We need to make the project more than the sum of its parts - blue tooth, cellular, mobile, 4G and 5G technologies – bringing together/integrating an array of devices from innovative companies Build a technical infrastructure and create a virtual healthcare system Integrate devices to combine their impact and provide actionable information through communication, data and semantic interoperability and open APIs, all tested in a Living Lab Security – test the integrity of the hardware, software, communication channels, databases etc Governance – processes in place to ensure privacy and best practice Scalability – extend into people’s homes in a phased approach throughout Surrey and, potentially, much further afield
Will combine a variety of technologies and devices into the test bed in new ways
The Future is Cyber-Healthcare
The Future is Cyber-Healthcare
Institute for Communication Systems (ICS)/
5G Innovation Centre
University of Surrey
Guildford, United Kingdom
Apollo 11 Command Module (1965) had
64 kilobytes of memory
operated at 0.043MHz.
An iPhone 5s has a CPU running at speeds
of up to 1.3GHz
and has 512MB to 1GB of memory
Cray-1 (1975) produced 80 million Floating
point operations per second (FLOPS)
10 years later, Cray-2 produced 1.9G FLOPS
An iPhone 5s produces 76.8 GFLOPS – nearly
a thousand times more
Cray-2 used 200-kilowatt power
Source: Nick T., PhoneArena.com, 2014
image source: http://blog.opower.com/
−More memory and more storage
−"Moore's law" over the history of computing, the
number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit
has doubled approximately every two years.
Connectivity and information exchange was
(and is ) the main motivation behind the
Internet; but Content and Services are now
the key elements;
and all started growing rapidly by the
introduction of the World Wide Web (and
linked information and search and discovery
13P. Barnaghi et al., "Digital Technology Adoption in the Smart Built Environment", IET Sector Technical Briefing, The Institution of Engineering and Technology
(IET), I. Borthwick (editor), March 2015.
Sensor devices are becoming widely available
- Programmable devices
- Off-the-shelf gadgets/tools
Internet of Things: The story so far
Wireless Sensor and
, solutions for
efficiency, routing, …
vertical applications, early
concepts and demos, …
More products, more
solutions for control and
Future: Cloud, Big (IoT) Data
Enhanced Cellular/Wireless Com.
for IoT, Real-world operational
use-cases and Industry and B2B
CDMA IS-95, PDC
Connection + Control M2M/IoT
5G –Vertical Applications
Image source: The Brain with David Eagleman, BBC
Speed of light?
The IoT is a dynamic, online and rapidly
Conventional (Big) Data Analytics
IoT Data Analytics
Image sources: ABC Australia and 2dolphins.com
3D Map- Alexandra Institute, Aarhus, Denmark
Extracting city events
Nazli FarajiDavar, Payam Barnaghi, "A Deep Multi-View Learning Framework for City Event Extraction from Twitter Data Streams", submitted to ACM
Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST), Nov. 2015.
− The average person is likely to generate more than one
million gigabytes of health-related data in their lifetime. This is
equivalent to 300 million books.
− Medical data is expected to double every 73 days by 2020.
− 80% of health data is invisible to current systems because it’s
− Less than 50% of medical decisions meet evidence-based
standards. (source: The rand corporation)
22Source: IBM Research
Heterogeneity, multi-modality and volume are
among the key issues.
Often natural language!
We need interoperable and machine-interpretable
Medical/Health decision making
− One in five diagnoses are incorrect or incomplete and nearly
1.5 million medication errors are made in the US every year.
− Medical journals publish new treatments and discoveries
− The amount of medical information available is doubling every
five years and much of this data is unstructured - often in
− 81 percent of physicians report that they spend five hours per
month or less reading journals.
25Source: IBM Research
Medical/Health data in decision making
− Patient histories can give clues.
− Electronic medical record data provide lots of information.
− Current observation and measurement data and fast analysis
of the data can help (combined with other data/medical
− This needs fast/accurate/secure data:
Watson can process the patient data to find
relevant facts about family history, current
medications and other existing conditions.
It can combines this information with current
findings from tests and instruments and then
examines all available data sources to form
hypotheses and test them.
Watson can also incorporate treatment guidelines,
electronic medical record data, doctor's and
nurse's notes, research, clinical studies, journal
articles, and patient information into the data
available for analysis.
Watson can read 40 million documents in 15 seconds.
Technology Integrated Health
Internet of Things testbed for healthcare
The Health Challenge: Dementia
16,801 people with dementia in Surrey – set to rise to 19,000
by 2020 (estimated) - nationally 850,000 - estimated 1m by
2025 (Alzheimer’s Society)
Estimated to cost £26bn p/a in the UK (Alzheimer’s Society):
health and social care (NHS and private) + unpaid care
Devices in the IoT will provide actionable data on agitation,
mood, sleep, appetite, weight loss, anxiety and wandering – all
have a big impact on quality of life and wellbeing
The Health Challenge: Falls
Surrey spends £10m a year on fracture care – with 95% of hip
fractures caused by falls
People with dementia suffer significantly higher fall rates that
cause injury – with falls the most common cause of injury-
related deaths in the over-75s
Devices in the IoT will monitor location, activity and incident,
supporting health/care staff and carers, enabling early
The Health Challenge: Carers
5.4m carers supporting ill, older or disabled family members,
friends and partners in England - expected to rise by 40%
over the next 20 years.
Value of such informal care estimated at £120bn a year – but
carer ‘burnout’ a key reason why loved ones require
admission to a care/nursing home.
Devices in the IoT will support carers in their caring asks –
and support their own health and wellbeing.
Proprietary Cloud/Data Services
Multiple providers/multiple gateway (not ideal)
Connectivity/Device Association Layer
Data Exchange/Interoperability Layer
“Each single data item is important.”
“Relying merely on data from sources that are
unevenly distributed, without considering
background information or social context, can
lead to imbalanced interpretations and
KAT- Knowledge Acquisition Toolkit
F. Ganz, D. Puschmann, P. Barnaghi, F. Carrez, "A Practical Evaluation of Information Processing and Abstraction Techniques for the Internet of
Things", IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 2015.
IoT Test Bed Cloud
External NHS, GP IT systems
Possible links to
Other Test Beds
Data-driven and patient
TIHM Testbed Architecture
Extend into homes – year 1
via two CCG areas, rolling
out across four more CCGs
in year 2
Reach 350 homes – with a
control group of 350 – via
Focus on most effective
product combinations – with
potential for more via an
NE Hants & Farnham
Rest of Surrey
− Great opportunities and many applications;
− Enhanced and (near-) real-time insights;
− Supporting more automated decision making and in-depth
analysis of events and occurrences by combining various
sources of data;
− Providing more and better information to citizens;
− Citizens in control
− Transparency and data management issues (privacy, security,
− Reliability and dependability of the systems
Boundary between human, technology and devices
Cognitive systems era
connected and intelligent systems
Accumulated and connected knowledge?
Image courtesy: IEEE Spectrum
Other challenges and topics that I didn't talk about
Trust, resilience and
Networks, test-beds and
Applications and use-case