How to make cities “smarter”?
Dr Payam Barnaghi
Institute for Communication Systems (ICS)/
5G Innovation Centre
University of Surrey
Guildford, United Kingdom
UKTI Workshop at Mobile World Congress 2016
“A hundred years hence people will be so
avid of every moment of life, life will be so
full of busy delight, that time-saving
inventions will be at a huge premium…”
“…It is not because we shall be hurried in
nerve-shattering anxiety, but because we
shall value at its true worth the refining and
restful influence of leisure, that we shall be
impatient of the minor tasks of every day….”
The March 26, 1906, New Zealand Star :
3P. Barnaghi et al., "Digital Technology Adoption in the Smart Built Environment", IET Sector Technical Briefing, The Institution of Engineering and Technology
(IET), I. Borthwick (editor), March 2015.
Apollo 11 Command Module (1965) had
64 kilobytes of memory
operated at 0.043MHz.
An iPhone 5s has a CPU running at speeds
of up to 1.3GHz
and has 512MB to 1GB of memory
Cray-1 (1975) produced 80 million Floating
point operations per second (FLOPS)
10 years later, Cray-2 produced 1.9G FLOPS
An iPhone 5s produces 76.8 GFLOPS – nearly
a thousand times more
Cray-2 used 200-kilowatt power
Source: Nick T., PhoneArena.com, 2014
image source: http://blog.opower.com/
“A smart city uses digital technologies or information and
communication technologies (ICT) to enhance quality and
performance of urban services, to reduce costs and resource
consumption, and to engage more effectively and actively with
its citizens.” [Wikipedia]
Is this a good definition?
Cities of the future
Source: The dailymail, http://helenography.net/, http://edwud.com/
What are smart cities?
“An ecosystem of systems enabled by the
Internet of Things and information
“People, resources, and information coming
together, operating in an ad-hoc and/or
coordinated way to improve city operations
and everyday activities.”
Smart Citizens (more informed and more in control)
Smart Governance (better services and informed decisions)
Providing more equality and wider reach
Context-aware and situation-aware services
Cost efficacy and supporting innovation
What does makes smart cities “smart”?
How do cities get smarter?
Continuous (near-) real-time sensing/monitoring
and data collection
and linked/integrated services
Real-time intelligence and actionable-information
for different situations/services
Smart interaction and actuation
Creating awareness and effective participation
How can technology help to make
The role of data
Source: The IET Technical Report, Digital Technology Adoption in the Smart Built Environment: Challenges and opportunities of
data driven systems for building, community and city-scale applications,
“The ultimate goal is transforming the raw data
to insights and actionable information and/or
creating effective representation forms for
machines and also human users, and providing
This usually requires data from multiple sources,
(near-) real time analytics and visualisation
and/or semantic representations.
What type of problems we expect to solve
using the IoT and data analytics solutions?
18Source LAT Times, http://documents.latimes.com/la-2013/
A smart City example
Future cities: A view from 1998
Back to the Future: 2013
Applications and potentials
− Analysis of thousands of traffic, pollution, weather, congestion,
public transport, waste and event sensory data to provide
better transport and city management.
− Converting smart meter readings to information that can help
prediction and balance of power consumption in a city.
− Monitoring elderly homes, personal and public healthcare
− Event and incident analysis and prediction using (near) real-
time data collected by citizen and device sensors.
− Turning social media data (e.g.Tweets) related to city issues
into event and sentiment analysis.
− Any many more…
Extracting traffic events from social media
29In collaboration with Wright State University
Extracting city events
Yes it is police @hasselager
… there directing traffic
Loc. Est. =
Loc. Est. =
Temp. Est. =
Temp. Est. =
Level = 2Level = 2
Event = TrafficEvent = Traffic
City Event Extraction
CulturalCultural SocialSocial Enviro.Enviro. SportSport HealthHealth
Yes <O> it <O> is <O> police <B-CRIME>
@hasselager <B-LOCATION>… <O> there <O>
directing <O> traffic <B-TRAFFIC>
Yes <S-NP/O> it <S-NP/O> is <S-VP/O> police
<S-NP/O> @hasselager <S-LOC> ... <O/O> there
<S-NP/O> directing <S-VP/O> traffic <S-NP/O>
Nazli FarajiDavar, Payam Barnaghi, "A Deep Multi-View Learning Framework for City Event Extraction from Twitter Data Streams", submitted to ACM Transactions
on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST), Nov. 2015.
Extracting city events
Nazli FarajiDavar, Payam Barnaghi, "A Deep Multi-View Learning Framework for City Event Extraction from Twitter Data Streams", submitted to ACM
Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology (TIST), Nov. 2015.
Accumulated and connected knowledge?
Image courtesy: IEEE Spectrum
Users in control or losing control?
Image source: Julian Walker, Flicker
IoT Test Bed Cloud
External NHS, GP IT systems
Possible links to
Other Test Beds
Data-driven and patient
NHS - IoT Test-bed for healthcare
−Smart cities are made of informed citizens, smart
environments and informed and intelligent decision
making and governance.
−Smart cities should promote innovation, equality and
wider reach of services to all citizens.
−IoT plays a key role in making cities smarter;
openness of data and interconnection and
interoperability between different data sources and
services is a key requirement.
−Technology alone won’t make cities smart.
IET sector briefing report
Available at: http://www.theiet.org/sectors/built-environment/resources/digital-technology.cfm
Other challenges and topics that I didn't talk about
Trust, resilience and
Networks, test-beds and
Applications and use-case