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What goes Underground?
Why go Underground?
How is the Underground built?
Where are problems
encountered?
When do risks get mitigated?
What Goes Underground?
Shelters and Fully-Designed Homes..
Basic protection from enemies and elements..
Partially-modified for added protection and comfort..
Built to drawings and specifications..
Mining Operations..
Open Pits transitioning to
Underground mines.. exploiting lodes to
depth and reducing environmental
footprints
Water Systems..
Collection/Supply/Irrigation/Distribution
Underground Sewage Treatment
Plant, BondiCanal
Mass Transit Systems..
Road Traffic..
Hydro-Electric Power Plants..
Surge Shaft
Powerhouse
High Pressure Tunnel
Fuel Storage..
Other Ground Storage Media..
–Solution-Mined Salt Domes
–Depleted “Reservoir Rocks”(CO2)
–Lined Hard Rock Caverns (Compressed and
Liquified Natural Gas, LNG)
Packaged and Bulk Materials..
•Silo/Bunker Storage..
–Coal, Grains, Ore..
•Warehousing
–often in converted mine space
Critical Infrastructure..
•Secure sites with network
-wide access
–Controlled exit/entry
–Atmospheric control (temp., humidity, dust..)
–Ready access for modification and maintenance
•Space and Cost Saving Opportunities (“Utilidors”)..
–Heating/Cooling
–Communications
–Data transfer
–Wastewater
–Freshwater
–Transport
–Power
–etcetera..
Research Facilities•
Worldwide, many
underground research
laboratories and test sites
(waste repository
characterization, physics,
geo-’bio-sciences,
engineering research,
education/training..)
Public Facilities
Pretty Much Anything You Want
Temppeliaukio Church
Le Grand Louvre
Why go underground?
Urban Congestion..
• Go underground to avoid..
–Road pavement
–Buried infrastructure
–Basements & foundations
–Surface condemnations
–Right of way interruptions
–Minimize surface disruption
Create Green Space..
•“The Central
Artery/Tunnel
Project will
create more
than 300 acres
of landscaped
and restored
open space,
including over
45 parks and
major public
plazas”.
Protection.. KobeEarthquake(Japan – 1995)
Severe damage to the Kobe City Hall
No damage to the underground shopping
mall located below
Isolation
Stable, Quiet and Shielded
–Waste Isolation
–Experiments and Testing..
How is underground built?
Methods for underground construction
• Cut and cover method in open excavation;
• Cut and cover method between earth retaining walls with lowering of the
ground water levels;
• Cut and cover method between earth retaining walls without lowering of
the ground water levels;
• Wall and roof method;
• Pneumatic caisson method;
• Immersed tunnel method;
• Bored tunnel method;
• Top Down method.
EXCAVATION BY TUNNEL BORING
MACHINE
1. Excavation and support of working shafts
2. Excavation and support of undercut and tail tunnel
3. Excavation of the tunnel itself
4. Disposal of soil from tunnel face
5. Hoisting the soil to ground level
6. Lining the tunnel
7. Extending services and rail tracks (if necessary)
8. Excavation and support of the removal shaft
Shielded TBM involve the following activities:
Excavation In DRY Soils
Earth Pressure Balance Digger Shield”
Excavation In WET Soils
• Slurry Shield
Excavation in Rocks
Mechanical
Equipment
Or
Explosive
Blasting.
• The person in charge of blasting shall be
the last to leave the blast area, shall see
that no one remains in the blast area, and
shall operate the sectioning switches in
the firing line while proceeding out of the
blast area.
• No persons shall enter the tunnel blast
area until the ventilation system has
cleared the heading of harmful gases,
smoke, and dust.
• After each blast, the underground
supports in the blast area shall be
inspected and secured as necessary work
is resumed. Rock surfaces shall be
inspected, scaled, and if required,
provided with shoring, bracing, rock bolts,
Shotcrete, or chain link fabric, before
mucking is started. Rock bolts within 100
ft (30.4 m) of a blast shall be tested after
each blast before drilling for the next
round begins.
• The muck pile shall be wet down prior to
and kept wet during operations.
Some Ground Improvement Options..
Freezing.. to stabilize the ground and/or
preserve the water table Grouting.. to
stabilize the ground and/or render it ~
watertight
Some Ground Support Systems..
Rock Bolts and Steel Channel
Steel Arches
Pre-Cast Concrete Segments
Shotcrete
Integrated Waterproofing
Cast Iron Segments
Type of Ground
Supports
The Technique Of
Jacked Box
Tunneling:
 simplest form
 A purpose designed tunnel shield
is cast on to the leading end of
the box, and thrust jacks are
provided at the rear end reacting
against the jacking base
 Control of Ground Disturbance
 Constructional Tolerances
 Particular hazards
 Alternative method for such case
Where are Problems Encountered?
Ground Surprises..
• Geo-material properties vary in time/space (e.g.
geo-statistics..)
–Strengths
–Loads/Stresses
–Deformations (elastic and plastic)
• Sometimes the engineering process fails to
account for the impacts of geo-variability on..
–Designed structures..
–Surrounding structures/environment
Major Excavation Happen..
Shanghai
Singapore
London
Munich
Worldwide, Major Projects.. Major Losses
• –1999 Hull Yorkshire Tunnel, UK Collapse
• –1999 TAV Bologna -Florence, Italy Collapse
• –1999 Anatolia Motorway, Turkey Earthquake
• –2000 Metro Taegu, Korea Collapse
• –2000 TAV Bologna -Florence, Italy Collapse
• –2002 Taiwan High Speed Railway Collapse
• –2003 Shanghai Metro, PRC Collapse
• –2004 Singapore Metro, Singapore Collapse.
• –2005 Barcelona Metro, Spain Collapse
• –2005 Lausanne Metro, Switzerland Collapse
• –2005 Lane Cove Tunnel, Sydney Collapse
• –2005 Kaohsiung Metro, Taiwan
• ………etcetera..
Fractured Rock Subject to Stress & Gravity
Observed at the engineering scale
rock is rarely solid..A “hard” rock
mass may contain weak clays or
even voids..
Ravelling
Alteration
Spalling/Bursting
Changing Groundwater Conditions
• “High Water
Pressure
Complicates
Arrowhead
Tunnels..”
When Do Risks Get Mitigated?
In Studying the Regional Geology
• Benefit from the
experience of others..–
Same/similar rock–
Same/similar needs–
Much of the early work
can be done from
behind the desk
Putting the Site in Context..
In Scoping the Site Investigation (SI)
• Mixed-scale data sets..
• experience needed
• Field Investigation..
–Exposures
–Geophysics
–Boreholes
–Testing
•Field
•Lab
Characterizing Subsurface Site
• 3-D Geo-Models
–From cms to kms
–Basis of Design..
• Conditions;
dry, damp, wet, massive, hard, stratified, seamy, schistose,
jointed, blocky, crushed, soil-like..
• •Behaviors;
raveling, running, flowing, squeezing, swelling, spalling, rock
burst..
• –Deciding between options..
•Siting
•Design
•Construction
Design & Specify for Geo-Diversity
• Plan for Variation..
–Geologic
Uncertainties
–Design &
Construction Changes
Many
Designs..One
Tunnel
In Conclusion..
•What goes Underground?
–Pretty much any thing that could be placed on surface
•Why go Underground?
–Many advantages.. Cost and risk are the main draw-
backs
•How is Underground Space Created?
–Technology exists to build in pretty much any geo-
material
•Where Problems are Encountered Underground?
–Same old problems..no foolproof solutions
•When do risks get mitigated?
–Opportunities for risk management are there.. they
need to be seized
•Who can best mitigate the risks?
–Practitioners and researchers collaborating together at
sites
Reference
• American society of civil engineers - technical committee on contracting practices
of the underground technology research council. 1991.
• The equipment magazine for the underground construction industry
• Forensic engineering for underground construction-e. T. Brown
• Journal of geotechnical engineering, asce, 115(11): 1513-1531.
• Seismic analysis of underground structures-kazuhiko kawashima
• Underground structures engineering services for owners and contractors
• Geoengineering considerations in the optimum use of underground space -
raymond l. Sterling
• Godard, j.P., 1999. “Sub-surface development in the urban environment,” proc.
10th australian tunnelling conference, “the race for space”, melbourne.
• Ita, 1987. “Examples of benefits of underground urban public transportation
systems,” report of the working group on costs-benefits of underground urban
public transportation, tunnelling and underground space technology, vol. 2, no. 1,
pergamon press, oxford, u.K.
• Support in underground hard rock mines-evert hoek
• Drilling and blasting for underground space - R pesch1 and a robertson2
Underground construction

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Underground construction

  • 1.
  • 2. Outline What goes Underground? Why go Underground? How is the Underground built? Where are problems encountered? When do risks get mitigated?
  • 4. Shelters and Fully-Designed Homes.. Basic protection from enemies and elements.. Partially-modified for added protection and comfort.. Built to drawings and specifications..
  • 5. Mining Operations.. Open Pits transitioning to Underground mines.. exploiting lodes to depth and reducing environmental footprints
  • 9. Hydro-Electric Power Plants.. Surge Shaft Powerhouse High Pressure Tunnel
  • 10. Fuel Storage.. Other Ground Storage Media.. –Solution-Mined Salt Domes –Depleted “Reservoir Rocks”(CO2) –Lined Hard Rock Caverns (Compressed and Liquified Natural Gas, LNG)
  • 11. Packaged and Bulk Materials.. •Silo/Bunker Storage.. –Coal, Grains, Ore.. •Warehousing –often in converted mine space
  • 12. Critical Infrastructure.. •Secure sites with network -wide access –Controlled exit/entry –Atmospheric control (temp., humidity, dust..) –Ready access for modification and maintenance •Space and Cost Saving Opportunities (“Utilidors”).. –Heating/Cooling –Communications –Data transfer –Wastewater –Freshwater –Transport –Power –etcetera..
  • 13. Research Facilities• Worldwide, many underground research laboratories and test sites (waste repository characterization, physics, geo-’bio-sciences, engineering research, education/training..)
  • 15. Pretty Much Anything You Want Temppeliaukio Church Le Grand Louvre
  • 17. Urban Congestion.. • Go underground to avoid.. –Road pavement –Buried infrastructure –Basements & foundations –Surface condemnations –Right of way interruptions –Minimize surface disruption
  • 18. Create Green Space.. •“The Central Artery/Tunnel Project will create more than 300 acres of landscaped and restored open space, including over 45 parks and major public plazas”.
  • 19. Protection.. KobeEarthquake(Japan – 1995) Severe damage to the Kobe City Hall No damage to the underground shopping mall located below
  • 20. Isolation Stable, Quiet and Shielded –Waste Isolation –Experiments and Testing..
  • 22. Methods for underground construction • Cut and cover method in open excavation; • Cut and cover method between earth retaining walls with lowering of the ground water levels; • Cut and cover method between earth retaining walls without lowering of the ground water levels; • Wall and roof method; • Pneumatic caisson method; • Immersed tunnel method; • Bored tunnel method; • Top Down method.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. EXCAVATION BY TUNNEL BORING MACHINE
  • 29. 1. Excavation and support of working shafts 2. Excavation and support of undercut and tail tunnel 3. Excavation of the tunnel itself 4. Disposal of soil from tunnel face 5. Hoisting the soil to ground level 6. Lining the tunnel 7. Extending services and rail tracks (if necessary) 8. Excavation and support of the removal shaft Shielded TBM involve the following activities:
  • 30. Excavation In DRY Soils Earth Pressure Balance Digger Shield”
  • 31. Excavation In WET Soils • Slurry Shield
  • 33. Blasting. • The person in charge of blasting shall be the last to leave the blast area, shall see that no one remains in the blast area, and shall operate the sectioning switches in the firing line while proceeding out of the blast area. • No persons shall enter the tunnel blast area until the ventilation system has cleared the heading of harmful gases, smoke, and dust. • After each blast, the underground supports in the blast area shall be inspected and secured as necessary work is resumed. Rock surfaces shall be inspected, scaled, and if required, provided with shoring, bracing, rock bolts, Shotcrete, or chain link fabric, before mucking is started. Rock bolts within 100 ft (30.4 m) of a blast shall be tested after each blast before drilling for the next round begins. • The muck pile shall be wet down prior to and kept wet during operations.
  • 34. Some Ground Improvement Options.. Freezing.. to stabilize the ground and/or preserve the water table Grouting.. to stabilize the ground and/or render it ~ watertight
  • 35.
  • 36. Some Ground Support Systems.. Rock Bolts and Steel Channel Steel Arches Pre-Cast Concrete Segments Shotcrete Integrated Waterproofing Cast Iron Segments
  • 38.
  • 39. The Technique Of Jacked Box Tunneling:  simplest form  A purpose designed tunnel shield is cast on to the leading end of the box, and thrust jacks are provided at the rear end reacting against the jacking base  Control of Ground Disturbance  Constructional Tolerances  Particular hazards  Alternative method for such case
  • 40.
  • 41. Where are Problems Encountered?
  • 42. Ground Surprises.. • Geo-material properties vary in time/space (e.g. geo-statistics..) –Strengths –Loads/Stresses –Deformations (elastic and plastic) • Sometimes the engineering process fails to account for the impacts of geo-variability on.. –Designed structures.. –Surrounding structures/environment
  • 44. Worldwide, Major Projects.. Major Losses • –1999 Hull Yorkshire Tunnel, UK Collapse • –1999 TAV Bologna -Florence, Italy Collapse • –1999 Anatolia Motorway, Turkey Earthquake • –2000 Metro Taegu, Korea Collapse • –2000 TAV Bologna -Florence, Italy Collapse • –2002 Taiwan High Speed Railway Collapse • –2003 Shanghai Metro, PRC Collapse • –2004 Singapore Metro, Singapore Collapse. • –2005 Barcelona Metro, Spain Collapse • –2005 Lausanne Metro, Switzerland Collapse • –2005 Lane Cove Tunnel, Sydney Collapse • –2005 Kaohsiung Metro, Taiwan • ………etcetera..
  • 45. Fractured Rock Subject to Stress & Gravity Observed at the engineering scale rock is rarely solid..A “hard” rock mass may contain weak clays or even voids.. Ravelling Alteration Spalling/Bursting
  • 46. Changing Groundwater Conditions • “High Water Pressure Complicates Arrowhead Tunnels..”
  • 47. When Do Risks Get Mitigated?
  • 48. In Studying the Regional Geology • Benefit from the experience of others..– Same/similar rock– Same/similar needs– Much of the early work can be done from behind the desk Putting the Site in Context..
  • 49. In Scoping the Site Investigation (SI) • Mixed-scale data sets.. • experience needed • Field Investigation.. –Exposures –Geophysics –Boreholes –Testing •Field •Lab
  • 50. Characterizing Subsurface Site • 3-D Geo-Models –From cms to kms –Basis of Design.. • Conditions; dry, damp, wet, massive, hard, stratified, seamy, schistose, jointed, blocky, crushed, soil-like.. • •Behaviors; raveling, running, flowing, squeezing, swelling, spalling, rock burst.. • –Deciding between options.. •Siting •Design •Construction
  • 51. Design & Specify for Geo-Diversity • Plan for Variation.. –Geologic Uncertainties –Design & Construction Changes Many Designs..One Tunnel
  • 52. In Conclusion.. •What goes Underground? –Pretty much any thing that could be placed on surface •Why go Underground? –Many advantages.. Cost and risk are the main draw- backs •How is Underground Space Created? –Technology exists to build in pretty much any geo- material •Where Problems are Encountered Underground? –Same old problems..no foolproof solutions •When do risks get mitigated? –Opportunities for risk management are there.. they need to be seized •Who can best mitigate the risks? –Practitioners and researchers collaborating together at sites
  • 53. Reference • American society of civil engineers - technical committee on contracting practices of the underground technology research council. 1991. • The equipment magazine for the underground construction industry • Forensic engineering for underground construction-e. T. Brown • Journal of geotechnical engineering, asce, 115(11): 1513-1531. • Seismic analysis of underground structures-kazuhiko kawashima • Underground structures engineering services for owners and contractors • Geoengineering considerations in the optimum use of underground space - raymond l. Sterling • Godard, j.P., 1999. “Sub-surface development in the urban environment,” proc. 10th australian tunnelling conference, “the race for space”, melbourne. • Ita, 1987. “Examples of benefits of underground urban public transportation systems,” report of the working group on costs-benefits of underground urban public transportation, tunnelling and underground space technology, vol. 2, no. 1, pergamon press, oxford, u.K. • Support in underground hard rock mines-evert hoek • Drilling and blasting for underground space - R pesch1 and a robertson2