Sleep Architecture Follows a Pattern of
REM (Rapid Eye Movement) and
NREM (Non Rapid Eye Movement)
Sleep Throughout a Typical Night in a
Cycle That Repeats Itself About Every 90
•Between awake and falling asleep
•Stage 1 can be considered a transitional stage.
•Onset of sleep
•Becoming disengaged from surroundings
•Breathing and heart rate are regular
•Body temp drops (so sleeping in a cool room is
•Memory consolidation and preservation begins
•Deepest and most restorative sleep
•Blood pressure drops
•Breathing becomes slower
•Muscles are relaxed
•Blood supply to the muscles increases
•Tissue growth and repair occurs
•Energy is restored
•Hormones are released, such as: growth hormone, essential
for growth and muscle development
(25% of night): First occurs about 90 minutes after falling asleep
and recurs about every 90 minutes, getting longer into the night.
•Provides energy to the brain and body
•Supports daytime performance
•Brain is active and dreams occur
•Eyes dart back and forth
•Body becomes immobile and relaxed as muscles are
In addition, levels of the
hormone cortisol dip at
bed time and increase over
the night to promote
alertness in the morning.
When we sleep well, we wake up feeling refreshed
and alert for our daily activities. Sleep affects how
we look, feel and perform on a daily basis, and
can have a major impact on our overall quality of
How Much Sleep Do You Really Need?
Newborns (1-2 months)
Infants (3-11 months)
9-12 hours & 30 minute to 2 hour
naps 4 times a day
Toddlers (1-3 years)
Preschoolers (3-5 years)
School-aged Children (5-12 years)
Consequences From Lack of Sleep
• Increased risk of motor vehicle accidents.
• Increase in body mass index – a greater likelihood
of obesity due to an increased appetite caused by
• Increased risk of diabetes and heart problems.
• Increased risk for psychiatric conditions including
depression and substance abuse.
To Pave the Way to Better
Sleep, Experts Recommend You
Follow These Sleep Tips.
• Establish consistent sleep and wake
schedules, even on weekends
• Create a regular, relaxing bedtime routine such
as reading a book or listening to soothing
music – begin an hour or more before the time
you expect to fall asleep. Your mind can be
trained when it’s time to sleep
• Create a sleep-conducive environment that is
dark, quiet, comfortable and cool
• Use your bedroom only for sleep and sex (keep
"sleep stealers" out of the bedroom – avoid
watching TV, using a computer or texting in
• Exercise regularly during the day, but at least a
few hours before bedtime
• Avoid caffeine close to bedtime. Tobacco and
alcohol should be avoided regardless. Especially
in relation to sleep.
Sleep helps us thrive by contributing to a healthy immune
system, and can balance our appetites by helping to regulate
levels of the hormones ghrelin and leptin, which play a role in
our feelings of hunger and fullness.
So when we are sleep deprived, we may feel the need to eat more, which
can lead to weight gain. The one-third of our lives that we spend
sleeping, for from being “unproductive”, plays a direct role in how
full, energetic and successful the other two-thirds of our lives can be.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
• Disorder in which sleep is briefly and repeatedly
interrupted during sleep.
• Occurs in all age groups and both sexes.
• Increased risk factors include; Small upper airway,
large tongue or tonsils, being overweight, recessed
chin, small jaw, neck 17 inches or greater for men/
16 for women, smoking and alcohol use, being age
40 and older.
Symptoms of OSA
Chronic snoring, sore throat in morning.
Choking or gasping for breath at night.
Headaches upon awakening.
Feeling tired after sleep, not feeling refreshed.
Naps during the day. If so. Are they restful?
Falling asleep while driving
Other Disorders That Affect Sleep
• Central sleep apnea
• Periodic limb movement
• Restless leg syndrome
• Idiopathic hypersomnia
Sleep onset paralysis
If you feel that you suffer from any of these symptoms, or that the quality
of your sleep is poor. You may want to talk to your parents about a
consultation with a doctor who specializes in sleep.
What Is the Definition of Drowsy?
• 1 a: ready to fall asleep
<the pills made her
drowsy> b: inducing or
tending to induce sleep
c: indolent, lethargic
the appearance of
Drowsiness Is Red Alert!
Drowsiness Is the Last Step
Before Falling Asleep, Not
the First. Drowsiness May
Mean You Are Seconds
From a Disaster.
-William Dement M.D.
Before You Drive, Consider Whether
• Sleep deprived or fatigued (6 hours or less triples your
• Suffering from sleep loss (insomnia) , poor quality
sleep, or a sleep debt.
• Driving long distances without proper rest breaks.
• Driving through the night or when you would normally
• Driving alone or on a long, rural, dark or boring road.