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  1. 1. HISTORY OF ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR This is a non professional history investigation done by Paulo Silva
  3. 3. SHOE: Old English scoh "shoe," from Proto-Germanic *skokhaz (source also of Old Norse skor, Danish and Swedish sko, Old Frisian skoch, Old Saxon skoh, Middle Dutch scoe, Dutch schoen, Old High German scuoh, German Schuh, Gothic skoh). No known cognates outside Germanic, unless it somehow is connected with PIE root *skeu- "cover" (source also of second element in Latin ob-scurus). FOOTWEAR: An Americanism dating back to 1880–85; foot + wear
  5. 5. 38,000 BC- Analysis of prehistoric skeletons suggests the probable use of footwear Footwear tends to modify feet.
  6. 6. 14,000 BC- Regions of Spain and France today. First proof of the existence of footwear, cave paintings.
  7. 7. 8300 BC - North American Native Sandals Differentiation between left and right sandals is observed.
  8. 8. 3500 BC-Older leather shoes preserved Built to wrap the feet from the sole up, like modern loafers.
  9. 9. 3100 BC - Ancient Egypt, sandals manufacture Specialized craftsmen, leather was reserved for senior dignitaries.
  10. 10. 776 BC to 393 AC- Sandals used in the ancient Olympics The introduction of sole studs by the Etruscans.
  11. 11. 2000 BC-200 AC-Mesoamerican Civilizations Use of latex as a foot covering
  12. 12. 1525-Cornelius Johnson, England-Football Boots First record of a specific sport footwear, made for Henry VIII in 1525 for 4 Shillings (about 115 € today) its appearance is not known.
  13. 13. 1832-Wait Webster patented a process of "applying Indian rubber soles to shoes and boots" He could be thinking about making sports shoes.
  15. 15. 1830-Liverpool Rubber Company (later to become Dunlop), Plimsoll Non vulcanized
  16. 16. 1840's- Hayward Rubber, Tennis Co-Shoes Canvas covered with rubber
  17. 17. 1844-Charles Goodyear, USA-Patent of rubber vulcanization Without it. rubber would not be stable to temperature variations.
  18. 18. 1860- Thomas Dutton and Thorowgood, running shoes with spikes, hand made from Kangaroo leather. (The grandfather of running shoes), use of traction spikes for sport
  19. 19. 1890-Colchester Rubber CO, advertising sports shoes Rubber stabilized by vulcanization (ancestors of modern sports shoes)
  20. 20. 1895- Joseph William Foster (later Reebok) – Running Spikes Modern plate and spikes configuration
  21. 21. 1916-US Rubber company, KEDS, sports shoes for women With heel for “comfort”
  22. 22. Early 1900s-New York Sneaker gangs
  23. 23. 1930-Ritchings Company-Running shoes with crepe soles and soft leather upper. Made to order and custom made, leather upper was super thin (the thickness of a sheet of paper)
  24. 24. 1946-Gebrüder Dassler, Sportschuhfabrik (later adidas / Puma) -Sport shoes. WW2 leftovers recicled materials
  25. 25. 1951 Onitsuka Tiger, OK Basketball Greater traction, inspired by octopus suction cups.
  26. 26. 1952-Puma, Super Atom First football boots with replaceable studs.
  27. 27. 1960-Onitsuka, Tiger Magic Runner First racing style that tries to deal with blisters.
  28. 28. 1960-New Balance, Trackster Shoe with Ripple sole, “absorbed shock and reduced fatigue”, available in widths
  29. 29. 1967-Onitsuka Tiger, TG4 Marathon First use of nylon laminated foam on the upper
  31. 31. 1969-ASICS Tiger Cortez (later Nike Cortez/ ONITSUKA Tiger Corsair) Thicker sole, release pressure in collar as adaptation to US market
  32. 32. 1969-ASICS Tiger Cortez (later Nike Cortez/ ONITSUKA Tiger Corsair) Thicker sole, release pressure in collar as adaptation to US market
  33. 33. 1969-Walsh-Pennine Adder The ancestor of trail shoes
  34. 34. 1972-Nike, Oregon Waffle racing flat 12 pairs hand made by Geoff Hollister for use in the US trials, wafle sole could be used in cross-country, track or on the road
  35. 35. 1974-Brooks-Villanova / Onitsuka Tiger OHBORI Full length EVA midsole, up to 90% of sports or comfortable shoes still use EVA today
  36. 36. 1976-Brooks ,Vantage. Varus sole, the first attempt to stabilize overpronation
  37. 37. 1977-Nike ,Wafle Roller Skates. Roller skates made in partnership, Nike made it gain in the 80s and when owned Bauer in the 90s / 2000s
  38. 38. 1978-Onitsuka Tiger, California 78 First use of reflective material to run in low light conditions
  39. 39. 1978-Saucony, Ms. Gripper First performance sports shoe developed with a specific women last
  40. 40. 1979- Nike-Tailwind First cushioning technology, “Nike AIR”
  41. 41. 1979- Brooks, Hugger GT First running shoe with Gore-tex
  42. 42. 1979- Kangaroos Running shoes with pockets
  43. 43. 1979- Stride Rite, Z Running shoes designed specifically for children
  44. 44. 1979-Kaepa, Dual lace system Custom fit on the rearfoot/ forefoot
  45. 45. 1980-ASICS Tiger, X-CALIBUR First shoe based on biomechanical research, first molded EVA sole
  46. 46. 1980-Saucony Trainer 1980 First shoe using foam instead of cardboard in the lasting
  47. 47. 1982-Reebok, Freestyle First modern women's performance sports shoe designed to have a feminine look.
  48. 48. 1982- New Balance, Running Shoe System Collection created with different styles suitable for different customer needs
  49. 49. 1982-ASICS Tiger, X-Caliber GT/ Skysensor GT (Japão) First shoes with “Duomax” sole, technology still used today
  50. 50. 1982-New Balance, 990 First style to exceed USD 100 $ (equivalent to $ 267.50 today)
  51. 51. 1983-Mizuno, Cassette Insole System Custom cushioning adjustment according to customer choice or needs.
  52. 52. 1983-Joe Saja/Keds, Millenium Shoes with plugs that were replaced to increase outsole’s durability
  53. 53. 1983- Aero Shoe Company, Aero Shoe Inflatable air chamber shoes
  54. 54. 1984-adidas, Micro-pacer Shoes with built-in pedometer, first attempt to obtain training data effortlessly (distance, running pace, and calories)
  55. 55. 1984-Sako, Super Shoes for supinators/underpronators
  56. 56. 1985- ASICS Tiger, Sortie World’s lightest shoe, (100g size 9 USA)
  57. 57. 1985- Turntec, Apex Replaceable velcro outsole ( included road and trail soles)
  58. 58. 1985-Nike, AIR jordan (Supposedly) doesn't comply with NBA uniform regulations, suddenly the most important thing was not only the technicality but the “cool” factor
  59. 59. 1984/1985-Nike, AIR Ship named “AIR Jordan” (These are the real shoes that did not met NBA uniform regulations)
  60. 60. 1986- ASICS Tiger, Ultra 1000 CMEVA midsole used to stabilize.
  61. 61. 1986-Puma, RS computer First attempt to make shoes that enables recording and storing training data
  62. 62. 1986-adidas, APS First attempt to adjust cushioning
  63. 63. 1986-adidas, Fire/Rising Star Attempt to adjust the shoe (pronation or supination)
  64. 64. 1986/1987-Nike, AIR trainer First Cross-Trainning Shoe (Trainning)
  65. 65. 1987-Nike, AIR MAX Technology became visible and palpable
  66. 66. 1988-adidas, ZX 8000 Torsion, thermoplastic bar that stabilizes the foot ground contact (replacement of rubber and foam with a lighter compound).
  67. 67. 1989-A Reebok, The Pump Fit customization and price status, 175 $ USD per pair (equivalent to $ 249.64 USD)
  68. 68. 1989-LA Gear, Nike Late to the market, seen as copies, not cool.
  69. 69. 1989-ASICS, Marathon SORTIE EX Duo Sole (Composite sole)
  70. 70. 1992-Puma, Disc System Runner Replacing shoelaces
  71. 71. 1992- Z-Coil Giant metal coil on the heel.
  72. 72. 1992-LA Gear, LA Tech Crossrunner Shoes with lights for greater visibility (there is a record of an ASICS style with the same technology issued in 1991/92, “ASICS Gel-Night Lyte”).
  73. 73. 1993-adidas, Tubular Outsole with inflatable air chambers to vary the cushioning
  74. 74. 1994-adidas, Predator Thermoplastic applications in the boot’s upper increasing power and control
  75. 75. 1994-Reebok, Instapump Fury Carbon plate replacing a large part of the sole, instapump with CO2 cartridges.
  76. 76. 1996-adidas , Feet you wear Last and design inspired by the shape of the foot
  77. 77. 1999- MBT Rocker sole allows walking or running with less effort.
  78. 78. 2000-Heelys Shoes with wheels on the heel
  80. 80. 2002- Reebok, Travel Trainer Shoes that could be collapsed, eventually would be sold on vending machines at airports.
  81. 81. 2004- adidas, Predator Powerpulse Mass redistribution, increasing stroked speed ball speed by 5%
  82. 82. 2004-adidas, A1 Shoe with chip in the midsole that modifies its firmness automatically, adapting it to the ground conditions and user
  83. 83. 2004-Nike, Free Shoes to "strengthen" feet.
  84. 84. 2004-adidas, Ultraride First foam-free midsole shoes *(different brands claim this)
  85. 85. 2005- Vivo Barefoot, Primus “barefoot” running / walking shoes
  86. 86. 2005-Vibram, Five Fingers Ultralight and thin shoes with separated toes.
  87. 87. 2005-Nike & Apple, Nike+iPod / adidas & Polar, Project fusion Integration of training data collection, built-in monitoring bands apparel (adidas).
  88. 88. 2007-Newton Running, Zero First zero drop running shoes brand
  89. 89. 2008- Brooks, Trance 8 BioMogo, midsole material 100% Biodegradable in just 20 to 25 years instead of the 1000 years that takes a conventional sole to degrade.
  90. 90. 2008-END (Environmentally Neutral Design) / Nike, Considered More sustainable footwear, fewer solvents, “veg tan” tanning leather , recycled water, cannabis laces, recycled sole, etc.
  91. 91. 2009- Reebok, Select ride Shoes that automatically adjust midsole technology (DMX), for running or trainning with 5 to 10 steps, through a pump hidden under the insole.
  92. 92. 2010-Brooks, Glycerin It features DNA technology, based on a non-Newtonian fluid adapting to the weight of each runner.
  94. 94. 2011-Hoka, Mafate First “maximalistic” shoe style
  95. 95. 2012-Aetrex & GTX, Navistar Sports shoes with built-in GPS, designed to locate people with alzheimer's
  96. 96. 2012-Nike Flyknit racer / adidas, adizero Primeknit Shoes made with a single piece upper
  97. 97. 2013-adidas, Energy Boost E-TPU midsole with reactivity superior to EVA and PU
  98. 98. 2013-New Balance, Zante Generate First shoes with 3D printed midsole
  99. 99. 2013-adidas, Springblade Shoes with blades to “propel” runners forward.
  100. 100. 2015-ASICS, Metarun “Best training shoe ever”, 2 years to develop, 5 patented technologies, weighs only 300,5g
  101. 101. 2016-adidas, UltraBOOST Uncaged Parley Upper made from recycled polyester
  102. 102. 2016-Nike Zoom Vaporfly 4% laboratory tests showed a 4% improvement in running athletes time
  103. 103. 2016- ASICS, GEL Kayano 25 First shoe with midsole foam made from 40% recycled organic fibers
  104. 104. 2019-Peak Performance, The Next First shoes with upper and sole printed in 3D
  105. 105. 2019-ASICS, Metaride Running shoes that save 19.1% energy on the ankle joint movement, helping runners to save energy
  106. 106. 2020-ASICS, Metaracer Energy saving technology, combined with carbon plate.
  107. 107. 2020-ASICS, Metasprint Track shoes without spikes, using carbon
  108. 108. FUTURE? The athletic shoes industry its a materials industry. Some possibilities Smart fabrics Self repairing materials Nano materials