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PRODUCTION, types and benefits of CHEWING GUM
Tomczuk Paweł
Chewing gum background
• Chewing gum is a sweetened, flavored
confection composed primarily of
latex, both natural and art...
Chewing gums classification
Chewing
gums
sugar
chewing gum
sugar-free
chewing gum
coated
chewing gum
medicated
chewing gum
Characteristic of chewing gum
• Sugar chewing gums contain almost 80% sugar and glucose syrup
mixed with gum base. The mai...
Characteristic of chewing gum
• Chewing gum having the property of blowing
bubbles due to film forming characteristics is
...
Comparison of sugar and sugar free gumS
20,0%
60,0%
0,5%
18,0%
1,0%
0,5%
80,0%
Sugar gum
Gum base Sugar Polyols Glucose sy...
Ingredients
Chewing gum is fabricated by
mixing of a required amount
of water-insoluble gum base
and different additives w...
Gum base
• Gum base is what gives chewing gum its „chew”. It is made of a
combination of food-grade polymers, waxes and so...
Gum base
• Gum base includes elastomer (10-30%), elastomer solvent (2-18%),
polyvinyl acetate (15-45%), emulsifier (2-10%)...
Water-soluble base
• In water-soluble phase, sugar sweeteners (60%) such as dextrose,
sucrose, fructose, maltose, dextrin,...
High-intensity sweeteners
• High-intensity sweeteners and polyols are widely used
as sugar free chewing gum ingredients ow...
High-intensity sweeteners
• Xylitol and menthol can be added to the formulation
alone or in combination with different fla...
Production process of chewing gum
Heating of
gum base to
70 – 120 ⁰C
Mixing for 2 – 8
min
• (plasticizer and
emulslifer)
K...
Production process
• After treating gum base at temperature
between 70-120⁰C, liquid plasticizer is
added with or without ...
Production process
• Then, flavor agent is added and mixing proceeds for
1-4 min. Depending on the formulation, if require...
Production process
• The scored gum is then moved
to a temperature-controlled
environment to cool and
ensure the finished ...
Conditioning
Production process
• After tempering, the gum
centers are broken into
individual pieces. The
pieces are then ...
Production process
• Pellet-style gum is principally
packaged by two methods.
• One is to place the pellets into the
forme...
Functional chewing gum
• For various human needs, tailor made chewing gums can be made
functional gum. Vitamins and minera...
Functional chewing gum
• Chewing gums had a big advantage over other delivery systems
because functional ingredients were ...
Functional chewing gum
• In 2013 Wrigley launched Alert
Caffeinated gum in the US, but
pulled the product just weeks
later...
Functional chewing gum
• Anti-stress gum restores calm to
those who are exposed to stress,
relieves nervous tension, stren...
Functional chewing gum
There are various different types of functional chewing gum.
For example:
• boosting libido
• makin...
benefits of chewing
• Chewing gum stimulates the
production of saliva, helping to
neutralize plaque acids that may
lead to...
benefits of chewing
• Chewing gum boosts blood flow to the
brain by about 25 to 40 percent.
• Chewing gum stimulates certa...
benefits of chewing
• Chewing gum has long been
associated with reducing ear
discomfort at high altitudes, especially
when...
benefits of chewing
• Chewing gum for up to an hour
after eating can help relieve acid
reflux as chewing gum stimulates
sa...
Bibliography
Source materials:
• KONAR N., PALABIYIK I., SAID TOKER O., SAGDIC O., 2006, Chewing gum:
Production, quality ...
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Production, types and benefits of chewing gum. Produkcja, typy i korzyści gum do żucia.

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Technology of chewing gum production. Technologia produkcji gum do żucia.

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Production, types and benefits of chewing gum. Produkcja, typy i korzyści gum do żucia.

  1. 1. PRODUCTION, types and benefits of CHEWING GUM Tomczuk Paweł
  2. 2. Chewing gum background • Chewing gum is a sweetened, flavored confection composed primarily of latex, both natural and artificial. • Organic latex, a milky white fluid produced by a variety of seed plants, is best known as the principle component of rubber. • Used as a snack, gum has no nutritive value, and, when people have finished chewing, they generally throw it away rather than swallow it.
  3. 3. Chewing gums classification Chewing gums sugar chewing gum sugar-free chewing gum coated chewing gum medicated chewing gum
  4. 4. Characteristic of chewing gum • Sugar chewing gums contain almost 80% sugar and glucose syrup mixed with gum base. The main difference between sugar chewing gum and sugar-free chewing gum depends on substitution of different sugar alcohols and high intensity sweeteners for sugar and glucose syrup. • Concerning the coated chewing gum, coating is used to improve visual impact of the product and control of the water activity and shelf life. Sugar, sugar-free and coated chewing gum with different flavors, shapes and sizes are produced in the industry.
  5. 5. Characteristic of chewing gum • Chewing gum having the property of blowing bubbles due to film forming characteristics is called a bubble gum. • Concerning the other type of gums, center filled gums has flavored liquid in the form of soft mass in its center. • Depending on its shapes there are also ball gum, stick gum, ribbon gum, tab gum, tube gum, dragee gum and wrap gum in the market.
  6. 6. Comparison of sugar and sugar free gumS 20,0% 60,0% 0,5% 18,0% 1,0% 0,5% 80,0% Sugar gum Gum base Sugar Polyols Glucose syrup Glicerin Flavour 30,0% 3,0% 60,0% 5,5% 1,5% 70,0% Sugar free gum Gum base Sweetener Polyols Glicerin Flavour
  7. 7. Ingredients Chewing gum is fabricated by mixing of a required amount of water-insoluble gum base and different additives which are sweeteners, softeners, food colorings, preservatives. chewing gum sweeteners colorings gum base 1 mixing 2 extruding 3 packing softeners preservatives
  8. 8. Gum base • Gum base is what gives chewing gum its „chew”. It is made of a combination of food-grade polymers, waxes and softeners that give gum the texture desired by consumers and enable it to effectively deliver sweetness, flavor and various other benefits, including dental benefits.
  9. 9. Gum base • Gum base includes elastomer (10-30%), elastomer solvent (2-18%), polyvinyl acetate (15-45%), emulsifier (2-10%), low molecular weight polyethylene (0.5-15.0%), waxes (0.5-10.0%), plasticizer (20-35%) and fillers (0.0-5.0%). • Although exact compositions of gum bases are generally a trade secret, they usually include elastomers and resins, along with fats, waxes, emulsifiers, fillers and antioxidants.
  10. 10. Water-soluble base • In water-soluble phase, sugar sweeteners (60%) such as dextrose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, dextrin, galactose and dried invert sugar can be used with corn syrups (18-20%), sugar alcohols (<1.0%), glycerine (<1.0%) and flavor (0.5-1.0%) for sugar chewing gum. • Particle size of the sucrose is important in sensory properties of the end product. Large particles can result in gritty texture in the product. • For sugar-free chewing gums, sugar alcohols (also act as bulking agent) (50-60%), glycerine (5.0-6.0%), flavor (1.0-15.0%) and high intensity sweeteners (0.01-3.0%) can be used.
  11. 11. High-intensity sweeteners • High-intensity sweeteners and polyols are widely used as sugar free chewing gum ingredients owing to their sweetness and noncaloric characteristics. In addition, they are accepted as non-cariogenic substances (not promote the development of dental caries) since bacteria, e.g. Streptococcus mutans, can not use polyols as an energy source for their reproduction and growth. • The sugar alcohols involving sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, maltitol, lactitol, hydrogenated isomaltulose and hydrogenated starch hydrolysates are typically used in sugar-free chewing gums.
  12. 12. High-intensity sweeteners • Xylitol and menthol can be added to the formulation alone or in combination with different flavors. Xylitol is commonly used in combination with lower cost polyols such as sorbitol, lactitol, or mannitol. Polyols are used with high intensity sweeteners (aspartame, asesulfame K and thaumatin) since they are not as sweet as sucrose. • In some chewing gums, antioxidants are also added to the formulation. Chewing gum generally contains antioxidants such as BHT, BHA and tocopherols. Antioxidants are used in the formulation to protect components present in gum base.
  13. 13. Production process of chewing gum Heating of gum base to 70 – 120 ⁰C Mixing for 2 – 8 min • (plasticizer and emulslifer) Kneading for 1 – 4 min • (sugar and colorants) Mixing •(rest of sugar) •(antioxidants, humectans, fillers) Extruding CuttingCoatingWrapingPacking
  14. 14. Production process • After treating gum base at temperature between 70-120⁰C, liquid plasticizer is added with or without emulsifier and they are mixed for 2-8 min. • Then approximately two thirds of the colorants and sugar are added and the obtained mixture is kneaded for 1-4 min. • After that the kneading/mixing levels are reduced and the rest of sugar is added. Melting Mixing
  15. 15. Production process • Then, flavor agent is added and mixing proceeds for 1-4 min. Depending on the formulation, if required, antioxidants, humectants and fillers are added and the mixture is kneaded/mixed for more 1-4 min. • After rolling process, thinning and scoring processes take place. • Regarding coated chewing gum, in this step, coating is applied by ingredients such as sugar powder. The mixing and kneading period mentioned depend on structure of gum base, composition and type of chewing gums. Rolling Scoring
  16. 16. Production process • The scored gum is then moved to a temperature-controlled environment to cool and ensure the finished gum will have the right consistency and stay fresh on store shelves • After cooling and tempering in one continuous process, the wrapping machine receives and wraps the sticks, in some cases applying an outer wrapper and seals the ends of the package. Wrapping Conditioning
  17. 17. Conditioning Production process • After tempering, the gum centers are broken into individual pieces. The pieces are then fed to a spray drier that forms the crunchy coating around the gum center. • It tumbles the pieces while a prepared syrup mixture, made of filtered water, sweeteners, and coloring is sprayed onto the gum. Breaking and Coating
  18. 18. Production process • Pellet-style gum is principally packaged by two methods. • One is to place the pellets into the formed plastic compartments of a blister pack. The package is heat sealed with a foil backing, and inserted into a cardboard sleeve. • The second method is to line up ten pellets in a row, wrap in traditional packaging and seal both ends to ensure freshness. Packing
  19. 19. Functional chewing gum • For various human needs, tailor made chewing gums can be made functional gum. Vitamins and minerals can be added to gum giving practical function to it. • Functional chewing gum is the name given to types of chewing gum which impart some practical function instead of, or in addition to, the usual enjoyment provided by a traditional chewing gum as a confectionery product.
  20. 20. Functional chewing gum • Chewing gums had a big advantage over other delivery systems because functional ingredients were absorbed in the buccal cavity in the mouth rather than the gastrointestinal system, meaning the effect took a few minutes compared to 30-40 minutes. • Lotte partnered with Ajinomoto, and C-store chain Lawson to develop Walking Plus capsiate chewing gum, which is fortified with a chilli extract designed to help the body burn fat.
  21. 21. Functional chewing gum • In 2013 Wrigley launched Alert Caffeinated gum in the US, but pulled the product just weeks later after the US Food and Drug Administration said it was concerned by children’s exposure to caffeine in foods.
  22. 22. Functional chewing gum • Anti-stress gum restores calm to those who are exposed to stress, relieves nervous tension, strengthens the body's immunity and fight free radicals. Improves the concentration, accelerates the excretion of toxic substances from the body. • It contains lemon balm, pappermint, ginseng root extract, chilli pepper, magnesium, Vitamin B6.
  23. 23. Functional chewing gum There are various different types of functional chewing gum. For example: • boosting libido • making tanning easier • increasing immunity • slimming • for hangover
  24. 24. benefits of chewing • Chewing gum stimulates the production of saliva, helping to neutralize plaque acids that may lead to tooth decay. • The use of sugar-free chewing gum also has been shown to strengthen teeth and reduce development of plaque.
  25. 25. benefits of chewing • Chewing gum boosts blood flow to the brain by about 25 to 40 percent. • Chewing gum stimulates certain areas of the brain. While stress is a fact of life, for life’s little tensions, such as commuting, travelling or preparing for an interview, chewing gum may offer some relief.
  26. 26. benefits of chewing • Chewing gum has long been associated with reducing ear discomfort at high altitudes, especially when flying, because it stimulates the production of saliva. That leads to more swallowing which helps equalize the changes in pressure by activating the muscle that opens the tube connecting the back of the nose with the ear.
  27. 27. benefits of chewing • Chewing gum for up to an hour after eating can help relieve acid reflux as chewing gum stimulates saliva and this helps neutralize acid. • Chewing gum can help cut out some calories and curb cravings for high-calorie snacks
  28. 28. Bibliography Source materials: • KONAR N., PALABIYIK I., SAID TOKER O., SAGDIC O., 2006, Chewing gum: Production, quality parameters and opportunities for delivering bioactive compounds, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 55, 29 – 38. Internet sources: • http://www.wrigley.com/global/benefits-of-chewing.aspx • http://www.confectionerynews.com/Markets/Functional-chewing-gum- market-opportunities • http://www.wrigley.com/global/about-us/how-gum-made.aspx

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