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Instrumentation- XRD
PRESENTED BY PAYAAM VOHRA
Basics
X-ray powder diffraction---or XRD---is used to measure crystalline compounds and
provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of compounds that cannot be measured
by other means. By shooting an X-Ray at a compound, XRD can measure the diffraction
of the beam from different sections of the compound. This measurement can then be
used to understand the composition of the compound on an atomic level, since all
compounds diffract the beam differently. XRD measurements show structural make-up,
content and size of crystalline structures.
COMPONENTS
Source
Wavelength selector
Sample holder
Detector
Recorder
Source
X-ray tube
Radioisotope
X-ray tube or Coolidge tube
• Most common source
• Cathode
• Anode
• Berrylium window
• Disadvantage:
• Poor output efficiency (5%)
Production of X-rays using
radioisotopes:
• Certain radioactive substances
produce X-rays as a result of their
radioactive decay process.
Wavelength selector
Filters-
◦ thin metallic strips of definite thickness eg. Zirconium filter
Monochromators-
◦ these are crystals which can diffract X-rays according to their wavelength.
A crystal monochromator
• A useful wavelength range from a
crystal is determined by its lattice
spacing d
• Crystal is placed on a rotating table
or a goniometer
• Works on the principle of Bragg’s
equation
• Rays of different wavelengths can
be collected by varying angle θ.
Sample holder
It is a rotating table called as crystal mount
Sample is placed at the centre of a crystal mount, which is kept rotating
at a particular speed.
Detector
Gas filled detector
Scintillation counter
Semiconductor detector
Gas filled detector
Semiconductor detector
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X-ray DIFFRACTION.INSTRUMENTAITON WORKING PRINCIPLE OF XRD.pptx

  • 2. Basics X-ray powder diffraction---or XRD---is used to measure crystalline compounds and provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of compounds that cannot be measured by other means. By shooting an X-Ray at a compound, XRD can measure the diffraction of the beam from different sections of the compound. This measurement can then be used to understand the composition of the compound on an atomic level, since all compounds diffract the beam differently. XRD measurements show structural make-up, content and size of crystalline structures.
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  • 7. X-ray tube or Coolidge tube • Most common source • Cathode • Anode • Berrylium window • Disadvantage: • Poor output efficiency (5%)
  • 8. Production of X-rays using radioisotopes: • Certain radioactive substances produce X-rays as a result of their radioactive decay process.
  • 9. Wavelength selector Filters- ◦ thin metallic strips of definite thickness eg. Zirconium filter Monochromators- ◦ these are crystals which can diffract X-rays according to their wavelength.
  • 10. A crystal monochromator • A useful wavelength range from a crystal is determined by its lattice spacing d • Crystal is placed on a rotating table or a goniometer • Works on the principle of Bragg’s equation • Rays of different wavelengths can be collected by varying angle θ.
  • 11. Sample holder It is a rotating table called as crystal mount Sample is placed at the centre of a crystal mount, which is kept rotating at a particular speed.
  • 12. Detector Gas filled detector Scintillation counter Semiconductor detector
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  • 17. Youtube channel : https://youtu.be/CUmehnu9XO8 INSTAGRAM PAGE : pharma_tipsntrick SLIDESHARE: https://www.slideshare.net/Payaamvohra1 GMAIL : payaamvohra@gmail.com MOBILE NO : 8655067959/8356077360