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Smart Cities….Smart Future


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Christmas Lecture, The IET Surrey Network, December 2015.

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Smart Cities….Smart Future

  1. 1. Smart Cities….Smart Future 1 Payam Barnaghi Institute for Communication Systems (ICS)/ 5G Innovation Centre University of Surrey Guildford, United Kingdom The IET Surrey Network, December 2015
  2. 2. “A hundred years hence people will be so avid of every moment of life, life will be so full of busy delight, that time-saving inventions will be at a huge premium…” “…It is not because we shall be hurried in nerve-shattering anxiety, but because we shall value at its true worth the refining and restful influence of leisure, that we shall be impatient of the minor tasks of every day….” The March 26, 1906, New Zealand Star : Source:
  3. 3. 3 IBM Mainframe 360, source Wikipedia
  4. 4. Apollo 11 Command Module (1965) had 64 kilobytes of memory operated at 0.043MHz. An iPhone 5s has a CPU running at speeds of up to 1.3GHz and has 512MB to 1GB of memory Cray-1 (1975) produced 80 million Floating point operations per second (FLOPS) 10 years later, Cray-2 produced 1.9G FLOPS An iPhone 5s produces 76.8 GFLOPS – nearly a thousand times more Cray-2 used 200-kilowatt power Source: Nick T.,, 2014 image source:
  5. 5. Computing Power 5 −Smaller size −More Powerful −More memory and more storage −"Moore's law" over the history of computing, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years.
  6. 6. Smaller in size but larger in scale 6
  7. 7. The Internet:A brief history 7 − 1961: Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published the first paper on packet switching theory in July 1961. − 1962: J.C.R. Licklider of MIT discussed his "Galactic Network" concept - a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. − 1968: an RFQ was released by DARPA for the development of one of the key components, the packet switches called Interface Message Processors (IMP's). − The RFQ was won in December 1968 by a group headed by Frank Heart at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN). Source: Internet Society
  8. 8. The Internet:A brief history 8 − 1970: the Network Working Group (NWG) working under S. Crocker finished the initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, called the Network Control Protocol (NCP). − 1972: Bob Kahn organized a large, very successful demonstration of the ARPANET at the International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). − This was the first public demonstration of this new network technology to the public. − 1972: the first "hot" application, electronic mail, was introduced. Source: Internet Society
  9. 9. The old Internet timeline 9Source: Internet Society
  10. 10. Submarine cables 10 Image source: mail online
  11. 11. Fibre optic cables around the world A single fibre can transmit as much as 100 billion bits per second (100 Gbps, about ten thousand times faster than a typical home broadband connection) - A cable can contain hundreds of fibres, a single cable can have enough capacity for the communications of millions of users. Source: Source:
  12. 12. Countries at risk of getting disconnected from the internet Source:
  13. 13. Connectivity and information exchange was (and is ) the main motivation behind the Internet; but Content and Services are now the key elements; and all started growing rapidly by the introduction of the World Wide Web. 14
  14. 14. The World Wide Web 15 Tim Berners-Lee
  15. 15. Early days of the web 16
  16. 16. Search on the Internet/Web in the early days 17
  17. 17. And there came Google! 18 Google says that the web has now 30 trillion unique individual pages;
  18. 18. Source: Intel, 2012
  19. 19. Source:
  20. 20. Source:
  21. 21. 22 AnyPlace AnyTime AnyThing Data Volume Security, Reliability, Trust and Privacy Societal Impacts, Economic Values and Viability Services and Applications Networking and Communication
  22. 22. 23 Sensor devices are becoming widely available - Programmable devices - Off-the-shelf gadgets/tools
  23. 23. 24 More “Things” are being connected Home/daily-life devices Business and Public infrastructure Health-care …
  24. 24. 25 Internet of Things (IoT) − Extending the current Internet and providing connection, communication, and inter-networking between devices and physical objects, or "Things," is a growing trend that is often referred to as the Internet ofThings. − “The technologies and solutions that enable integration of real world data and services into the current information networking technologies are often described under the umbrella term of the Internet of Things (IoT)”
  25. 25. 1G AMPS, NMT, TACS 2G GSM. GPRS, TDMA IS-136, CDMA IS-95, PDC 3G UMTS, CDMA2000, 4G 5G LTE, LTE-A People Things Voice Text Data 5G technologies and standards Connection + Control M2M/IoT Change in the communication technologies
  26. 26. Internet of Things: The story so far RFID based solutions Wireless Sensor and Actuator networks , solutions for communication technologies, energy efficiency, routing, … Smart Devices/ Web-enabled Apps/Services, initial products, vertical applications, early concepts and demos, … Motion sensor Motion sensor ECG sensor Physical-Cyber-Social Systems, Linked-data, semantics, M2M, More products, more heterogeneity, solutions for control and monitoring, … Future: Cloud, Big (IoT) Data Analytics, Interoperability, Enhanced Cellular/Wireless Com. for IoT, Real-world operational use-cases and Industry and B2B services/applications, more Standards…
  27. 27. Cities of the future 28
  28. 28. What does makes smart cities “smart”?
  29. 29. Smart Citizens (more informed and more in control) Smart Governance (better services and informed decisions) Smart Environment Providing more equality and wider reach Context-aware and situation-aware services Cost efficacy and supporting innovation What does makes smart cities “smart”?
  30. 30. 31 Source: BBC News
  31. 31. Image sources : The dailymail,,
  32. 32. Smart Cities: What type of problems we expect to solve?
  33. 33. 34Source LAT Times, Future cities: A view from 1998
  34. 34. 35 Source:[default]/0/ Source: wikipedia Back to the Future: 2013
  35. 35. Applications and potentials − Analysis of thousands of traffic, pollution, weather, congestion, public transport, waste and event sensory data to provide better transport and city management. − Converting smart meter readings to information that can help prediction and balance of power consumption in a city. − Monitoring elderly homes, personal and public healthcare applications. − Event and incident analysis and prediction using (near) real-time data collected by citizen and device sensors. − Turning social media data (e.g.Tweets) related to city issues into event and sentiment analysis. − Any many more… 36
  36. 36. Some examples 37
  37. 37. Live data Visualisation 38
  38. 38. 39 Event Visualisation
  39. 39. CityPulse demo 40
  40. 40. Analysing social streams 41 With
  41. 41. An example: Extraction of events and semantics from social media 42 City Infrastructure Tweets from a city P. Anantharam, P. Barnaghi, K. Thirunarayan, A. Sheth, "Extracting city events from social streams,“, 2014.
  42. 42. Activity 3.4 – Event Detection for Social Media 43 City Infrastructure Yes it is police @hasselager … there directing traffic CRF- based NER Tagging CRF- based NER Tagging Multi- view Event Extractio n Multi- view Event Extractio n Loc. Est. = “hasselager, aarhus” Loc. Est. = “hasselager, aarhus” Temp. Est. = “2015-2- 19 21:07:17” Temp. Est. = “2015-2- 19 21:07:17” Level = 2Level = 2 Event Type = Traffic Event Type = Traffic OSM Loc. OSM Loc. CrimeCrimeTransp.Transp. City Event Extraction CNN POS+NER Event term extraction CNN POS+NER Event term extraction CulturalCultural SocialSocial Enviro.Enviro. SportSport HealthHealth DataData Transp.Transp. Yes <O> it <O> is <O> police <B-CRIME> @hasselager <B-LOCATION>… <O> there <O> directing <O> traffic <B-TRAFFIC> Yes <S-NP/O> it <S-NP/O> is <S-VP/O> police <S-NP/O> @hasselager <S-LOC> ... <O/O> there <S-NP/O> directing <S-VP/O> traffic <S-NP/O>
  43. 43. 44
  44. 44. Not so good examples 45
  45. 45. Social media analysis (deep learning – under construction) 46
  46. 46. Future of the Internet 47 In next 5 years
  47. 47. Smart data collection − Smart data collection − Intelligent data Processing (selective attention and information-extraction) 48 (image source: KRISTEN NICOLE,
  48. 48. The rise of sharing economy 49Source: the Economist
  49. 49. More broadband in remote areas 50
  50. 50. More connected wearable devcies 51
  51. 51. The rise of village notebook/internet kiosks 52Source: wikipedia, green diary
  52. 52. More privacy/control issues 53 Source: wikipedia, the economist
  53. 53. Applications and Services 54
  54. 54. Future of the Internet 55 In next 25 years
  55. 55. Mind will be the machine 56 And all will be connected!
  56. 56. The borders blend 57Source: IEEE Internet Computing
  57. 57. Information will find you, not you the information 58
  58. 58. Boundary between human, technology and devices 59
  59. 59. Desire for innovation 60 Driverless Car of the Future (1957) Image: Courtesy of
  60. 60. Let’s hope −The Internet of the Future will be −For everyone, everywhere, available at anytime, −People will have control on their data −Data will be used for helping people −Smart applications will contribute to a better life and to a better use of of our resources in the world! 61
  61. 61. Q&A − Thank you. − EU FP7 CityPulse Project: @pbarnaghi