Multi site Clustering with Windows Server 2008 Enterprise


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Multi site Clustering with Windows Server 2008 Enterprise

  1. 1. Symon PerrimanProgram ManagerMicrosoft CorporationWSV316
  2. 2. Multi-Site ClusteringBenefitsDeploymentReplicationNetworkingFaster FailoverQuorumBest Practices
  3. 3. Benefits of a Multi-Site ClusterProtects Against Loss of an Entire DatacenterPower outage, fires, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, terrorismAutomates FailoverReduced downtimeLower complexity of disaster recovery planReduces Administrative OverheadAutomatically synchronize application and cluster changesEasier to keep consistent than unclustered serversWhat is the primary reason why disaster recovery solutions fail?Dependence on People
  4. 4. Multi-Site Clustering Checklist multi-site cluster deployment guide
  5. 5. Multi-Site ClusteringBenefitsDeploymentReplicationNetworkingFaster FailoverQuorumBest Practices
  6. 6. Site BMulti-Site Clustering Basics2+ physically separate sites1+ node at each siteStorage at each site with data replicationApplication moves duringa failoverSite ASANSAN
  7. 7. Redundancy Everywhere2 or more computers (nodes)2 NICs3rd NIC for iSCSIHBAFibre Channel (FC)Serial Attached-SCSI (SAS)Multipath IO (MPIO)Redundant Storage InterconnectsReplicated StorageOS, Service or Application HA Roles
  8. 8. Mix and Match HardwareYou Can Use Any Hardware Configuration ifEach component has a Windows Server 2008 / R2 logoServers, Storage, HBAs, MPIO, etc…It passes ValidateIt’s That Simple!Connect your Windows Server 2008 / R2 logo’d hardwarePass every test in ValidateIt is now supported!If you make a change, just run Validate againDetails:
  9. 9. FCCPFailover Cluster Configuration ProgramWindows Server 2008 / R2Buy validated solutions“Validated by Microsoft Failover Cluster Configuration Program”Not required for Microsoft support, must be logo’dMore information:
  10. 10. IntroductiontoMulti-SiteClustering
  11. 11. Cluster Validation and ReplicationMulti-Site clusters are notrequired to pass the Storagetests to be supportedValidation guide and policy:
  12. 12. Multi-Site ClusteringBenefitsDeploymentReplicationNetworkingFaster FailoverQuorumBest Practices
  13. 13. Why is Replication Needed?Loss of a site won’t cause complete data lossData must exist on other site after a failoverDifferent storage needs than local clustersMultiple storage arrays, independent on each siteNodes usually access local site’s storage firstSite AChanges are made on Site Aand replicated to Site BSite BReplica
  14. 14. Replication SolutionsReplication LevelsHardware (block level) storage-based replicationSoftware (file system level) host-based replicationApplication-based replicationExchange Server 2007 CCRReplication TypesSynchronousAsynchronousA data replication mechanism between sites is needed
  15. 15. Synchronous ReplicationHost receives “write complete” response from the storage afterthe data is successfully written on both storage devicesPrimaryStorageSecondaryStorageWriteCompleteReplicationAcknowledgementWriteRequest
  16. 16. Asynchronous ReplicationHost receives “write complete” response from the storage afterthe data is successfully written to the primary storage devicePrimaryStorageSecondaryStorageWriteCompleteReplicationWriteRequest
  17. 17. Synchronous vs. AsynchronousSynchronous AsynchronousNo data loss Potential data loss onhard failuresRequires highbandwidth/lowlatency connectionEnough bandwidth to keepup with data replicationStretches overshorter distancesStretches overlonger distancesWrite latencies impactapplication performanceNo significant impact onapplication performance
  18. 18. What About DFS-Replication?DFS-R performs replication on file closeSome file types stay open for a very long timeVHDs for Virtual MachinesDatabases for SQL ServerData could be lost during a failover if it had not yet replicatedUsing DFS-R to replicate the cluster disk’s datain a multi-site Failover Cluster is not supported
  19. 19. Disk ResourceResource GroupCustom Resource(manages replication)IP AddressResources*Network NameResourceEstablishesstart ordertimingGroupdeterminessmallest unit offailoverResource DependenciesWorkload Resource (example File Server)“ depends on ”
  20. 20. Multi-Site ClusteringBenefitsDeploymentReplicationNetworkingFaster FailoverQuorumBest Practices
  21. 21. Site BNetwork ConsiderationsCluster nodes can reside in different subnets (2008/R2)No need to connect nodes with VLANsSite A10.10.10.1
  22. 22. Stretching the NetworkLonger distance means greater network latencyToo many missed health checks can cause false failoverFully configurable in 2008/R2Failover Clustering has NO DISTANCE & NO SUBNET LIMITATIONSCheck if your vendor’s hardware / replication has limitationsSameSubnetDelay (default = 1 second)Frequency heartbeats are sentSameSubnetThreshold (default = 5 heartbeats)Missed heartbeats before an interface is considered downCrossSubnetDelay (default = 1 second)Frequency heartbeats are sent to nodes on dissimilar subnetsCrossSubnetThreshold (default = 5 heartbeats)Missed heartbeats before an interface is considered down to nodes on dissimilar subnetsCommand Line: Cluster.exe /propPowerShell (R2): Get-Cluster | fl *
  23. 23. Security Over the WANImproved SecurityPrevent Clients from Connecting to NetworksEncrypt Intra-cluster Traffic0 = clear text1 = signed (default)2 = encrypted
  24. 24. IP AddressResource BIP AddressResource AEnhanced Dependencies – ORNetwork Name resource stays up if eitherIP Address Resource A OR IP Address Resource B is upNetwork Name ResourceOR
  25. 25. Disk ResourceWorkload Resource (example File Server)IP AddressResources ANetwork NameResourceResource DependenciesIP AddressResources BComes onlineon site AComes onlineon site BORCustom App(replication)
  26. 26. Multi-Site ClusteringBenefitsDeploymentReplicationNetworkingFaster FailoverQuorumBest Practices
  27. 27. DNS UpdatesNodes in dissimilar subnetsFailover changes resource’s IP AddressClients need that new IP Address from DNS to reconnect10.10.10.111 Server 1 DNS Server 2DNS ReplicationRecord UpdatedRecord CreatedRecord ObtainedFS = UpdatedFS = A Site B
  28. 28. Network Name PropertiesRegisterAllProvidersIP (default = 0 for FALSE)Determines if all IP Addresses for a Network Name will be registered by DNSTRUE (1): IP Addresses can be online or offline and will still be registeredEnsure application is set to try all IP Addresses, so clients can come online quickerHostRecordTTL (default = 1200 seconds)Controls time the DNS record lives on client for a cluster network nameShorter TTL: DNS records for clients updated soonerExchange Server 2007 recommends a value of five minutes (300 seconds)
  29. 29. Local Failover FirstLocal failover firstNo change in IP AddressCross-site failover for disaster recovery10.10.10.111DNS Server 1 DNS Server 2FS = A Site B20.20.20.222FS =
  30. 30. Failover OrderPreferred OwnersLocal failover firstPossible Owners Always EnforcedResource will not start onnon-possible ownerAntiAffinityClassNamesGroups with same AACN try toavoid moving to same node
  31. 31. Virtual LAN (VLAN)Deploying a VLAN minimizes client reconnection timesCan be harder to configureRequired for SQL & live migration10.10.10.111DNS Server 1 DNS Server 2FS = A Site BVLAN10.10.10.111
  32. 32. Multi-SiteClustering GroupsandSettings
  33. 33. Multi-Site ClusteringBenefitsDeploymentReplicationNetworkingFaster FailoverQuorumBest Practices
  34. 34. Quorum OverviewNode majorityNode and File Share majorityDisk only (not recommended)Node and Disk majorityVote Vote Vote VoteVoteMajority is greater than 50%Possible Voters:Nodes (1 each), Disk Witness (1 max), File Share Witness (1 max)4 Quorum Types
  35. 35. Node and Disk MajorityNodes get 1 vote each and Disk gets voteLoss of disk or node OK if majority is maintainedDo not use in multi-site clusters unless directed by vendorVote VoteVoteReplicated Storagefrom vendor?
  36. 36. Node MajoritySite BSite ACross site networkconnectivity broken!Can I communicatewith majority of thenodes in the cluster?Yes, then Stay UpCan I communicatewith majority of thenodes in the cluster?No, drop out ofCluster Membership5 Node Cluster:Majority = 3SAN SANMajority inPrimary Site
  37. 37. Node MajoritySite BSite ADisaster at Site 1We are down!Can I communicatewith majority of thenodes in the cluster?No, drop out ofCluster MembershipSAN SANMajority inPrimary Site5 Node Cluster:Majority = 3
  38. 38. Forcing QuorumAlways understand why quorum was lostUsed to bring cluster online without quorumCluster starts in a special “forced” stateOnce majority achieved, no more “forced” stateCommand line:net start clussvc /forcequorum (or /fq)PowerShell (R2):Start-ClusterNode –FixQuorum (or –fq)
  39. 39. Site AMulti-Site With File Share WitnessSite BWANSite CSAN SANFooCluster1Complete resiliency andautomatic recovery fromthe loss of any 1 siteFile ShareWitnessReplicated Storagefrom vendor
  40. 40. WANSite AMulti-Site With File Share WitnessSite BSite CSAN SANComplete resiliency andautomatic recovery fromthe loss of any 1 siteFile ShareWitnessReplicated Storagefrom vendorFooCluster1
  41. 41. WANSite AMulti-Site With File Share WitnessSite BSite CSAN SANComplete resiliency andautomatic recovery fromthe loss of the FileShare WitnessFile ShareWitnessReplicated Storagefrom vendorFooCluster1
  42. 42. FSW ConsiderationsSimple Windows File ServerNeeds to be in the same forestRunning Windows Server® 2003,2008 or 2008 R2Recommended to be at 3rd separate siteSingle file server can serveas a witness for multiple clustersEach cluster requires its own shareCan be clustered in a second clusterFSW cannot be on a node in the same clusterIt is an additional voter for free (almost)
  43. 43. Quorumona Multi-SiteCluster
  44. 44. Quorum Model SummaryNo Majority: Disk OnlyNote RecommendedOnly use as directed by vendorNode and Disk MajorityOnly use as directed by vendorNode MajorityOdd number of nodesNode and File Share MajorityBest availability solutionRecommended forExchange Server 2007 CCR
  45. 45. Multi-Site ClusteringBenefitsDeploymentReplicationNetworkingFaster FailoverQuorumBest Practices
  46. 46. Cluster your Branch OfficesCluster several standalone File Servers from branch officesKeep network traffic lowHigh-Availability for the filesRedundancy for the dataSite BSite AClients primarilyaccessingapplications inSite AClients primarilyaccessingapplications inSite B
  47. 47. Multi-Site Across the EnterpriseMore distributed cluster nodes & clusters gives higher availabilityComplete resiliency and automatic failoverRemember your quorum modelLoss of any single site should not bring down the clusterFile Share Witness1 File Server hosts all File Share Witnesses for multiple clustersMake it highly-availableSeparate siteNot a node in that same clusterCluster 1, Site 1Cluster 2, Branch 1Cluster 2, Main OfficeCluster 2, Branch 2Cluster 1, Site 2 Cluster 3, Many FSWs
  48. 48. WANSite AMulti-Site Clustering ReviewSite BSite CSAN SAN4, 6, 8… nodes + FSW = odd # votesLocal failover first (preferred owner)Site failover second (possible owner)AntiAffinityClassNamesFile ShareWitnessReplicated Storage from vendorFaster DNS UpdatesRegister all IPs for a Network NameShorten client’s DNS record TTLEnsure application tries all IPsEncrypt WAN traffic for securityAdjust health checks for latencyConfigure ‘OR’ dependencies
  49. 49. Session SummaryMulti-Site Failover Clustering has many benefitsVariety of hardware options & configurationsRedundancy is needed everywhereUnderstand your replication needsCompare VLANs with multiple subnetsPlan your quorum model & nodes before deploymentFollow the checklist and best practices
  50. 50. Are You Up Fora Challenge?Become a Cluster MVP!Contact: ClusMVP@microsoft.comPassion for High Availability?
  51. 51. On-Demand & Community for IT Professionals for Certification and Training Certification & Training ResourcesResources
  52. 52. Related ContentBreakout SessionsWSV310 Failover Clustering Feature Roadmap for Windows Server 2008 R2WSV313 Innovating High Availability with Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV)WSV316 Multi-Site Clustering with Windows Server 2008 EnterpriseVIR311 From Zero to Live Migration. How to Set Up a Live MigrationDAT302 All You Need to Know about Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Failover ClustersDAT306 Building a HA Strategy for Your Enterprise Using Microsoft SQL Server 2008DAT322 Tips and Tricks for Successful Database Mirroring Deployments with Microsoft SQL ServerWSV311 High Availability and Disaster Recovery Considerations for Hyper-VWSV315 Implementing Hyper-V on Clusters (High Availability)UNC313 High Availability in Microsoft Exchange Server "14"UNC402 Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 HA and Disaster Recovery Deep DiveBOF52 Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 HA and Disaster Recovery: Are You Prepared?Interactive SessionsWSV01-INT Failover Clustering Unleashed with Windows Server 2008 R2UNC02-INT Designing Microsoft Exchange Server "14" High Availability SolutionsHands on LabsWSV16-HOL Windows Server 2008 R2: Failover ClusteringVIR03-HOL Implementing Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V HA and Quick MigrationDAT12-HOL Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Database Mirroring, Part 1DAT13-HOL Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Database Mirroring, Part 2UNC12-HOL Microsoft Exchange Server "14" High Availability and Storage Scenarios
  53. 53. Track ResourcesCluster Team Blog: Information Portal: Technical Resources: Forum (2008): Forum (2008 R2): Newsgroup: Clustering Deployment Guide: Configure a Service or Application for High Availability: Installing a Failover Cluster: Creating a Failover Cluster: (2008 R2): Introduction to Failover Clustering: (2008 R2): HA Basics with Hyper-V: (2008 R2): Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV):
  54. 54. Windows Server ResourcesMake sure you pick up yourcopy of Windows Server 2008R2 RC from the MaterialsDistribution CounterLearn More about Windows Server 2008 Learning Center (Orange Section):Highlighting Windows Server 2008 and R2 technologies• Over 15 booths and experts from Microsoft and our partners
  55. 55. Complete anevaluation onCommNet andenter to win!
  56. 56. © 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it shouldnot be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS,IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.