Solids:plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash liquids:Domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of an area of soil. Its purpose is any or all of the following:- to conserve moisture to improve the fertility and health of the soil to reduce weed growth to enhance the visual appeal of the area;organic,rubber,plastic
Packaging materials account for a significant amount of the trash we generate. Consider buying items in bulk or those with minimal packaging. Choose products with reduced toxicity such as batteries with reduced mercury. Try to replace products such as pesticides, cleaners, polishes, deodorizers that contain hazardous components.
Lighting: Use flourescent lightening vs. incandescent lightening Use task lightening vs. general lighting when possible. Take advantage of sunlight when possible. Surface Units: Match the size of the pan to the size of the surface unit. Use lids to reduce cooking time and the amount of moisture lost. Refrigerators / Freezers: Replace gaskets around the doors if seal is not tight. Vacuum condenser coils on the back of the refrigerator at least twice a year. Avoid keeping the refrigerator/freezer doors open too long. Keep refrigerator / freezer organized. Avoid filling the refrigerator/freezer too full. It has to work hard to cool / freeze foods when it is too full. Be sure to cool foods before they are put in the refrigerator / freezer. When replacing appliances look for “Energy Star” trademark Ovens: Plan meals to cook several foods at one time. Avoid opening the oven. Use the oven light to avoid letting heat out of the oven. Use small appliances when cooking smaller amounts of food or to reduce the cooking time. General: Avoid running appliances and other energy usages at peak consumption times of the day. This will save money.
Faucets: Repair leaky faucets Install low flow aerators. Dishwashing: Wash dishes by hand vs dishwasher when possible. Wash dishes then rinse all dishes afterward when possible. Wash dishes in a dishpan or close the drain and use just the amount of water needed to wash dishes. Wash least dirty dishes first and safe most dirty pots and pans until last. This will save water too! Scrape vs. rinse dishes before loading the dishwasher. Run full loads in the dishwasher. Air dry vs. using the dryer cycle. Cooking methods: Choose cooking methods that use less water in preparation. Rinse fruits and vegetables quickly. Other: Reduce the temperature of hot water heaters. Possible turn off while on vacation to save energy.
Solid waste mgt pavani
Solid waste management Pavani Asst Prof GRCP Hyd
What are Wastes?“substances or objects which are disposed of orare intended to be disposed of or are requiredto be disposed of by the provisions of the law” 2
Sources of Wastes Households Commerce and Industry 5
Solid Waste in India• 7.2 million tonnes of hazardous waste• One Sq km of additional landfill area every-year• Rs 1600 crore for treatment & disposal of these wastes• In addition to this industries discharge about 150 million tonnes of high volume low hazard waste every year, which is mostly dumped on open low lying land areas. Source: Estimate of Ministry of Environment & Forest
Waste Collection in India• Primarily by the city municipality -No gradation of waste product eg bio-degradable, glasses, polybags, paper shreds etc -Dumps these wastes to the city outskirts• Local raddiwala / kabadiwala (Rag pickers) -Collecting small iron pieces by magnets -Collecting glass bottles -Collecting paper for recycling
Open Dumps• Predominant method of waste disposal in developing countries• Illegal dumping problems• Groundwater contamination, air pollution, pest and health hazards 10
How solid waste affected us in recent years?• Cloudburst in Mumbai (2005) clogged the sewage line due to large no. of plastic bags• Blast in the Bhusan Steel factory at Noida, caused due to imported scrap from Iran• Reduction in the number of migratory birds due to consumption of contaminated foods• Stray animals dying on streets and farmland due to consumption of plastic bags, which blocks the food movement in their stomach
Waste management Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials. The two conventional principles of waste management
RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSALI WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE) (A) WASTE TO COMPOST (i) AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMPOSTING (ii) VERMI-COMPOSTING (B) WASTE TO ENERGY (i) REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) / PELLETIZATION (ii) BIO-METHANATIONII RECYCLING OF WASTEIII SANITARY LANDFILLINGIV TREATMENT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE SEPARATELY
WEALTH FROM WASTE(PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE)
Producing Mulch and Compost• Mulch is organic material used to protect areas where the soil is disturbed, or to control growth of unwanted vegetation. – Organic material chopped or shredded into smaller pieces.• Composting is using natural decomposition to transform organic material into compost (humus-like product). – With proper management of air and water, composting can transform large quantities over a short period of time. 17
Incineration and Types• Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major furniture and appliances loaded into furnace. Creates air pollution problems.• Refuse-Derived Fuel - Refuse is sorted to remove recyclable and unburnable materials. Higher energy content than raw trash.Reduces disposal volume by 80-90%. Residual ash sent to landfills and usually contains toxic material. 19
WASTE TO ENERGYRefuse derived fuel (RDF) / pelletization• Material separation, size reduction and pelletizing
Incineration• Incinerators drastically reduce the amount of municipal waste. – Up to 90% by volume and 75% by weight.• Primary risks of incineration involve air quality problems and toxicity and disposal of ash.• Even with modern pollution controls, small amounts of pollutants still released into environment• Cost of land and construction for new incinerators are also major concerns facing many communities.• U.S. EPA has not looked favorably on construction of new waste-to- energy facilities. – Encouraged recycling and source reduction as more effective solutions to deal with solid waste. 22
WASTE MINIMISATIONPrevention of waste being created is known as wastereduction which is an important method of wastemanagement.The modern concepts based on the three ‘R’s are: Reduce,Reuse and Recycle.
The best place to practice conserving resources is athome. Individuals can substantially REDUCE, REUSE,AND RECYCLE waste and conserve resources 24
REDUCE: cut the amount of WASTE used:SOLID WASTE (consuming and conserving):• Packaging: – Choose products with minimal packaging to reduce• Paper Products: – Reduce the amount of paper products used• Other: – Identify products and practices to reduce waste toxicity. 25
REDUCE: cut the amount of ENERGY used: • Lighting • Surface Units • Refrigerators / Freezers • Ovens 26
REDUCE: cut the amount of WATER used: • Faucets • Dishwashing • Cooking Methods 27
Processing of a waste item into usable forms.Benefits of recycling:-Reduce environmental degradation-Making money out of waste-Save energy that would have gone into waste handling & product manufactureSaving through recycling:-When Al is resmelted- considerable saving in cost-Making paper from waste saves 50% energy-Every tonne of recycled glass saves energy equivalent to 100 litres of oil
Solutions:• Choose recyclable products• Select products made from recycled materials• Compost yard clippings and some food scraps. 30
Closed loop recycling"Closed loop" recycling is basically a production process in which post-consumer waste is collected, recycled and used to make new products.This process can be as simple as using recycled aluminum to make new cans, or as complicated as weaving reclaimed plastic bottles into polyester for clothing and other products.
Recycling is not a solution to all problems!Recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste materialFor many items recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafeIn some cases, cost of recycling is too high.
Source Reduction• Simplest way to reduce waste is to prevent it from ever becoming waste in the first place. – Source reduction is the practice of designing, manufacturing, purchasing, using and reusing materials so that the amount of waste or its toxicity is reduced.• Design Changes – Since 2-liter soft drink bottle introduced in 1977, weight has been reduced by 25%.• Manufacturing Processes – Reduce waste, increase efficiency.• Purchasing Decisions – Choose reduced packaging and plan quantities accordingly.• Reusing Items – Delay or prevent entry of items into waste collection stream. 34
Sanitary Landfills• More than 1,200 of the 1,500 existing landfills in the U.S. have closed.• Many major cities must export their trash. 35
• Biomedical waste, (BMW), consists of solids, liquids, sharps, and laboratory waste that are potentially infectious or dangerous• It must be properly managed to protect the general public, specifically healthcare and sanitation workers who are regularly exposed to biomedical waste as an occupational hazard.