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Sweeteners facts


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An overview of the most commonly used sweeteners. Their use, characteristics and interesting facts. Przegląd najczęsciej używanych słodzików. Ich zastosowanie, charakterystyka oraz ciekawe fakty.

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Sweeteners facts

  1. 1. Sweeteners facts Tomczuk Paweł
  2. 2. Role of Sweeteners Sweeteners Provide an intense sweet flavor An alternative way to satisfy our sweet tooth
  3. 3. Sweeteners • Discovered by accident in the late 19th century, sweeteners are a relatively recent introduction into the food and drink supply. • Sweeteners provide an intense sweet flavor and their use has expanded as we look for alternative ways to satisfy our sweet tooth, without the associated energy (kilojoules) of regular sugar.
  4. 4. types of sweeteners Sweeteners can be split into three key categories Artificial sweeteners Nutritive sweeteners Natural intense sweeteners
  5. 5. Artificial Sweeteners • Artificial or non-nutritive sweeteners are often used as an alternative to sugar. These sweeteners are energy (kilojoule) free. • Non-nutritive sweeteners are found in a wide range of food and drink products in the supermarket.
  6. 6. non-nutritive sweeteners • Many of non-nutritive sweeteners exist as „tabletop sweeteners” which can be used to add sweetness to tea, coffee, cereal and fruit in place of sugar. • While there are also a huge number of other products such as cordials, soft drinks, jellies, yoghurt, ice-cream, chewing gum, lollipops, desserts and cakes, which use these sweeteners. • These products are often labelled as „diet”, „low joule”, „sugar free” or „no sugar”.
  7. 7. The most commonly used artificial sweeteners Name Code number (E) Brand name Acesulphame K 950 Hermesetas Gold® Sunnett® Alitame 956 Aclame® Aspartame 951 Equal® Equal Spoonful® Hermesetas Gold® Nutrasweet® Cyclamate 952 Sucaryl® Neotame 961 - Saccharin 954 Hermesetas® Sugarella® Sugarine® Sweetex® Sucralose 955 Splenda® Aspartame isn’t safe for people who have the rare hereditary disease phenylketonuria (PKU).
  8. 8. Nutritive sweeteners • Nutritive sweeteners are based on different types of carbohydrates. • Products that contain these sweeteners may be labelled as „carbohydrate modified”. • The sweeteners provide a sweet taste, have less energy (kilojoules) than sugar but they are not kilojoule free.
  9. 9. Nutritive sweeteners • The nutritive sweeteners or caloric sweeteners are the most commonly used sweetening agents used in preparing energy drinks and beverages. • Nutritive sweeteners are widely used to sprinkle on foods. They are used to add texture and sweetness to cooked products too.
  10. 10. Nutritive sweeteners • As a preservative, nutritive sweetener prevents the growth of micro – organisms and protects perishable food from getting spoiled. These sweeteners are used in jams, marmalades, jams and candied fruits. • Nutritive sweeteners are extensively used in baking and confectionery industry, in preparing cakes, cookies, pies and biscuits. Apart from enhancing the flavor and texture of baked goods they help to improve their quality as well.
  11. 11. The most commonly found nutritive sweeteners Name Code number (E) Side effects Fructose - • fruit sugar • same kilojoules as sugar but sweeter Isomalt 953 • less kilojoules than sugar but half the sweetness • may have a laxative effect • can also be listed as „humectant” Lactilol Mannitol Maltitol Xylitol Sorbitol 966 421 967 965 420 • these are all sugar alcohols • same kilojoules as sugar, except mannitol • may have a laxative effect and cause wind and diarrhea • can also be listed as „humectant” Maltodextrin - • same kilojoules as sugar • also listed as „hydrolysed corn syrup” or „glucose syrup” Polydextrose 1200 • provides minimal kilojoules • may have a laxative effect Thaumatin 957 • can also be listed as „flavour enhancer”
  12. 12. Sugar alcohols • Sugar alcohols are neither sugars nor alcohols. They are carbohydrates with a chemical structure that partially resembles sugar and partially resembles alcohol, but they don’t contain ethanol. • They are incompletely absorbed and metabolized by the body, and consequently contribute fewer calories than most sugars. In case you ware wondering…
  13. 13. Sugar alcohols Type Calories per gram Approximate Sweetness (sucrose = 100%) Typical Food Applications Sorbitol 2.6 50 - 70% Sugar-free candies, chewing gums, frozen desserts and baked goods Xylitol 2.4 100% Chewing gum, gum drops and hard candy, pharmaceuticals and oral health products, such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, children’s chewable multivitamins, toothpastes and mouthwashes; used in foods for special dietary purposes Maltitol 2.1 75% Hard candies, chewing gum, chocolates, baked goods and ice cream Isomalt 2.0 45 - 65% Candies, toffee, lollipops, fudge, wafers, cough drops, throat lozenges Lactitol 2.0 30 - 40% Chocolate, some baked goods (cookies and cakes), hard and soft candy and frozen dairy desserts Mannitol 1.6 50 - 70% Dusting powder for chewing gum, ingredient in chocolate-flavoured coating agents for ice cream and confections Erythritol 0 - 0.2* 60 - 80% Bulk sweetener in low calorie foods Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysates 3 25 - 50% Bulk sweetener in low calorie foods, provide sweetness, texture and bulk to a variety of sugarless products
  14. 14. Natural intense sweeteners • A more recent addition to the sweeteners market is Stevia, a „natural” sweetener. • Stevia is extracted from the Stevia Rebaudiana plant, a shrub from the chrysanthemum family native to South America. • Stevia is 150 times sweeter than regular sugar and contains no energy (kilojoules).
  15. 15. STEVIA • Stevia was introduced to Australia in 2008 but it has been used by South American tribes for centuries and has been commercially available in Japan since the 1970s. • In food and drink products, Stevia is listed by either its name or three digit number (960). • It is commonly used in flavored waters and soft drinks.
  16. 16. Cooking with sweeteners • The heat generated during cooking (e.g. baking) can change the taste of many sweeteners. • The table on next slide summarizes each sweeteners suitability for cooking. • For the ones that aren’t suitable for cooking, they can be added once cooking has finished.
  17. 17. sweeteners suitability for cooking Name Code number Suitability for cooking Acesulphame K 950 No Alitame 956 Yes Commercial use only Aspartame 951 Yes In powder form only Cyclamate 952 No Gives a bitter aftertaste Neotame 961 Yes Limited availability however Saccharin 954 No Gives a bitter aftertaste Stevia 960 Yes Sucralose 955 Yes Use in equal quantities to sugar
  18. 18. Selecting sweeteners • For those with a particularly sweet tooth, sweeteners provide an alternative to sugar without the associated energy (kilojoules). • There are lots of different ways sweeteners can be incorporated into our diet and selecting a particular sweetener over another will depend on what you are trying to achieve. • For those trying to resist the sweetness in a cup of tea or coffee, an artificial or „tabletop” sweetener can be used instead.
  19. 19. Selecting sweeteners • Perhaps you are looking to use a sweetener in a recipe as a sugar substitute. • A natural intense sweetener would be the pick as it is more heat stable than other sweeteners. stevia leaves
  20. 20. Selecting sweeteners • If you don’t have any particular preference for sweeteners, you are bound to experience a huge variety when you next eat or drink products such as „diet” soft drinks, „lite”
  21. 21. Safety of sweeteners • Artificial sweeteners have been the subject of intense scrutiny for decades. • Critics of artificial sweeteners contend that artificial sweeteners cause a variety of health problems, including cancer. • However, in a review of the evidence, undertaken by World Cancer Research Fund, it was found that the artificial sweeteners in studies are administered to animals in very large amounts, far greater than humans could consume in foods and drinks. • As a result, the WCRF notes that artificial sweeteners do not have a detectable effect on the risk of any cancer.
  22. 22. Name Origin of sweetener Blood sugar Calories SweetnessSWEET Sugar Natural Sweetener Increase blood sugar 10 – 20 Calories per tablespoon Sweetness BaselineGranulated sugar Brown sugar Natural Sweeteners Natural Sweetener Increase blood sugar 20 – 65 Calories per tablespoon 1,25 – 1,5x sweeter than sugar Honey Molasses Maple syrup Agave nectar Stevia Natural Sweetener Does not increase blood sugar Calories free 150x sweeter than sugar Truvia® Aspartame Artificial Sweetener Does not increase blood sugar Calories free 200x sweeter than sugarEqual® NutraSweet® Saccharin Artificial Sweetener Does not increase blood sugar Calories free 300 – 500x sweeter than sugarSweet’N Low® SWEETEST Sucralose Artificial Sweetener Does not increase blood sugar Calories free 600x sweeter than sugar Splenda® SWEETER characteristics most frequently used sweeteners
  23. 23. One more thing... • It’s important to remember that although foods containing sweeteners may be lower in sugar, they may actually be higher in other nutrients, such as fat. • Examples include „sugar-free chocolate” and „skinny ice creams”. • The use of artificial sweeteners therefore does not give a green light to eat or drink a product in large quantities.