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BABOK Study Group - meeting 4

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Presentation slides from my BABOK Study Group that I led.

Those materials will help you pass BABOK certification exams. Study Group was aimed at individuals self preparing to CCBA or CBAP exams.

Subject of this presentation: Elicitation.

Please visit my blog: http://zubkiewicz.com/

Published in: Software
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BABOK Study Group - meeting 4

  1. 1. BABOK Study Group Meeting 4. Elicitation http://zubkiewicz.com 1 Paweł Zubkiewicz TOGAF 9, OCEB, CCBA, ArchiMate 2 pawel@zubkiewicz.com
  2. 2. Elicitation? The definition of elicitation is1: • to draw forth or bring out (something latent or potential) . • to call forth or draw out (as information or a response). These definitions highlight the need to actively engage the stakeholders in defining requirements. 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 2
  3. 3. Elicitation tasks 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 3
  4. 4. BABOK – Knowledge Areas & Tasks 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com Source: www.projerra.ca 5.4 Define Solution Scope 4
  5. 5. 3 – Elicitation 3/9/2016Paweł Zubkiewicz 5 Task Name Inputs Elements Techniques Stakeholders Outputs 3.1 Prepare For Elicitation Ensure all needed resources are organized and scheduled for conducting the elicitation activities. Business Case (5.5) Business Need (5.1) Solution Scope (5.4) Stakeholder List, Roles, and Responsibilities (2.2) Implicit Input: BA plan(s) (2.3)  Clarify the scope for selected elicitation technique  Schedule all resources (people, facilities, equipment)  Notify appropriate parties General: Brainstorming (9.3) Document Analysis (9.9) Focus Groups (9.11) Interface Analysis (9.13) Interviews (9.14) Observation (9.18) Prototyping (9.22) Requirements Workshops (9.23) Survey / Questionnaire (9.31) All stakeholders Project Manger Scheduled Resources (3.1) Supporting Materials (3.1) Implicit Output: BA perf metrics 3.2 Conduct Elicitation Activity Meet with stakeholder(s) to elicit information regarding their needs. Business Need (5.1) Solution Scope (5.4) Business Case (5.5) Requirements Management Plan (2.5) Scheduled Resources (3.1) Supporting Materials (3.1) OPAs Implicit Input: BA plan(s) (2.3) Tracing requirements Capturing requirements attributes Metrics Essential: Data Dictionary and Glossary (9.5) General: Brainstorming (9.3) Document Analysis (9.9) Focus Groups (9.11) Interface Analysis (9.13) Interviews (9.14) Observation (9.18) Prototyping (9.22) Requirements Workshop (9.23) Survey / Questionnaire (9.31) Customer Domain SME End User Supplier Sponsor Implementation SME Operational Support Project Manger Supplier Tester Regulator Elicitation Results (3.2) Implicit Output: BA perf metrics 3.3 Document Elicitation Results Record the information provided by stakeholders for use in analysis. Elicitation results (3.2) Implicit Input: BA plan(s) (2.3) Documentation:  Written docs  Visual or recordings  Whiteboards General: Brainstorming (9.3) Document Analysis (9.9) Focus Groups (9.11) Interface Analysis (9.13) Interviews (9.14) Observation (9.18) Problem Tracking (9.20) Prototyping (9.22) Requirements Workshops (9.23) Survey / Questionnaire (9.31) Business Analyst Requirements [Stated] (3.3) Stakeholder Concerns (3.3) Implicit Output: BA perf metrics 3.4 Confirm Elicitation Results Validate that the stated requirements expressed by the stakeholder match the stakeholder’s understanding of the problem and the stakeholder’s needs. Requirements [Stated, Unconfirmed] (3.3) Stakeholder Concerns [Unconfirmed] (3.3) Implicit Input: BA plan(s) (2.3) General: Interviews (9.14) Observation (9.18) Any stakeholder who has participated in other elicitation tasks Requirements [Stated & Confirmed] (3.4) Stakeholder Concerns [Confirmed] (3.4) Implicit Output: BA perf metrics
  6. 6. 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 6 Source: Modern Analyst
  7. 7. 3.1 Prepare for Elicitation Elements • Clarify the specific scope for the selected elicitation technique and gathers any necessary supporting materials. • Schedule all resources (people, facilities, equipment) • Notify appropriate parties of the plan 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 7 Outputs • Scheduled Resources: This includes the participants, the location in which the elicitation activity will occur, and any other resources that may be required. • Supporting Materials: Any materials required to help explain the techniques used or perform them. Ensure all needed resources are organized and scheduled for conducting the elicitation activities.
  8. 8. 3.2 Conduct Elicitation Activity Elements • Tracing requirements: While eliciting the requirements it is important to guard against scope creep. Tracing requirements back to the business goals/objectives helps to validate whether a requirement should be included. • Capturing requirement attributes: While eliciting the requirements documenting requirements attributes such as the requirement’s source, value and priority will aid in managing each requirement throughout its life cycle. • Metrics: Tracking the elicitation participants and the actual time spent eliciting the requirements provides a basis for future planning. 3/9/2016Paweł Zubkiewicz 8 Outputs • Elicitation Results: May include documentation appropriate to the technique and capture the information provided by the stakeholder. Meet with stakeholder(s) to elicit information regarding their needs.
  9. 9. 3.3 Document Elicitation Results Elements Documentation can take a number of forms, including: • Written documents describing the outcomes, such as meeting minutes • Visual or audio recordings • Whiteboards (either actual or virtual) where notes are retained until they are transferred to another medium. 3/9/2016Paweł Zubkiewicz 9 Outputs • Requirements [Stated]: Described from the perspective of the stakeholder. Stated requirements describe the stakeholder’s need from the stakeholder’s perspective. • Stakeholder Concerns: Includes issues identified by the stakeholder, risks, assumptions, constraints, and other relevant information. Record the information provided by stakeholders for use in analysis
  10. 10. 3.4 Confirm Elicitation Results Techniques: • 9.14 Interviews • 9.18 Observation 3/9/2016Paweł Zubkiewicz 10 Output • Requirements [Stated, Confirmed]: Identical to Requirements [Stated] for all practical purposes, including use as an input to other tasks. • Stakeholder Concerns [Confirmed]: Identical to Stakeholder Concerns for all practical purposes, including use as an input to other tasks. Validate that the stated requirements expressed by the stakeholder match the stakeholder’s understanding of the problem and the stakeholder’s needs.
  11. 11. 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 11 Source: Modern Analyst
  12. 12. Techniques 3/9/2016Paweł Zubkiewicz 12
  13. 13. Tasks as Techniques elements TASK Technique meta- steps 9.11 Focus Group 9.31 Survey / Questionnairy Prepare for Elicitation Prepare 1. Preparation 1. Prepare Conduct Elicitation Activity Conduct 2. Run The Focus Group Session 2. Distribute The Survey Document Elicitation Results Wrap-up 3. Produce Report 3. Document Survey Results 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 13
  14. 14. Techniques lists Prepare for Elicitation Conduct Elicitation Activity Document Elicitation Results Confirm Elicitation Results 1. Brainstorming 2. Document Analysis 3. Focus Groups 4. Interface Analysis 5. Interviews 6. Observation 7. Prototyping 8. Requirements Workshops 9. Survey / Questionnaire 1. Brainstorming 2. Document Analysis 3. Focus Groups 4. Interface Analysis 5. Interviews 6. Observation 7. Prototyping 8. Requirements Workshops 9. Survey / Questionnaire 10. Data Dictionary and Glossary 1. Brainstorming 2. Document Analysis 3. Focus Groups 4. Interface Analysis 5. Interviews 6. Observation 7. Prototyping 8. Requirements Workshops 9. Survey / Questionnaire 10. Problem Tracking 1. Interviews 2. Observation 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 14
  15. 15. Techniques synonyms 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 15
  16. 16. Techniques types • The BABOK ® Guide lists three types of elicitation techniques: events, performed work, and collected work • Elicitation events take place using one of six techniques: brainstorming, focus groups, interviews, observation, prototyping, and requirements workshops. • Elicitation work is performed by the business analyst using the document analysis or interface analysis technique. • Elicitation work is distributed and collected using surveys/questionnaires that are sent out to the stakeholders. 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 16
  17. 17. Question types • Open – ended • Closed - ended 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 17 • Meta • Directive • Detailed • Research
  18. 18. Question types • These are general questions inviting your stakeholders to provide you with information about their concerns, interests, and needs relative to the solution scope. Research questions allow a skilled business analyst to scope out the stakeholder needs. People are comfortable answering research questions when the questions are not limited or specific and the answers are not controlled in any way. An example of a research question might be, What constitutes success for this project? Research Questions • Detailed questions focus on gathering specific information within the predefined solution scope. These questions are typically the step after research questions and help the business analyst focus on more specific information that is needed. To be thorough, detailed questions should be framed around the five W’s: who, what, where, when, and why. As your questions become more specific, it is very important to discourage one - word answers, such as yes and no. This can often be achieved in the phrasing of each question. An example of a detailed question is, Who provides you with this information? Detailed Questions • Directive questions are used primarily by business analysts in group settings where there are contradictions in what the business analyst has been told. Directive questions direct the other parties to an area where agreement needs to be reached and sometimes away from an area that is contentious. For project requirements information, these questions can be used to get consensus on specific features and functionality and to encourage stakeholder decision making. One example of a directive question might be, What is the relative priority of this key feature? Directive Questions • Meta questions are powerful tools. They allow you to clarify and enhance what has just been said. Basically, meta questions are questions about questions. This communications strategy allows the business analyst to promote open communication in a nonthreatening way. Meta questions clarify and summarize what the business analyst has been told. They are an active listening technique that proves that the business analyst has really been listening to what a particular stakeholder is saying during requirements elicitation. An example of a meta question is, “ Do you mind if I ask you about . . . ? ” Meta Questions 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 18 Open/CloseOpen/Close
  19. 19. Prototypes (9.22 Prototyping) SDLC Prototypes • Throw-away prototype seeks to quickly uncover and clarify interface requirements using simple tools, sometimes just paper and pencil. As the name suggests, such a prototype is usually discarded when the final system has been developed. The focus is on functionality that is not easily elicited by other techniques, has conflicting viewpoints, or is difficult to understand. • Evolutionary (or Functional) extends the initial interface requirements into a fully functioning system and requires a specialized prototyping tool or language. This prototype produces a working software application 3/9/2016http://zubkiewicz.com 19 Functional scope Prototypes • Horizontal • Vertical
  20. 20. Did you enjoy the presentation? Do you have any questions? Or maybe you just want to say "thanks" Just click the pic above to visit my blog http://zubkiewicz.com http://zubkiewicz.com 20

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