Pertussis Overview

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Presentation from the PHS Infection Control Committee on pertussis, its symptoms, and what to do if you catch the bug (presented on 12/9/10).

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Pertussis Overview

  1. 1. Pertussis Pediatric Home ServiceInfection Control Committee December 9, 2010
  2. 2. Mode of Transmission• Bacteria is found in fluids from the mouth and nose.• Bacteria can be spread by coughing, sneezing, or having it on your hands and rubbing your eyes, nose, or mouth.• Greatest risk comes from being within three feet of someone with pertussis for at least 10 hours per week (close contact).
  3. 3. Pertussis in Minnesota• Pertussis is endemic in Minnesota• Occurs year round, peaking in the later part of the year• Annual incidence peaks every 3-5 years• Adults and adolescents are half of all cases nationally• Waning immunity leads to a substantial number of older children and adults
  4. 4. MN Pertussis Statistics1,6001,4001,2001,000 800 600 400 200 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (thru 10-21-10)
  5. 5. Clinical Features• Common incubation period of 7-10 days with a range of 4-21 days• Severe rapid, violent cough• Bursts of coughing resulting in shortness of breath• After a coughing spell, the person breathes in deeply and the breathing pattern often makes a whooping sound followed by the next coughing spell
  6. 6. Treatment• Can be treated with antibiotics• Antibiotic treatment may not cure the symptoms• Will reduce the spread of disease to others• Antibiotics lessen the symptoms if given in the early stage of the illness
  7. 7. Fatal Cases• Pertussis in infants is often severe• Infants are more likely than older children and adults to develop complications – Most common complication is bacterial pneumonia – Rare complications include seizures, inflammation of the brain, and death
  8. 8. Pertussis Vaccination• Two types of pertussis vaccination – DTaP for infants and children – Tdap for adolescents and adults
  9. 9. Vaccination• Infants and children – 5 doses of the DTaP at: • 2, 4, 6 months • 15-18 months • 4-6 years – All doses are needed for maximum protection• Immunity is not permanent
  10. 10. Vaccination (cont’d)• Adolescents – Tdap vaccine at age 11 or 12• Adults 19-64 years of age – One-time Tdap in place of the Td booster every 10 years• Pregnant women – Tdap before pregnancy; otherwise, it is recommended that Tdap be given in the postpartum period before leaving the hospital or birth center• Hospitals and acute ambulatory facilities should provide Tdap for healthcare workers – An interval as short as 2 years from the last Td may be used
  11. 11. Implications for Healthcare Workers• Priority for vaccination should be given to those caring for infants younger than 12 months of age
  12. 12. MN Department of Health• Recommendations for preventing pertussis spread to healthcare workers – Immunization – Surgical masks when in contact with any coughing patient – Wash hands after contact
  13. 13. Additional Precautions• At PHS, employees may be performing close contact procedures (suctioning with possible coughing resulting)• The MN Department of Health recommends the use of eye and face protection, in addition to masks when performing procedures, such as close suctioning for all patients, not just those with pertussis• What to Do After an Exposure to a Patient with Pertussis? – If you were wearing a mask during the exposure, antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended – If you were not wearing a mask and had close face-face contact, preventive antibiotics would be recommended
  14. 14. What to Do After an Exposure to a Patient with Pertussis?• If you were wearing a mask during the exposure, antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended• If you were not wearing a mask and had close face-face contact, preventive antibiotics would be recommended
  15. 15. References• Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, August). Pertussis: Clinical features. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/pertussis/clinical/features.html• Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, August). Pertussis: Outbreaks-questions and answers. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/pertussis/outbreaks-faqs.html• Minnesota Department of Health. (2010, August). Pertussis: school and activities exclusion recommendations. Retrieved from www.health.state.mn.us/immunize• Minnesota Department of Health. (2010, August). Pertussis: Fact sheet for EMS, public safety and first responders. Retrieved from www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/dtopics/infectioncontrol/ps /pertussis.pdf

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