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How to make cities "smarter"?


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UKTI/IET Workshop, Mobile World Congress 2016, Barcelona, February 2016.

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How to make cities "smarter"?

  1. 1. How to make cities “smarter”? 1 Dr Payam Barnaghi Institute for Communication Systems (ICS)/ 5G Innovation Centre University of Surrey Guildford, United Kingdom UKTI Workshop at Mobile World Congress 2016
  2. 2. “A hundred years hence people will be so avid of every moment of life, life will be so full of busy delight, that time-saving inventions will be at a huge premium…” “…It is not because we shall be hurried in nerve-shattering anxiety, but because we shall value at its true worth the refining and restful influence of leisure, that we shall be impatient of the minor tasks of every day….” The March 26, 1906, New Zealand Star : Source:
  3. 3. 3P. Barnaghi et al., "Digital Technology Adoption in the Smart Built Environment", IET Sector Technical Briefing, The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), I. Borthwick (editor), March 2015.
  4. 4. Apollo 11 Command Module (1965) had 64 kilobytes of memory operated at 0.043MHz. An iPhone 5s has a CPU running at speeds of up to 1.3GHz and has 512MB to 1GB of memory Cray-1 (1975) produced 80 million Floating point operations per second (FLOPS) 10 years later, Cray-2 produced 1.9G FLOPS An iPhone 5s produces 76.8 GFLOPS – nearly a thousand times more Cray-2 used 200-kilowatt power Source: Nick T.,, 2014 image source:
  5. 5. Smart City “A smart city uses digital technologies or information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance quality and performance of urban services, to reduce costs and resource consumption, and to engage more effectively and actively with its citizens.” [Wikipedia] 5 Is this a good definition?
  6. 6. Cities of the future 6
  7. 7. 7 Source: BBC News
  8. 8. Source: The dailymail,,
  9. 9. What are smart cities? 9 “An ecosystem of systems enabled by the Internet of Things and information communication technologies.” “People, resources, and information coming together, operating in an ad-hoc and/or coordinated way to improve city operations and everyday activities.”
  10. 10. What does makes smart cities “smart”?
  11. 11. Smart Citizens (more informed and more in control) Smart Governance (better services and informed decisions) Smart Environment Providing more equality and wider reach Context-aware and situation-aware services Cost efficacy and supporting innovation What does makes smart cities “smart”?
  12. 12. How do cities get smarter?
  13. 13. How do cities get smarter? 13 Continuous (near-) real-time sensing/monitoring and data collection Linked/integrated data and linked/integrated services Real-time intelligence and actionable-information for different situations/services Smart interaction and actuation Creating awareness and effective participation
  14. 14. How can technology help to make cities smarter?
  15. 15. The role of data 15 Source: The IET Technical Report, Digital Technology Adoption in the Smart Built Environment: Challenges and opportunities of data driven systems for building, community and city-scale applications,
  16. 16. 16 “The ultimate goal is transforming the raw data to insights and actionable information and/or creating effective representation forms for machines and also human users, and providing automated services.” This usually requires data from multiple sources, (near-) real time analytics and visualisation and/or semantic representations.
  17. 17. What type of problems we expect to solve using the IoT and data analytics solutions?
  18. 18. 18Source LAT Times, A smart City example Future cities: A view from 1998
  19. 19. 19 Source:[default]/0/ Source: wikipedia Back to the Future: 2013
  20. 20. Common problems 20 Guildford, Surrey
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. Applications and potentials − Analysis of thousands of traffic, pollution, weather, congestion, public transport, waste and event sensory data to provide better transport and city management. − Converting smart meter readings to information that can help prediction and balance of power consumption in a city. − Monitoring elderly homes, personal and public healthcare applications. − Event and incident analysis and prediction using (near) real- time data collected by citizen and device sensors. − Turning social media data (e.g.Tweets) related to city issues into event and sentiment analysis. − Any many more… 22
  23. 23. EU FP7 CityPulse Project 23
  24. 24. Designing for real world problems
  25. 25. 101 Smart City scenarios 25 Dr Mirko Presser Alexandra Institute Denmark
  26. 26. 26 Event Visualisation
  27. 27. CityPulse demo 27
  28. 28. Real world data 28
  29. 29. Extracting traffic events from social media 29In collaboration with Wright State University
  30. 30. Extracting city events 30 City Infrastructure Yes it is police @hasselager … there directing traffic CRF- based NER Tagging Multi-view Event Extraction Loc. Est. = “hasselager, aarhus” Loc. Est. = “hasselager, aarhus” Temp. Est. = “2015-2-19 21:07:17” Temp. Est. = “2015-2-19 21:07:17” Level = 2Level = 2 Event = TrafficEvent = Traffic OSM Loc. OSM Loc. CrimeCrimeTransp.Transp. City Event Extraction CNN POS+NER Event term extraction CulturalCultural SocialSocial Enviro.Enviro. SportSport HealthHealth DataData Transp.Transp. Yes <O> it <O> is <O> police <B-CRIME> @hasselager <B-LOCATION>… <O> there <O> directing <O> traffic <B-TRAFFIC> Yes <S-NP/O> it <S-NP/O> is <S-VP/O> police <S-NP/O> @hasselager <S-LOC> ... <O/O> there <S-NP/O> directing <S-VP/O> traffic <S-NP/O> Nazli FarajiDavar, Payam Barnaghi, "A Deep Multi-View Learning Framework for City Event Extraction from Twitter Data Streams", submitted to ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST), Nov. 2015.
  31. 31. Extracting city events 31 Nazli FarajiDavar, Payam Barnaghi, "A Deep Multi-View Learning Framework for City Event Extraction from Twitter Data Streams", submitted to ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST), Nov. 2015.
  32. 32. Accumulated and connected knowledge? 32 Image courtesy: IEEE Spectrum
  33. 33. Users in control or losing control? 33 Image source: Julian Walker, Flicker
  34. 34. Gateway Gatewa y Data Analytics Engine IoT Test Bed Cloud External NHS, GP IT systems Possible links to Other Test Beds HyperCat Gateway HyperCat HyperCat HyperCat Data-driven and patient centered Healthcare Applications NHS - IoT Test-bed for healthcare
  35. 35. In conclusion −Smart cities are made of informed citizens, smart environments and informed and intelligent decision making and governance. −Smart cities should promote innovation, equality and wider reach of services to all citizens. −IoT plays a key role in making cities smarter; openness of data and interconnection and interoperability between different data sources and services is a key requirement. −Technology alone won’t make cities smart. 35
  36. 36. IET sector briefing report 36 Available at:
  37. 37. 37 Useful information:
  38. 38. Other challenges and topics that I didn't talk about Security Privacy Trust, resilience and reliability Noise and incomplete data Cloud and distributed computing Networks, test-beds and mobility Mobile computing Applications and use-case scenarios 38
  39. 39. Q&A − Thank you. @pbarnaghi Acknowledgement: CityPulse Consortium