Annotated Bibliography 1
RUNNING HEAD: MOTIVATION FOR STAYING: AN ASSESSMENT OF A SCHOOL VO
Motivation for Staying: an Assessment of a School Volunteer Program
Kawana H. Woodson
Engelberg, T., Skinner, J., & Zakus, D. H. (2006). The commitment of volunteers in communitybased sport:A research review and agenda. Third Sector Review , 12 (2), 81-96.
This paper discusses the idea of commitment and the significant role it plays in the volunteer
labor force by examining non-profit community-based sports organizations in the context of
social and policy changes that affect volunteer's behavior. Commitment frameworks are
identified that increase understanding of how social and policy changes may affect volunteer
commitment. Through the use of prior study comparisons the researcher concludes that the
organizational commitment of volunteers is equivalent to that of paid-employees.
This article is extremely important to my research on volunteer retention because it identifies
various commitment theories. It explains how commitment frameworks impact organizational
commitment. It illustrates the parallel between organizational commitment and volunteer
Finkelstein, M. A. (2008). Predictors of volunteer time: The changing contributions of motive
fulfillment and role identity. Social Behavior and Personality , 36 (10), 1353-1364.
Relationships between functional analysis and role identity theories of volunteerism were
examined in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of hospice volunteers. Questionnaires and
Volunteer Function Surveys were completed at 3 and 12 months of service that indicated how
much time was spent volunteering within the months that preceded the survey. They assessed the
fulfillment of motives for helping and the strength of a volunteer role identity. The results
revealed that motive fulfillment and the amount of time volunteers devoted to hospice changed
At Sandel Elementary it appears that the volunteers with low retention rates have good motives,
but did not have distinguishable volunteer roles. This article supports through research that there
is a positive correlation between motive fulfillment and role identity of volunteers that
encourages volunteer sustainability.
Hager, M. A., & Brudney, J. L. (2004). Volunteer management practices and rentention of
volunteers. Volunteer Management Capacity Study Series , 1-16.
This article reports the findings of a 2003 survey of volunteer management capacity given to
3,000 charities and congregations. It discusses the relationship between nine recommended
practices for volunteer management (1. supervision and communication with volunteers, 2.
liability coverage for volunteers, 3. screening and matching volunteers to jobs, 4. regular
collection of information, 5.regular collection of information on volunteer involvement, 6.
written policies and job descriptions for volunteers, 6. recognition activities, 7. annual
measurement of volunteer impact, 8. training and professional development for volunteers, and
9. training for paid staff on working with volunteer ), other organizational characteristics, and
volunteer retention. Results of the study showed that charities and congregations who have weak
volunteer infrastructures did not have the capacity for proper nurturing of volunteers, thereby
adversely affecting retention. The study gives implications for how to improve organizational
capacity for building effective volunteer programs.
This article was very significant because it builds on some of the earlier research I found in a
Canadian study that revealed the three factors that made volunteers feel more supportive
(organizational infrastructure, appreciation, and training)(Phillips, Little, & Goodwine, 2002).
Information in this article supports my assertion that program structure influences both volunteer
satisfaction and motivation.
Hunstinx, L., & Handy, F. (2009). Where do I belong? Volunteer attachment in a complex
organization. Administration in Social Work , 33 (2), 202-220.
The purpose of this article was to help further the understanding of volunteer retention and
recruitment in complex organizational structures. A study was conducted of the Red Cross
Flanders (Belgium) to see if volunteer attachment was linked a multipurpose and multi-brand
organization, the organization as a whole or a local program branch. It was concluded that
volunteers usually relate better to specific program missions within an organization located in
their communities. Therefore, long-term service to local branches produces allegiance to the
organization as a whole.
I found this to be very interesting because the Richland One Volunteer Program has a similar setup to that of a multi--brand organization. There is one district volunteer program with many
branches that function differently. Prior to reading this article I thought that was horrible because
it displayed a lack of structure that prohibited capacity building. However, after reading this
article I think that if each school is clear on their mission, creates a local volunteer organizational
structure around that mission, appreciates and gives their volunteers the necessary training
needed, sustaining program participants will not be a problem. Over time they will create a sense
of allegiance to the organization as a whole.
Millete, V., & Gagne, M. (2008). Designing volunteers' tasks to maximize motivation,
satisfaction, and performance: The impact of job characteristics on volunteer
engagement. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC , 32, 11-22.
A field study was conducted to determine the impact of job characteristics on volunteer
motivation, satisfaction and intent to quit, and measure volunteer performance using the job
characteristics model (JCM), the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) assessment to
measure volunteer task performance, and volunteer’s task perceptions were measured using
Hackman and Oldham's Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS). 124 out of 230 volunteer questionnaires
were completed. The results showed that job characteristics were related to volunteers'
motivation, satisfaction and performance.
I chose this article because of the methodology of the study. For my evaluation I will need to
collect data on volunteer motivation and satisfaction. In this study they created a scale to
measure motivation based on prosocial behaviors and to measure satisfaction based on Hackman
and Oldham's JDS. It is also very descriptive as to how the data was tabulated and displayed.
Silverberg, K. E., Marshall, E. K., & Ellis, G. D. (2001). Measuring job satisfaction of volunteers
in public parks and recreation. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration , 19 (1),
Job satisfaction is a key component in retention of volunteers. The purpose of this study is to
determine the reliability and validity of inferences made about public parks and recreation
volunteers’ job satisfaction from scores derived from a modified employee job satisfaction scale.
523 Phoenix Parks, Recreation and Library Department volunteers completed the questionnaire
that measured job satisfaction, psychological functions served by volunteering, and the
environment for volunteer work. Results were positive and showed that the job satisfaction scale
was an accurate predictor of volunteer satisfaction. It also revealed that volunteer satisfaction is a
by-product of job setting and psychological functions being met through volunteering.
This article provided more supporting information for how job satisfaction leads to retention of
volunteers. However, I like the methodology used in this study as well. Once again
questionnaires were administered to the volunteers. Job satisfaction was measured using
Spector’s scale which identifies nine components of job satisfaction. Psychological functions
(volunteer function) were measured using the Volunteer Function Inventory. The job satisfaction
data was tested for reliability using Cronbach’s alpha and validity though statistical analysis
from the functionalist theory. The data was reported in charts that were easy to read.