘Aha mokofa’, of course in English will not normally count as a locutionary act, whereas [1] will. [1] I’ve just made some coffee. So, for the foreign who have tongue-tied that they still cannot produce the sound in English normally and then they might fail to produce a locutionary act. Therefore, in locutionary act, we don’t just produce well-formed utterances with no purpose, but we form an utterance with some kind of function in mind. Moreover, locutionary acts include phonetic acts, phatic acts, and rhetic acts. Phonetic acts are acts of pronouncing sounds, phatic acts are acts of uttering words or sentences in accordance with the phonological and syntactic rules of the language to which they belong and rhetic acts are acts of uttering a sentence with sense and more or less definite reference (Oishi, 2006). And based on Yule (1996), he said that both the speaker and the hearer share the same language, otherwise there will be misunderstanding or the meaning intended will not be understood by the hearer. b. Illocutionary Acts According to Yule (1996), he stated that the term “illocutionary acts” is often closely associated with the term speech act. So, when the people have communication in saying an utterance, it means that they are performing an utterance. Based on Searle (1999), he classified five different types of illocutionary acts. They are assertive,
  • 4. 221 Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students directive, commissive, expressive and declarative acts. Firstly, assertive act is used to represent the world as the speaker believe it is. These are the examples of speech acts with assertive act. [1] The earth is flat [2] Roses smell good (Yule, 1996) Mostly, the speaker who expresses an assertive act is used to inform what the speaker believes to be the case or not the case. Secondly, directive act is used to perform speech acts that the speaker wants to get someone else to do something (Yule, 1996), for example like giving commands and orders. [3] Go away! [4] Don’t touch that! Based on those two examples above that the speaker wants to get someone to express what the speaker wants. The speaker commands, orders, requests and suggestions someone. Even, it can be positive or negative statements. It depends on the speaker’s intention and utterance. So, in using a directive act, the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). Thirdly, commissive is used to commit themselves to some future action, they express what the speaker intends. They can be performed by the speaker alone or the speaker as a member of a group such as promises, threats, refusals, pledges (Yule, 1996). For example: [5] I’ll be back. [6] I’m going to get it right next time. [7] I promise to buy you ice cream after school. Hence, when the speaker uses a commissive act, they act to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). [7] It has something to do with showing speaker’s
  • 5. 222 JELTII Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019 intention in the future. So, the speaker shows the speaker’s intention to commit the hearer. Fourthly, expressive is used to show what he/she feels about particular situations. Usually, the speaker expresses psychological state such as likes and dislikes, joy, sorrow, pain, and many else. For example: [8] a. I’m really sorry! b. Congratulations! c. Oh, yes, great, mmmm, ssahh! From the example above, they can be caused by something the speaker’s experience. So, the speaker that express the expression based on the speaker feels. Finally, declarative is used to change the world via the utterance. The speaker should have a special institutional role, in specific context and in order to perform a declaration appropriately (Yule, 1996). It means that speech act uttered by the speaker changes the world or the situation. For example: [9] Police officer: You are under-arrest! (Basra, M. S., and Thoyyibah, L., 2017) The example above that when the police officer says the utterance [9] to person who doing a crime. It should be changing the situation of the criminal. We can know the status of a free man and after the person doing the crime is put in jail. Moreover, if the utterance [9] is uttered by the teacher to the student, it must be the utterance doesn’t make any difference or change the status of the student because the ones who have the rights to say the utterance [9] are only police officers. So, it depends the situation also. According to Yule (1999), he represented a table of the five speech acts classification based on the theory of Searle. Speech act type Direction of fit S = Speaker; X = Situation Declarative Words change the world S causes X
  • 6. 223 Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students Assertive Make words fit the world S believes X Expressive Make words fit the world S feels X Directive Make the world fit words S wants X Commisive Make the world fit words S intends X Table 1. Speech Act Classification (Yule, 1999) c. Perlocutionary Act According to Yule (1996), he stated that who pointed out that perlocutionary acts bring the-so-called perlocutionary effect. This is the example of illustrating the situation when the feeling speaker is sad of being left out, he says “I am useless” to a friend. By hearing the utterance, the hearer is affected and feel sorry. So, feeling sorry is the effect of the perlocutionary acts of the utterance “I am useless”. Actually, the affecting behavior does not necessarily mean getting the hearer to do physical movements, it also deals with the change of thought or habit of the hearer. The people (the speakers) that perform perlocutionary acts by expecting to affect other people’s behavior (the hearer). d. Motivational Speech Giving motivation is very important to do to someone who get under pressure or low motivation. In teaching process, it also needed to increase the student’s enthusiasm to reach their dream or their want. Basically, motivation is a way of creating high level of enthusiasm to reach organizational goal and this situation is accommodated by satisfying some individual employee’s need or demands (Haque, M. F., Haque, M. A., and Islam, M. S., 2014). According to Ouchi, W. G. (1987), he explained that the importance of motivation as related to productivity. Improving productivity is one big challenge that engages the attention of employers. The concept relates to the work context specifically and includes the influence on work behavior of both environmental forces and those inherent in the person. The fact that motivation is the most important factor for productivity and quality is not a new discovery.
  • 7. 224 JELTII Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019 Moreover, giving motivation is very important for the students and also the teacher itself, it used to know and understand why people behave differently at workplace and how to manipulate their behavior. So, they exert their best efforts to achieve organizational goal or their dream. As we know, an individual performance is very much connected with the productivity or output of the organization. So, the motivation is one of the vital factors for development of an organization. It can change the profit figure of the organization such as its improving productivity. METHODOLOGY This study was classroom action research (CAR) study. Burns (2010) states that action research is related to the idea of reflective practice and the teacher as a researcher. It involves taking a self-reflective, critical, and systematic approach to exploring our own teaching context. It also enables teachers to investigate their classrooms such as their method of teaching, students’ learning, assessment used, etc. intended to improve their teaching and learning process. This study aimed to improve students’ speaking skill through gallery walk technique. The researcher observed how the teacher implemented the technique. Valid and reliable speaking test was conducted to measure the improvement of the students speaking skill. Moreover, this study was conducted at one of the state school on Kalasan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The participants of the research are 32 students in grade X which consisted of 10 male and 12 female students. This study was conducted into two cycles; each cycle consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection. In planning, the teacher prepared the materials, made lesson plan, designed the steps in doing research, prepared list of students ‘names, determines teaching aids, prepared classroom observation, and determined the rubric to assess students’ speaking skill. In action, the plan of classroom action research was implemented; the teacher committed to follow the plan, however the teacher still taught naturally to get accurate information. In observing, camera was used to record so that the whole process could be observed. Finally, reflection would be conducted whether the technique had fulfilled the aim of the research or not.
  • 8. 225 Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION This section shows the findings and their interpretation, organized in terms of the sequence based on the interview and recording in Intermediate English class. The class is Physics students about five students. The teacher delivers the material in front of them closely like a private class. 1. Classification of Speech Acts Used by the Teacher in Giving Motivation to the Students Based on the interview that have recorded that the teacher when giving motivation to the students in the class is spontaneously and depend on the students. So, from the interviewed that the teacher uttered motivation in many terms of illocutionary acts. So, the result of the interview and recording will make classification of illocutionary acts. 8; 23% 14; 40% 7; 20% 1; 3% 5; 14% Speech Act Classification Assertive Directive Commissive Expressive Declarative Diagram 1. Speech Act Classification
  • 9. 226 JELTII Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019 A. Assertive (23%) The teacher when teaching Intermediate English class, she told them about the review of the whole of meeting. Moreover, in teaching process she delivered some utterances that related with giving motivation to the students. From the result that the teacher uttered the statement to the students to deliver her material. Based on the theory, this act used to state what speaker believes to be the case or not the case (Yule, 1996). So, this act is often to use to deliver the statement or the material in the class. Usually, the teacher used it to give some statements it can be comment or suggestion to the students. The students when the teacher is giving motivation, they pay attention to the teacher and listen carefully. So, the teacher almost used it in the whole class. B. Directive (40%) Based on the result, directive act is the most useful in teaching Intermediate English. She always giving motivation to the students through directive act. She used it because the students need to give the motivation and they still have a low motivation to study English. So, start from opening the class until the end of the class, she used it to deliver some motivation to the students. Based on the theory, directive act is used to perform speech acts that the speaker wants to get someone else to do something (Yule, 1996). Therefore, the teacher often uses it to give motivation to students. Usually, the teacher used it because the students do something impolite and mistakes. So, the teacher give a motivation to don’t do that again directly. C. Commissive (20%) Based on the result, the teacher also used commissive act when teaching in the class. She used it is about 20% in giving motivation to English students. When the teacher deliver some questions to the students, she always makes a good intention to improve their skill. The teacher offered them to study abut self-assess program that will
  • 10. 227 Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students be held in the next semester. So, the teacher hopes that they will struggle to increase their knowledge and skill in teaching using English. Based on the theory, they can be performed by the speaker alone or the speaker as a member of a group such as promises, threats, refusals, pledges (Yule, 1996). So, the teacher must behave a good intention to improve student’s ability in English. During the teacher teaching in the class and do this act, the students will have a good perspective. Because, they want to improve their skill in English. D. Expressive (3%) Based on the result, the teacher rarely to use this act, because this act only used to expresses psychological state such as likes and dislikes, joy, sorrow, pain, and many else (Yule, 1996). So, the teacher uttered expressive only once in that meeting. The teacher said: Ari, Congratulations! The teacher only said once for the whole of class. The teacher said like that because she felt about particular situations that happy. So, the teacher appreciate him to get more spirit to study English. E. Declarative (14%) The teacher when teaching in the class, she also used declarative act when uttered the sentences. The teacher used it is about five times to the students. The teacher uttered this act because the teacher want Based on the theory that the speaker should have a special institutional role, in specific context and in order to perform a declaration appropriately (Yule, 1996). So, it means that speech act uttered by the speaker changes the world or the situation. For example: You are a teacher!
  • 11. 228 JELTII Journal of English Language Teaching and Islamic Integration Vol. 2, No. 2, July 2019 Therefore, the students when the teacher said like that, they want to be a teacher. The utterance will change their world that before they are a students and then want to be a teacher. But, the teacher uttered this act is depend on the situation. 2. The Teacher’s Reasons of Using Directive in Illocutionary Act Dominantly Based on the interview with the teacher, she mostly used the directive act while teaching Intermediate English. Below is the argument she pointed out related to her act in using directive acts while giving motivation to the students. “the reason why I used directive acts mostly in my teaching because I want to my students to talk more. I give them chance to speak up regularly. They can speak English when the teacher asks something to them. I just want my students to talk and express their opinion, because they wanna be a teacher. so, they have to able speak and teach in English. So, in my teaching I use communicative language teaching (CLT), it means that I have to give them the chance to speak as much as they need.” CONCLUSION Based on the findings and discussion, five classifications of speech acts are found from the recording and interview the teacher directly. The total of utterances in giving motivation that uttered by the teacher in one meeting of teaching and learning is 35 utterances. Five classifications have different portions, with directive acts are the dominant one, taking over 40% of the utterances. The second dominant classification is assertive and commissive acts for 23% and 20%. The declarative and expressive have small portions, namely 14% and 3%, respectively. Moreover, the teacher argued that her reasons of using more directive act are only to get students to talk more and to carry out the principle of communicative language teaching as what she believes. REFERENCES Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Basra, S. M. and Thoyyibah, L. (2017). A Speech Act Analysis of Teacher Talk in an EFL Classroom. International Journal of Education, volume 10 (1), pp. 73-81.
  • 12. 229 Azizul Chakim, Haris Dibdyaningsih An Analysis of Teacher Speech Act in Giving Motivation for English Students Grundy, P. (2008). Doing pragmatics (3rd ) edition. London: Hodder Education. Haque, M. F., Haque, M. A., and Islam, M. S. (2014). Motivational Theories – A Critical Analysis. ASA University Review, January-June, volume 8 (1), pp. 62-68. Leech, G. N. (1983). Principles of Pragmatics. Longman: New York. McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 118- 126 Oishi, E. (2006). Austin’s Speech Act Theory and the Speech Situation. Esercizi Filosofici 1, pp. 1-14. Ouchi, W. (1987). Management in action, Theory Z, is it the key to the motivation? In W. Ouchi, Fundamentals of Managements (6th ed.). Homewood Juinpis: Business Publication Inc. Searle, J. R. (1999). Mind, Language and society: Philosophy in the real world. Phoenix: Guernsey Press Co. Thomas, J. (1995). Meaning in Interaction. Longman. New York. Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford University Press. New York. Yule, G. (2010). The Study of Language: Fourth Edition. Cambridge University Press. New York.