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Solid waste management                    Pavani                    Asst Prof                    GRCP                    Hyd
What are Wastes?“substances or objects which are disposed of orare intended to be disposed of or are requiredto be dispose...
Sources of Wastes             Households             Commerce and Industry                                 5
Sources of WastesAgricultureFisheries                                  6
Solid Waste in India• 7.2 million tonnes of hazardous waste• One Sq km of additional landfill area every-year• Rs 1600 cro...
Waste Collection in India• Primarily by the city municipality  -No gradation of waste product eg bio-degradable,  glasses,...
Open Dumps• Predominant method of waste disposal in developing  countries• Illegal dumping problems• Groundwater contamina...
Ocean Dumping                11
How solid waste affected us in recent years?• Cloudburst in Mumbai (2005) clogged the sewage  line due to large no. of pla...
Solid Waste Management and Disposal                 13
Waste management Waste management is the collection, transport, processing,  recycling or disposal and monitoring of wast...
RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSALI     WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE)      (A)   WAST...
WEALTH FROM WASTE(PROCESSING OF ORGANIC        WASTE)
Producing Mulch and Compost• Mulch is organic material used to protect  areas where the soil is disturbed, or to  control ...
Composting             18
Incineration and Types•   Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major furniture    and appliances loaded into furnace.      ...
Mass-Burn Garbage   Mass-Burn GarbageIncinerator   Incinerator                       20
WASTE TO ENERGYRefuse derived fuel (RDF) / pelletization• Material separation, size reduction and  pelletizing
Incineration• Incinerators drastically reduce the amount of municipal waste.   – Up to 90% by volume and 75% by weight.• P...
WASTE MINIMISATIONPrevention of waste being created is known as wastereduction which is an important method of wastemanage...
The best place to practice conserving resources is athome. Individuals can substantially REDUCE, REUSE,AND RECYCLE waste a...
REDUCE: cut the amount of WASTE used:SOLID WASTE (consuming and conserving):• Packaging:  – Choose products with minimal p...
REDUCE: cut the amount of ENERGY used:  •   Lighting  •   Surface Units  •   Refrigerators / Freezers  •   Ovens          ...
REDUCE: cut the amount of WATER used:  • Faucets  • Dishwashing  • Cooking Methods                                   27
REUSE: Products that you can use again                                         28
Processing of a waste item into usable forms.Benefits of recycling:-Reduce environmental degradation-Making money out of w...
Solutions:• Choose recyclable products• Select products made from recycled materials• Compost yard clippings and some food...
Benefits of Recycling
Closed loop recycling"Closed loop" recycling is basically a production process  in which post-consumer waste is collected,...
Recycling is not a solution to all problems!Recycling is not a solution to managing every  kind of waste materialFor many ...
Source Reduction•   Simplest way to reduce waste is to prevent it from ever becoming waste in    the first place.     – So...
Sanitary Landfills•   More than 1,200 of the 1,500 existing    landfills in the U.S. have closed.•   Many major cities mus...
SanitaryLandfills            36
• Biomedical waste, (BMW), consists of solids,  liquids, sharps, and laboratory waste that are  potentially infectious or ...
Dealing with Material Use and Wastes
HIERARCHY OFWASTE MINIMIZATION
Solid waste mgt pavani
Solid waste mgt pavani
Solid waste mgt pavani
Solid waste mgt pavani
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Solid waste mgt pavani

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Solid waste mgt pavani

  1. 1. Solid waste management Pavani Asst Prof GRCP Hyd
  2. 2. What are Wastes?“substances or objects which are disposed of orare intended to be disposed of or are requiredto be disposed of by the provisions of the law” 2
  3. 3. Sources of Wastes Households Commerce and Industry 5
  4. 4. Sources of WastesAgricultureFisheries 6
  5. 5. Solid Waste in India• 7.2 million tonnes of hazardous waste• One Sq km of additional landfill area every-year• Rs 1600 crore for treatment & disposal of these wastes• In addition to this industries discharge about 150 million tonnes of high volume low hazard waste every year, which is mostly dumped on open low lying land areas. Source: Estimate of Ministry of Environment & Forest
  6. 6. Waste Collection in India• Primarily by the city municipality -No gradation of waste product eg bio-degradable, glasses, polybags, paper shreds etc -Dumps these wastes to the city outskirts• Local raddiwala / kabadiwala (Rag pickers) -Collecting small iron pieces by magnets -Collecting glass bottles -Collecting paper for recycling
  7. 7. Open Dumps• Predominant method of waste disposal in developing countries• Illegal dumping problems• Groundwater contamination, air pollution, pest and health hazards 10
  8. 8. Ocean Dumping 11
  9. 9. How solid waste affected us in recent years?• Cloudburst in Mumbai (2005) clogged the sewage line due to large no. of plastic bags• Blast in the Bhusan Steel factory at Noida, caused due to imported scrap from Iran• Reduction in the number of migratory birds due to consumption of contaminated foods• Stray animals dying on streets and farmland due to consumption of plastic bags, which blocks the food movement in their stomach
  10. 10. Solid Waste Management and Disposal 13
  11. 11. Waste management Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials. The two conventional principles of waste management
  12. 12. RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSALI WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE) (A) WASTE TO COMPOST (i) AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMPOSTING (ii) VERMI-COMPOSTING (B) WASTE TO ENERGY (i) REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) / PELLETIZATION (ii) BIO-METHANATIONII RECYCLING OF WASTEIII SANITARY LANDFILLINGIV TREATMENT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE SEPARATELY
  13. 13. WEALTH FROM WASTE(PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE)
  14. 14. Producing Mulch and Compost• Mulch is organic material used to protect areas where the soil is disturbed, or to control growth of unwanted vegetation. – Organic material chopped or shredded into smaller pieces.• Composting is using natural decomposition to transform organic material into compost (humus-like product). – With proper management of air and water, composting can transform large quantities over a short period of time. 17
  15. 15. Composting 18
  16. 16. Incineration and Types• Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major furniture and appliances loaded into furnace.  Creates air pollution problems.• Refuse-Derived Fuel - Refuse is sorted to remove recyclable and unburnable materials.  Higher energy content than raw trash.Reduces disposal volume by 80-90%.  Residual ash sent to landfills and usually contains toxic material. 19
  17. 17. Mass-Burn Garbage Mass-Burn GarbageIncinerator Incinerator 20
  18. 18. WASTE TO ENERGYRefuse derived fuel (RDF) / pelletization• Material separation, size reduction and pelletizing
  19. 19. Incineration• Incinerators drastically reduce the amount of municipal waste. – Up to 90% by volume and 75% by weight.• Primary risks of incineration involve air quality problems and toxicity and disposal of ash.• Even with modern pollution controls, small amounts of pollutants still released into environment• Cost of land and construction for new incinerators are also major concerns facing many communities.• U.S. EPA has not looked favorably on construction of new waste-to- energy facilities. – Encouraged recycling and source reduction as more effective solutions to deal with solid waste. 22
  20. 20. WASTE MINIMISATIONPrevention of waste being created is known as wastereduction which is an important method of wastemanagement.The modern concepts based on the three ‘R’s are: Reduce,Reuse and Recycle.
  21. 21. The best place to practice conserving resources is athome. Individuals can substantially REDUCE, REUSE,AND RECYCLE waste and conserve resources 24
  22. 22. REDUCE: cut the amount of WASTE used:SOLID WASTE (consuming and conserving):• Packaging: – Choose products with minimal packaging to reduce• Paper Products: – Reduce the amount of paper products used• Other: – Identify products and practices to reduce waste toxicity. 25
  23. 23. REDUCE: cut the amount of ENERGY used: • Lighting • Surface Units • Refrigerators / Freezers • Ovens 26
  24. 24. REDUCE: cut the amount of WATER used: • Faucets • Dishwashing • Cooking Methods 27
  25. 25. REUSE: Products that you can use again 28
  26. 26. Processing of a waste item into usable forms.Benefits of recycling:-Reduce environmental degradation-Making money out of waste-Save energy that would have gone into waste handling & product manufactureSaving through recycling:-When Al is resmelted- considerable saving in cost-Making paper from waste saves 50% energy-Every tonne of recycled glass saves energy equivalent to 100 litres of oil
  27. 27. Solutions:• Choose recyclable products• Select products made from recycled materials• Compost yard clippings and some food scraps. 30
  28. 28. Benefits of Recycling
  29. 29. Closed loop recycling"Closed loop" recycling is basically a production process in which post-consumer waste is collected, recycled and used to make new products.This process can be as simple as using recycled aluminum to make new cans, or as complicated as weaving reclaimed plastic bottles into polyester for clothing and other products.
  30. 30. Recycling is not a solution to all problems!Recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste materialFor many items recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafeIn some cases, cost of recycling is too high.
  31. 31. Source Reduction• Simplest way to reduce waste is to prevent it from ever becoming waste in the first place. – Source reduction is the practice of designing, manufacturing, purchasing, using and reusing materials so that the amount of waste or its toxicity is reduced.• Design Changes – Since 2-liter soft drink bottle introduced in 1977, weight has been reduced by 25%.• Manufacturing Processes – Reduce waste, increase efficiency.• Purchasing Decisions – Choose reduced packaging and plan quantities accordingly.• Reusing Items – Delay or prevent entry of items into waste collection stream. 34
  32. 32. Sanitary Landfills• More than 1,200 of the 1,500 existing landfills in the U.S. have closed.• Many major cities must export their trash. 35
  33. 33. SanitaryLandfills 36
  34. 34. • Biomedical waste, (BMW), consists of solids, liquids, sharps, and laboratory waste that are potentially infectious or dangerous• It must be properly managed to protect the general public, specifically healthcare and sanitation workers who are regularly exposed to biomedical waste as an occupational hazard.
  35. 35. Dealing with Material Use and Wastes
  36. 36. HIERARCHY OFWASTE MINIMIZATION

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