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Urban Hub 13(42) : Virtual Worlds



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Virtual worlds are not the territory
Although they help us understand in a simplex form what is going on they also do great violence to what we take as reality.
The map is not the territory no matter how detailed.
Don’t end up eating the menu

Urban Hub 13(42) : Virtual Worlds

  1. 1. 4 Paul van Schaik integralMENTORS2 Urban Hub Integral UrbanHub Virtual Worlds Thriveable Cities 13
  2. 2. 4213
  3. 3. Urban HubVirtual Worlds Thriveable Cities integralMENTORS Paul van Schaik Curator & Creator Integral UrbanHub 4213
  4. 4. Copyright ©© integralMENTORS– October 2018 ISBN-13: 978-1…. ISBN-10: 1…. A series of graphics from integralMENTORS integral UrbanHub work on Thriveable Cities presentations. The answer to the ultimate question of Life, the Universe, and Everything is 42 Douglas Adams - The Ultimate Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
  5. 5. Content Introduction Context Good City Wellbeing Education A Broader View Evaluation Integral Tools
  6. 6. Urban Hub series. Pdf versions are gratis to view & download at Can also be viewed at Hardcopies can be purchased from Amazon
  7. 7. This document is not about clicking our links and following our path of discovery but about engaging and searching your own path in collaboration with us and others and developing pathways for our combined action. Each of these 13 volumes adds to our search & understanding of the field and are best used as a whole
  8. 8. “What is the point? We assume that every time we do anything we know what the consequences will be, i.e., more or less what we intend them to be. This is not only not always correct. It is wildly, crazily, stupidly, cross-eyed- blithering-insectly wrong!” Douglas Adams - The Ultimate Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
  9. 9. No longer are cities defined by a single slowly evolving Worldview as they have tended to be up until the failure of both modern and postmodern Worldviews, to provide fair, equitable and resilient cities for all. Current trends in sustainable or smart cities have proven insufficient to encompass and include the degree of complex thinking needed. A complexity that defies individual or expert group planning. A complexity that needs to involve us all in the development of self- organising evolving cities which allow us to define who we are and what we want from our co-created urban environment. A city capable of holding various different cultures and Worldviews that can be technically resilient and can be socially relevant and culturally inclusive for all it's citizens. These volumes are part of the evolving process that defines the actions we all need to be involved in if our cities are to be places we love to be a part of. Paul van Schaik - Founder IntegralMENTORS: Creator and publisher of the Integral UrbanHub series - Thriveable Cities, and Co Founder & Executive Director Integral Without Borders
  10. 10. Ambiguous You can easily find convincing but totally contradictory information for any assertion. Because of complexity and unpredictability the ubiquitous availability of information has created a mist in which it becomes increasingly difficult to find clarity. V U C A Volatile Things change continuously. What is true today isn’t true tomorrow. Even the nature and dynamics of change change. Uncertain More than ever, we live with a lack of predictability and a prospect for surprise. It is impossible to predict how projects will evolve.. Complex Simple cause-and-effect chains have been replaced by complex interconnected forces and events. Interconnectedness makes all things increasingly complex.
  11. 11. Virtual worlds are not the territory Although they help us understand in a simplex form what is going on they also do great violence to what we take as reality. The map is not the territory no matter how detailed. Don’t end up eating the menu
  12. 12. INTERVENTIONS 'Whatever plan of action we adopt in our attempt to remake the world, our usual first step it to pin a laudatory label on what we are doing. We may call it development, cure, correction, improvement, help, or progress. We load untested conclusions onto ill-stated premises. But every intervention in an existing system is, for certain, only an intervention. We will make progress faster if we honestly call the changes “interventions” only, until an audit shows what we have actually done. Needless to say, such honesty will be resisted by most promoters of change. The point isn’t to avoid risk or even intervention. But rather to be humble about our knowledge, or lack of it. To know when we should avoid small, immediate, and visible benefits that introduce the possibility for large (and possibly invisible) side effects. Less is more.’ Garrett Hardin writes In Filters Against Folly
  13. 13. INTERVENTIONS all activities are interventions and though 'true’ they are always partial. They are stalked by unintended consequences In order to make any of the ideas, theories, activities, shown in this series of 13 volumes, plus the thousands of other great ideas not included, have a lasting impact we need to understand how they fit within a meta-framework. It is through a meta-framework that we can understand what, when why, where, and how to use each idea and with whom. The meta-framework implicit in these volumes is probably the simplest, covering most of what should be included. The AQAL framework includes the following: An understanding of how objective, subjective, inter-objective and inter- subjective domains tetra-mesh. How stages and states of development determine the 'world' we 'see' and interact with - and how the various lines of development expand with understanding and allow a greater embrace of consciousness, values or mindsets, behaviour, worldviews and systems.
  14. 14. BehaviourValues SystemsCultures Building Virtual Worlds People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. Education Learning Creating Innovation Translation Transformation Health Mobility Economy Wellbeing Nature Nurture Relationships Value Systems Community Systems Systems of Systems Complexity Development Stages Mindset Worldview Values Faith Beliefs Meta-pragmatic mapping Development Stages Business Eco systems
  15. 15. Context
  16. 16. Values Cultures Systems Behaviour Building Virtual Worlds People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. Meta-pragmatic mappingExperience Domain: Individual interior, subjective experience Methodologies: phenomenology, structuralism Validity claims: “truthfulness” & sincerity, reflective & experiential, “thick descriptions” (e.g., is this adaption understood by individuals? Is it embedded in an individuals belief & faith, or are they just going along with it superficially? - that is, is this adaptation sincere & does it resonate with an individual’s values & worldview?) Culture Domain: Collective interior, culture Methodologies: hermeneutics, ethnomethodology, …) Validity claims: “justness”, culturally appropriate (e.g., does this adaptation appropriately connect with the culture, & how are the less fortunate & most impacted affected? – that is, is it appropriate and just?) Relationships Value Systems Community Mindset Worldview Values Faith Beliefs Development Stages Translation Transformation
  17. 17. Values Cultures Systems Behaviour Building Virtual Worlds People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. Meta-pragmatic mapping Behaviour Domain: Individual exterior, behaviour & physiology Methodologies: empiricism & Life sciences (i.e., physics, biology, …) Validity claims: “objective truth”, replicable, verifiable (e.g., does this adaptation correctly reflect the the scientific studies that suggest we need it? - that is, is the adaptation effective & can people do what is asked of them?) Systems Domain: Collective exterior, systems Methodologies: systems theory, complexity theory, system sciences (i.e., ecology, economics, …) Validity claims: “predictability “functional fit” (e.g., does this adaptation functionally fit in the economic, social, political, & ecological systems present? - that is, will it work systemically at various levels?) Education Learning Creating Innovation Translation Transformation Health Mobility Economy Wellbeing Nature Nurture Systems Systems of Systems Complexity Development Stages Business
  18. 18. Values Cultures Systems Behaviour Building Virtual Worlds People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. Psychological - Spiritual Concerned with changing one’s sense of being. Broad change Theory: It’s all a question of individual perceptions and capacity Focus: Deepening self-awareness Developing one’s knowledge, skills, mindsets, beliefs Methods: Meditation Personal reflection and inquiry Personal development of mastery through courses and apprenticeships Cultural Concerned with collective values of fairness and justice. Broad change Theory: It’s all a question of collective values and beliefs Focus: Collective goals and aspirations Underlying values and beliefs Implicit ‘rules’ and assumptions Discourse. language Methods: Collective goal-setting & strategy creation Developing value statements and processes of actualisation Ongoing media programmes Meta-pragmatic mapping Relationships Value Systems Community Mindset Worldview Values Faith Beliefs Development Stages Translation Transformation
  19. 19. Values Cultures Systems Behaviour Building Virtual Worlds People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. Learning Creating Innovation Translation Transformation Health Mobility Economy Wellbeing Nature Systems Systems of Systems Complexity Development Stages Business Meta-pragmatic mapping Inter-personal/Bio Concerned with changing one’s own behaviours in interaction with others Broad change Theory: It’s all a question of how individuals interact Focus: Showing trust, respect, mutual understanding Shifting behaviour to demonstrate interdependence Reaching conciliation of inter-personal differences Methods: Diversity training learning journeys into other people’s worlds Group encounters/retreats for exploration Mediation/negotiation training Structural and Systems/Social Concerned with governance, decision- making processes, and institutions Broad change Theory: It’s all a question of processes, institutions, and power Focus: Policies, legislation Institutions, procedures Allocation of resources Methods: Building political structures, agreements, frameworks, systems New accounting/reporting/measurement systems Education Nurture
  20. 20. Thriving People © Freya van Schaik
  21. 21. Thriving People people places planet
  22. 22. Good City
  23. 23. The Good City Reframing Complex Challenges for Gaia’s Human Hives Marilyn Hamilton Integral City 3.7 Reframes Complex Challenges for Gaia’s Human Hives. It offers three practices for designing a collective urban life that works for all life; namely: Caring Contexting Capacity Building This is Book 3 in the Integral City series. It applies and expands in multiple directions the 12 intelligences described in Book 1, Integral City: Evolutionary Intelligences for the Human Hive, and builds on the field work of Book 2: Integral City Inquiry & Action: Designing Impact for the Human Hive. Part 1: Deepening Care – explores Spirituality, Creativity and the Master Code. Part 2: Raising Contexts – explores Cities as Trigger Points and Tipping Points, the Invisible City and Security in the Human Hive. Part 3: Widening Capacity – explores 4 scales of Capacity Building in human systems: Leadership, Organizations, Systems and the City. Hamilton, M. 2018. Integral City 3.7: Reframing Complex Challenges for Gaia’s Human Hives. Amaranthpress. Tucson AZ Marilyn Hamilton is a city evolutionist, activist, author, and researcher. A radical optimist, she catalyzes city well-being through living, evolutionary, whole systems approaches.
  24. 24. The Good City Spirituality in the human hive is driven by an evolutionary /involutionary impulse. It reveals itself in Individual and collective lives as qualities, cultures and containers that are situated in five Integral maps of the city. Our exploration of spirituality in the human hive Integrates: • Caring source • Contexting field(s) • Capacity Building resources Together they manifest Goodness, Truth and Beauty. When we work with city energies, they become translated into purpose, identity, vision, values, creativity, relationships and systems. As such, spirituality is an Integral reality of the human hive. It is the author of the Master Code which reflects the three faces of God and the three zones of spirituality: • Take Care of Self (I @ Source/Resource). • Take Care of Others/Culture (We/You @ Field). • Take Care of this Place/Planet/Nature (It/Its @ Resource/Source). MAP 1: SPIRITUALITY IN GAIA’S HUMAN HIVE Reframing Complex Challenges for Gaia’s Human Hives Marilyn Hamilton Hamilton, M. 2018. Integral City 3.7: Reframing Complex Challenges for Gaia’s Human Hives. Amaranthpress. Tucson AZ
  25. 25. Collaborating Across Holarchies of Care, Context, Capacity In the virtual human hive, Care, Contexting and Capacity are built on a set of nested holarchies. Holarchies of care emerge from the deepening of care from ego, to ethno, to place and planet. Holarchies of context emerge from the raising of our horizon lines to expand our overview of life conditions from local, to regional, to continental to planetary. Holarchies of capacity mature the organization of our living systems from time horizons where our actions are measured with immediate effect to ever-lengthening horizons where the consequences of our actions can be measured in days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries and even millennia. The Good City Reframing Complex Challenges for Gaia’s Human Hives Marilyn Hamilton Care ContextCapacity Hamilton, M. 2018. Integral City 3.7: Reframing Complex Challenges for Gaia’s Human Hives. Amaranthpress. Tucson AZ
  26. 26. The Good City Reframing Complex Challenges for Gaia’s Human Hives Marilyn Hamilton Generate Diversity in the Human Hive 7 steps to harness effective diversity generation (DG) in a city change process could include: 1. Recognize and name the dissonance in the system – explore how to dance with that dissonance and even amplify it rather than attempting to overcome the dissonance. Such an exploration can discover the impetus or catalyst to change. 2. Identify the purpose for harnessing DGs – create the vision for changing from what to what? 3. Find the DG’s who are the agents for change – enable leadership to emerge from the DG’s who have the passion for solving the catalyzing dilemma and/or attaining the vision. 4. Support the DG’s to amplify the dissonance/catalyst/impetus for change, so others can see it. 5. Engage as many diverse stakeholders in the process as possible – actively seek out diversity and make room for difference. Ask: who else should be here? 6. Create reflective feedback loops with the Conformity Enforcers (CEs) in the system so that both DG’s and CE’s can self-correct and develop co-operational structures that work. 7. Make the feedback accessible to all by publication and display for further amplification; e.g. community newspapers, online media, real time intelligence display systems.
  27. 27. The Good City Design As Reweaving A Web Of Relationship (excerpt) Peter Buchanan Essay for e-flux journal and Oslo Architecture Triennale by Peter Buchanan We are at a pivotal point in human history. The fragmentation and unsustainability of modernity must give way to an era of reconnection and regeneration – not just of urban and social fabric but also culturally. We will then recognise that modernity marks not the beginning of something new but the end of something very old, a long process of disconnect and the denial of interdependencies. Reversing this by reweaving rich webs of synergistic relationships so as to bring a revitalising regeneration of our planet and our very humanity is the creative challenge of coming times. More pertinent to themes discussed here are other factors. The multiplicity of solutions offered is hopeful and enticing, yet also confusing and disempowering. Which of all these will be effective? And aren’t they too partial, piecemeal and disconnected? Such reservations are valid and apply to DeGrowth and so many other eagerly proposed contributions to meeting the challenges of our times. But as we will see, the real problem is that they are not part of a larger framework or strategy for effective action, in particular one informed by an inspiring and integrative vision of what might supersede the status quo. But as we will see, the real problem is that they are not part of a larger framework or strategy for effective action, in particular one informed by an inspiring and integrative vision of what might supersede the status quo. Equally disempowering is recognising just how great are the challenges we face. Daunting too, is to acknowledge the profound changes required if we are to approach anything resembling the many dimensions of true sustainability and bring about the transformed mind sets and ways of engaging each other and the earth that will deliver it. What we recognise, or perhaps mostly intuit subconsciously, is that we must navigate what will prove to be probably the greatest of pivotal shifts in human history. This will involve changes in the way we live and, perhaps more to the point, who we think we are - our very identity and sense of belonging. DESIGN AS REWEAVING A WEB OF RELATIONSHIPS: From extractive separation to regenerative symbiosis Essay for e-flux journal and Oslo Architecture Triennale by Peter Buchanan Traditional city of BEING, of continuity, versus Modern city of DOING, of discontinuities These shifts must be at least as great as those accompanying the move from the nomadic tribes in which we lived for most of human history to the agrarian settlements we pioneered only 10,000 years or so ago. Also entailed will be modifying, and even inverting, many of the ways of thinking and being that have defined us to date as humankind. But if we ponder all this, as we will here, it should be as exciting as it is scary to enter a new phase in the human evolutionary adventure. Yet the enormity of what could be promised and its enticing possibilities provokes resistance to participating in this adventure, particularly amongst those let down by the non-delivery of previous promises
  28. 28. The Good City An antidote is to design buildings of quiet presence, and creating a distinct sense of place is important too. Reweaving a web of relationships involves being attentive to the many forms of flow around. These include those of ambient energies – the warming or cooling effects of solar movements or winds, various forms of water movement, from rain run off to streams above and below ground – or wild life movements through day and year. Attention will return to the skilful crafting of the most crucial of these flows, all the many forms of human circulation, by which we navigate and are enticed through the built environment to enliven and generate the activities, internal and external, adjacent these routes. But in contrast to the fluid slosh of space found in modern or parametric layouts, reweaving requires each part to be a distinct and rooted centre too, as consistent with the sustainability agenda’s ambition that every place be treasured in itself as an essential part of our precious planet. So if reweaving is about creating a rich web of horizontal relationships these need to be stabilised and grounded too by creating vertical connections with earth and sky, past memories and future potentials as well as in our psyches, in the depths of our souls and with our aspirant spirit. The goal is nothing less than to create a world where citizens are encouraged to live very full and, most important of all, deeply satisfied lives. If the many proposals out there do not also promise to interrelate as part of a larger whole, and offer an expanded and deepened sense of fulfilment, they will not be enthusiastically embraced and implemented. Instead of the frustrations of half-lived lives, citizens will then be able to look back from their deathbeds at lives rich in enlivening experiences and deep connections to people and places. Just ponder what is promised: what an ennobling agenda for architecture. And what an exciting time to be an architect, participating in the great adventure of our time, reweaving the world into a dynamic wholeness in which we too can become healed and whole. Design As Reweaving A Web Of Relationship Peter Buchanan Bern, Switzerland, displaying the organic unity of a pre-modern city THE CITY OF BEING, of continuous urban fabric and continuity of urban experience, A city in which you are immersed almost as if wearing it like a coat THE CITY OF DOING: Phoenix, Arizona. Emphasising objectivity has led to the city fragmenting into independent objects and so the fragmenting of urban fabric, civic experience and the psyche
  29. 29. The Good City The Computer And Reconnection (excerpt) Peter Buchanan Let’s start with observations on the computer’s reshaping of the world generally, to set a frame for discussing its direct impacts on architecture. Many of the latter are widely known and written about, so will be dealt with relatively cursorily before returning to the larger impacts, the epochal transition these largely triggered, and what it all means for architecture. That these latter topics have hardly been explored the environmental design professions is somewhat deplorable; until the current financial crisis, the most pervasive indication that the modern era was played out, its once great gifts displaying toxic downsides, was the burgeoning environmental crisis - to which the products of the environmental design professions contribute most. Radical revision of how the entire built environment is designed, as only possible with the computer, is urgent and widely recognised; but changes underway or proposed go nowhere near far enough. This is because the global warming that most designers address is only the symptomatic fever of more pervasive dysfunction and systemic collapse in most key facets of our global civilisation. Most obvious and pervasive of the computer’s impacts is that the the globalised world we in the developed countries live in is utterly dependent on it, interlinked as it is by electronic networks handling vast, instantaneous flows of information – allowing, in turn, instantaneous global communications, ready access for most of us to much of that information, and free flows of staggering amounts of finance. We all exploit this connectivity, as do globalisation’s trans-national corporations that agglomerate staff in huge buildings that are hubs within these vast flows of information, money and goods. Yet to attract skilled staff these same corporations prefer to locate non- manufacturing activities in places with a high quality of life, to which a distinctive local character contributes immensely. This local character also serves as a pungently tangible anchor, a grounding reality that is in reassuring contrast to the abstract flows of information that dominate corporate work lives. (The complementarity of these contrasting poles is referred to as high-tech, high-touch.) Yet the architecture and activities of those corporations almost always destroys local flavour. Sunset effects: exaggerations of modern architecture’s pathologies Refusal to relate to place, culture or people – a dead end THE COMPUTER AND RECONNECTION Essay by Peter Buchanan for SOM 6
  30. 30. The Good City THE COMPUTER AND RECONNECTION Essay by Peter Buchanan for SOM 6 The Computer And Reconnection (excerpt) Peter Buchanan The emerging long-term cultural paradigm is based on the new understandings of science and incorporates new visions of what it is to be fully human, including resurgent aspirations and values (such as reverence for nature and spiritual concerns), not least the need for meaning within a much expanded reality. Based on a living, unfolding, relational universe, this reality is more dynamic, complex and complete than that of modernity, and values the subjective as much as the objective. And besides moving beyond modernity, it selectively reaffirms aspects of modernity, post modernity and earlier paradigms to be reintegrated in the new, a process known as “transcend and include As modernity ends, and faced with immense challenges including achieving global sustainability, it is obvious we have lost our way on many fronts. Getting back on track - living as the planet can support in the long term, creating a sane and more deeply satisfying lifestyle without which sustainability is impossible - necessitates reassessing the fundamental purposes, including the subjective ones, of much of human culture, from economics to agriculture to environmental design. Reducing architecture to shelter, function and financial return desperately trivialised it. Architecture is part of our larger culture and shares its fundamental purposes: to elaborate a narrative or collective myth that roots us in our past and guides us into the future; and to help us discover and unfold our potentials in line with our current vision of what it is to be fully human. Essential to the creation of our culture and ourselves as complex acculturated beings, architecture –along with the rituals and social protocols inextricably linked with it - is arguably surpassed in this role only by language. Yet architects have forgotten how vital and ennobling their discipline should be. After all, architecture started with choreographing ritual as much as with creating shelter. The purpose of ritual, like that of architecture, is to project the inner world of the psyche outwards to be mapped in space. We can then move between, explore and elaborate, intensify and invest with meaning these compartmented parts of ourselves in the interlocked processes of self development and cultural evolution. This is how we created our complex, self-conscious selves and our various cultures, and how we took possession of and ordered the world so as to make it our home..
  31. 31. The Good City By three quarters of the way through last century it almost seemed that a faculty once innate, virtually unconscious and infallible, had been lost irretrievably and we could no longer build cities, neighbourhoods or large urban areas and complexes that were certain of success as lively, convivial, safe places. Civic life had fragmented along with the urban fabric. Some saw this as an inevitable correlate of the ‘modern condition’ and dismissed calls for restitution of the city’s contiguities and local communities as irrelevant nostalgia. Others diagnosed current conditions as pathological and recognised the need to reconnect the parts of the city and breathe new life into its streets and other open spaces. Yet the Post-Modernist response achieved little to reconnect the city by contextualist mimicry of nearby buildings, or to be populist by tacking on tacky pediments and columns. Even adopting traditional patterns of urban blocks and streets guaranteed no success. This was the context into which emerged Space Syntax, a body of theory as well as analytical and predictive techniques developed during the 1970s and 1980s by Bill Hillier at University College London’s Bartlett School of Architecture, where he is now Professor. Its promise was and is no less than to resolve the above quandaries so that we can be confident of success in projects to reintegrate the city and return life to its spaces. Moreover, Space Syntax achieves this by continuing the modernist spirit of using rational and rigorous analysis. But a crucial difference is that it now uses the prodigious powers of the computer to analyse the complex spatial configurations and patterns of connection of the public and semi-public realms to which earlier modernists did not pay, and lacked the intellectual and computational tools to pay, sufficient attentio EXCERPT FROM:SPACE SYNTAX AND URBAN DESIGN Essay by Peter Buchanan for Foster & Partners’ complete works . Space Syntax And Urban Design (excerpt) Peter Buchanan
  32. 32. The Good City Understanding the Benefits of Urban Density Steffen Lehmann More on his research is here: What about the North American city? Introduction It is a well-established fact that a denser and more compact city increases efficiencies in urban infrastructure and services through shorter distribution networks. Higher density cities encourage reduced transit through shorter trip lengths, since most amenities and public transport are more closely located. Urban sprawl has resulted in an underutilization of land and a car-dependent society, where the distinction between city centre and city edge has become diffuse. So, what about the North American city? Could the impact of urban sprawl be reversed? To explore this further, I am looking at the quintessential American city: Las Vegas. Transforming North American cities through strategic density increase? All cities can transform their urban form to accommodate new configurations of programmes, connectivity and activities. For some cities, this process will take longer, while others can do it more quickly. Let’s look at the case of Las Vegas. When living in the UK, I became interested in the density comparison of UK cities with US cities, and the question: What is it like to live in the driest desert city of North America, Las Vegas? How can an unsustainable condition be made resource-efficient and liveable? Comparing UK cities with US cities will help to better understand the urban qualities of cities in the United Kingdom. The sprawling and urbanistically controversial city of Las Vegas is a particularly interesting case in its own right (Garreau, 1992; Sorkin, 1992; Steffen Lehmann, PhD is Director of the School of Architecture at UNLV in Las Vegas, he is a tenured Professor of Architecture and Director of the Urban Futures Lab. Hess, 1993; Gandelsonas, 1999; Inam, 2016; de Salvatierra and Solana, 2018). It is a geographically isolated city, and one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the US, including over 2 million inhabitants (according to UNLV population forecast, there will be an additional 835,000 people by 2035). Las Vegas region’s first planning blueprint was recently launched with the hope to be able to better handle the predicted 45 percent population growth by 2045. Different from most other cities in the world, Las Vegas has not been developed on the banks of a river or estuary. Located in the unforgivable climate of the Mojave Desert, where water scarcity and solar gain are key issues (solar radiation is so intense and plentiful, the whole city could be run just on solar power), and with weekend tourist numbers swelling the city’s population up to 3 million, all of these people require water, energy, food and transport. Las Vegas gets less than five inches of rainfall in average a year − making it the driest city in the USA, where everything competes for what little water exists. However instead of accepting the reality of ‘Limits to Growth’ (1972), Las Vegas is not known for resourcefulness, but for its display of boundless optimism in unrestrained growth. The city has a fragility and precariousness, but remains to a large degree in a state of denial about its environmental vulnerability. Scientists warn that in 50 years, due to global warming and soaring summer temperatures, Las Vegas and the American Southwest might become largely uninhabitable (Rich, 2018).
  33. 33. The Good City Understanding the Benefits of Urban Density : The Virtual World of Las Vegas The American city provides an interesting case to examine, because it is largely built by private investment (the Strip is a good example for this) and as a consequence, public policy is heavily shaped by private profit motives and initiatives, one of the reasons why the benefits of urban projects are unevenly distributed (Inam, 2015). This means that projects concerning affordable housing, environmental measures or infrastructure for public transport are not always funded. Most of the city, apart from the Strip, is not pedestrian- friendly, and the windowless casinos along the Strip are designed with the aim to keep people inside. Compared to the UK or Europe, the United States is always much harsher in its economic realities, leaving the complex urban issues to private developers rather than to experienced city planners with the civic good on mind. Throughout the 20th century, the availability of cheap gasoline created the suburban construction era, but when petrol became more expensive it was no longer a good idea. Nevertheless, everybody drives in Las Vegas, nobody seems to walk within the residential neighbourhoods as these are mono-functional (not mixed-use), car-dependent (not walkable) and sprawling (not compact enough). Urban infill is a new concept in Las Vegas. While it is obvious to most planners that the future of Las Vegas will As urban density increases and there are more non-penetrable surfaces, additional solutions are required to ensure that rainwater can recharge the groundwater More on his research is here: Lake Mead depend on the acceptance of a strict growth boundary and smart densification methods to slowly increase the population density, the necessary methods to slowly increase the population density, the necessary change in mind-set towards more ecological behaviour has not yet happened. On the other hand, a growth boundary for all development is increasingly recognised as the only way to reduce the current car-dependency and to enable feasible public transport in the form of a bus rapid transit system. Las Vegas is one of the most interesting places in the US to study because it is such an intense hub of human activity and a product of the automobile era that is on the cusp of change. Numerous good initiatives are on the way: despite its reputation for being extremely wasteful, Las Vegas actually reuses 93 percent of its water (2017). This has become a necessity of survival as water resources keep shrinking. Lake Mead was created by the Hoover Dam in 1935 and provides water for 25 million people in southern Nevada, southern California and Arizona. 90 percent of the water in Las Vegas comes from Lake Mead. However, since 2000, the water level of Lake Mead is shrinking and with it Las Vegas’ water supply. Therefore, a whole- hearted move towards water recycling was a matter of survival and gives hope that further initiatives will follow.
  34. 34. The Good City Understanding the Benefits of Urban Density Steffen Lehmann 50 years after ‘Learning from Las Vegas’ (Venturi and Scott-Brown, 1969/1972), the new urban vision for Las Vegas includes taking more advantage of the abundance of solar energy available most days all year round (so far a widely untapped resource). Here, the Nexus could become a powerful vision of restricting fossil energy use in favour of an abundance in renewable (solar) energy supply, helping to envisage a future powered by 100 percent solar energy (Scheer, 2006; Droege, 2008). Studies are also on the way to examine the whole life-cycle of the city, its buildings and neighbourhoods, and rethink its urban systems, to ensure economic growth does not damage the sensitive desert ecosystem. The Strip is not the only lesson to be learnt from Las Vegas. The sprawling suburbs that stretch outward into the Las Vegas Valley and Mojave Desert are evidence that there are ‘real’ people living in Las Vegas. However, most residents of Las Vegas are living in a parallel world to the 43 million tourists that embark every year onto the city and spend most of their time around the Strip and its entertainment More on his research is here: Street scene Las Vegas, 2018Denise Scott Brown in 1966 at The Strip, Las Vegas programme. It is a city with little truly public space as most of it is privatised, commercialised and controlled 24/7: this is the ‘quasi’ public space of the casinos, hotels and entertainment venues. Most of the time, pedestrian circulation along the Strip leads to indoor passages within the casinos and resorts. The indoor pedestrian realm is much larger than the outdoor realm; it is the real sidewalk of Las Vegas (Atwood, 2010). The U.S. trend of public spaces and sidewalks becoming commercialised, internalised and guarded by private security has also arrived in UK cities; it is a dangerous one, as it will create areas that poorer residents are unable to enjoy. Studies have indicated that excessive control and CCTV is detrimental to the quality of public space, and the need to create inclusive public space for the economically marginalised. In our cities today, public space is under constant threat of losing its true ‘public’ characteristics.
  35. 35. The Good City From the Strip to the edge of the city For a long time, we have created monocultures instead of mixed-use neighbourhoods, and the city of Las Vegas is a good example of a global city based for too long on an out-dated urban development model that has come to an end. Las Vegas has a population density of only 4,370 people per square mile (data: 2018), compare this to Manchester: the UK city of Manchester has a population density of over 11,500 people per square mile (three times higher than Las Vegas) and is just the 9th densest city in the United Kingdom. The edge of the city encroaches and continues to sprawl into the vulnerable ecology of the Mojave Desert. The periphery, the edge Aerial photo of Las Vegas. In density North American cities are fundamentally different from cities in the UK. Las Vegas in Nevada is a fast-growing city of 2 million residents located in the Mojave Desert; in comparison, in 1970 Las Vegas only had 120,000 residents. More on his research is here: Understanding the Benefits of Urban Density Steffen Lehmann Street scene Las Vegas, 2018 where vulnerable wilderness meets encroaching suburban sprawl, reveals the all-too-real paradoxes of life in the desert. A more responsive approach will have to be developed that fits the sensitive fragile conditions of the desert’s ecosystem. The city of Las Vegas has an unusually large number of gated communities, resort-style like housing clusters incorporating 58 golf courses and vast pool areas − with lush green grass, artificial waterways and tropical palm trees set against the waterless desert landscape. Around 70 percent of the Las Vegas population lives in these gated communities; these master planned estates are resort-style clusters of houses around landscapes of pools and golf courses, with vacant land in-between.
  36. 36. The Good City Since the 2008 financial crisis, Southern Nevada and Las Vegas has had the most over-heated and the hardest-hit residential and commercial real estate market in the US. Few cities were hit as hard as Las Vegas by the financial crisis and following recession. Nevada as a whole lost more jobs in relation to its workforce than any other state, with more than 70 percent of those losses in the Las Vegas region (in 2009, the unemployment rate hit a record 14.2 percent). U.S. cities have a unique history and physical attributes that require tailored strategies to overcome the prevailing car-dominated culture. The recent trend to introduce light-railway systems in US cities is remarkable, as the lack of population densities frequently undermines the potential of rail interventions. More on his research is here: Understanding the Benefits of Urban Density Steffen Lehmann In addition, the high cost of infrastructure and a privately dominated real estate market often push railway stations towards the edge of the city. Though construction cranes once again rise above Sin City, Las Vegas is trying to build economic resilience and diversify its economy to move away from the sole reliance on hospitality and tourism (mostly low-paying hospitality jobs account for almost a third of the region’s workforce). New growing industries range from medical care to professional sports and IT start-ups in big data industries. The cluster of medical office buildings and hospitals north of the Strip will make a significant contribution to the local economy. The University of Nevada’s Medical Centre is at the core of the city’s vision of its future, expected to add 8,000 new jobs by 2030.
  37. 37. The Good City More recently, Las Vegas Downtown has put itself on the map as an emerging start-up hub and innovation district, and in 2017, the first completely autonomous electric shuttle bus in the US was deployed on its public roadways. With new concepts of densification and infill arriving, Las Vegas will have to re-adjust its thinking about future housing: every year, over 10,000 new homes are built in Las Vegas, but what kind of housing is getting produced, at what densities, and in what location? Still today, these are frequently poorly insulated light-weight houses entirely dependent on their energy-hungry air- conditioning systems, there are no green roofs and there is a lack of strategic planning that takes passive design principles such as geometry and orientation into account. This kind of housing will always lead to an inefficient use of resources. The Strip resembles the fake New Urbanist towns that feel like stepping into a set of The Truman Show. Can such contrived places be successful as urban models? The Strip’s textureless surfaces make the big casinos along the entertainment street appear as one large over-scaled space where everything is blurred together, shouting for attention (what Robert Venturi called ‘the decorated shed’). It is the lack of texture that Aaron Betsky calls ‘walmartism’, critiquing a built environment of boxes devoid of texture and urban complexity. The concept and value of urban complexity is central to many of the writings on cities (for instance, by Richard Sennett). The surfaces along the Strip are all smooth, flat and often shiny, and the graphics bold and colourful, adding to too much visual noise. The spatial differentiation along the Strip comes mainly from an arrangement of drop-off areas in front of hotels and casinos, rather than from a change in definition to create diverse functional areas. The obvious reason for all this screaming sameness is economics: texture is more expensive both to build and to maintain, while these are guided by design decisions that save costs in materials, assembly and cleaning. All of this exemplifies why Las Vegas and the North American cities are such an interesting and urgent case for comparative research More on his research is here: Understanding the Benefits of Urban Density Steffen Lehmann New suburban housing in gated communities: Las Vegas is currently growing by around 15,000 homes per year (2019). Photo by the author with UK cities and as urban living labs, again the subject of much exploration how unsustainable cities may best be transformed. How far will Las Vegans go to live in a place not intended for living and could their desires to do so, in the end, ever be sustainable? 50 years on, there is still so much to learn from Las Vegas! However, it also makes us re-appraise the European city model for all its diversity and the qualities it offers and which we take often for granted. Let us work hard so that our cities become more compact, walkable and mixed-use, countering urban sprawl.
  38. 38. The Good City The Nature of Order Christopher Alexander: 15 Principles of Wholeness from Christopher Alexander, Introduction of "A New Theory of Urban Design” When we look at the most beautiful towns and cities of the past, we are always impressed by a feeling that they are somehow organic. This feeling of "organicness" is not a vague feeling of relationship with biological forms. It is not analogy. It is instead, an accurate vision of a specific structural quality which these old towns had… and have. Namely: each of these towns grew as a whole, under its own laws of wholeness… and we can feel this wholeness, not only at the largest scale, but in every detail: in the restaurants, in the sidewalks, in the houses, shops, markets, roads, parks, gardens and walls. Christopher Alexander PhD Architect
  39. 39. Alexander breaks away completely from the one-sided mechanical model of buildings or neighbourhoods as mere assemblages of technically generated, interchangeable parts. He shows us conclusively that a spiritual, emotional, and personal basis must underlie every act of building or making. And then, in the middle of the book, comes the linchpin of the work - a one-hundred-page chapter on colour, which dramatically conveys the way that consciousness and spirit are manifested in the world. This is a new cosmology: consciousness inextricably joined to the substrate of matter, present in all matter. This view, though radical, conforms to our most ordinary, daily intuitions. It may provide a path for those contemporary scientists who are beginning to see consciousness as the underpinning of all matter, and thus as a proper object of scientific study. And it will change, forever, our conception of what buildings are. Urban design must not be an act of tabula rasa imposition of a form designed remotely, based upon an abstract program. It must understand, respect, and seek to improve the existing conditions. Urban design must incorporate the decisions and needs of the local stakeholders, as a matter not only of fairness, but also of the intrinsic quality of the result. Above all, Urban design must be a generative process, from which a form will emerge – one that cannot be pre-planned or standardized, but will of necessity be, at least in some key respects, local and unique. The Good City The Nature of Order Christopher Alexander PhD Architect
  40. 40. The Good City Pattern Language Chris Alexander Design-wise, such patterns: • comprise a “collective memory of things that work”1, thus alleviating the need to re-discover solutions for every similar problem. • are democratic, in David Harvey’s ‘right to the city’ sense – end-users are involved in their formulation; and by being easily understood they allow ‘lay’ people to make their own decisions, obviating any need to rely on specialised, often detached, professionals. • generate co-ordinated outcomes in otherwise complex environments and when singular actions take place over extended periods of time (both being features of city-building). Christopher Alexander is a widely influential architect and design theorist. His theories about the nature of human-centered design have affected fields beyond architecture, including urban design, software, sociology and others.
  41. 41. The Good City Pattern Language Chris Alexander
  42. 42. Thriving People people places planet
  43. 43. Managing Change
  44. 44. The Good City Gun violence is a pernicious emergent phenomenon in the urban environment. In the USA alone, about 1,300 minors die in shootings and another 5,800 are injured. Gun-related injuries are the third leading cause of death for children of 17 years age and under. . AI and the City : Anger Management Paul Krause What emerged was a regular pattern of grief leading to aggression. This is a highly dynamic language; constantly evolving. And the machine translation is only going to be applicable to a specific city/social context. However, the behavioural patterns that are emerging from its analysis are likely to be more generally applicable; grief and grievances are data points along a path that escalates through anger to violence. But they also use social media to express their grief when a friend or fellow gang member is killed or injured. Teenage gangs use social media to challenge, taunt or threaten rivals; “cyberbanging”. . Violence and grief are especially detrimental to the development of the adolescent brain. “My pain ain’t never been told” Witness to a killing can affect the frontal lobe and diminish the capacity to make sound decisions. A survey of young black people in Chicago indicated that nearly half had witnessed a gang-related killing. That grief leads to anger, and may escalate to violence. “Got da Smithy on Me Right Na” Internet- or cyberbanging has its own lingua franca: “a combination of African American vernacular English, social- media speak and a brilliant use of punctuation and numbers” [Desmond Upton Patton, University of Michigan]. But the volume of tweets is enabling AI techniques to be used to automatically sort tweets into categories: some expressing loss; others expressing aggression.
  45. 45. The Good City The hope is that the combination of AI and social-network analysis will be able to automatically trigger alerts to case workers who could intervene before the point of escalation to violence. Perhaps it might even be possible to use the social network analysis to identify key points of intervention to progressively diffuse the collective anger. See by Kate Crawford and Vladan Joler. AI and the City : Anger Management Paul Krause “Alexa, Can you save the Planet?” Oh, and one last thing. Lest we forget. Our Smart Cities will use AI to help us lead better, safer, and cleaner lives. But are we aware of the externalities? Who mines the rare earths that make the batteries that power the devices that run the models that were trained with data that was marked up by thousands of click workers who none of us know? “A child laborer in the mines of the Congo would need to work for 700,000 years without stopping to accumulate the kind of capital that Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos makes per day.” Large-scale disorder is a more formal term for rioting. The UK saw a widespread and sustained period of civil unrest during the summer of 2011. AI cannot yet provide early warning of civil unrest (although wise citizens may), but progress is being made on modelling “willingness to participate” taking into account a range of psycho-social factors. We need to understand the point at which a latent level of unrest across (sometimes distributed) communities tips over into action. Work is also advancing on machine intelligence for managing appropriate levels of response. Can we predict how a trigger event my lead to a rapid escalation of disorder? What level of police resource, and mode of response, is commensurate with a specific magnitude and form of outbreak? Police Relations Unemployment Endemic Criminality Paul Krause: BSc PhD FIMA Cmath: Professor in Complex Systems - Surrey University See also contributions to Urban Hub 7, 8, 9 & 11 And above all, how do we achieve all of the above without violating personal freedom? Can AI teach us how to live together without the need for all this?
  46. 46. A Vision For Inclusive Sustainable Development Cristina Mendonça
  47. 47. Case Studies of Innovation in Action Cristina Mendonça
  48. 48. Case Studies of Innovation in Action B) Consumption program, a prototype designed for a global city network Climate change and sustainable consumption and production science is in place, international agreements are signed, technology is available and still we continue to see rapid planetary resource depletion with aggravating social consequences(1). Understanding how to introduce and manage change is one of the most important questions for climate research and practitioners. And, most importantly, our ability to address the issue rests in our perception of the problem. If we are to move from inaction to action, we must firstly, acknowledge that we as individuals and as a culture are responsible – and secondly, we must also imagine that change is possible. Given the complex multi-objective, multi-stakeholder, multi- temporal issues involved in addressing over-consumption, the proposed theory of change focuses on creating an integral approach to promote sustainable life style practices which are a key fundamental pillar for creating a next generation economic system. Below, are examples of proposed tools. (1) Watts, J. 2018. Earth's resources consumed in ever greater destructive volumes. The Guardian. Available in this link: resources-consumed-in-ever-greater-destructive-volumes (2) BECKHARD, R. 1987. Organizational Transitions. Managing Complex Change. Addison-Wesley Series. (3) BALLARD, S. and BALLARD, D. 2007. Clearing the Pathways to Transformation. In: Surviving Climate change. The struggle to avert global catastrophe, chapter 10. Edited by David Cromwell and Mark Levene. Pluto Press 2007 Cristina Mendonça
  49. 49. Case Studies of Innovation in Action 7(1) Cameron Owens (2005). An integral approach to Sustainable consumption and waste reduction, World Futures: The Journal of New Paradigm Research, 61:1-2, 96-109. Sustainable life style practices are key fundamental pillars for creating a next generation economic system Behavioural Individuals behavior that inhibit or enable conscious consumption Influence(s) behaviour (e.g. shopping locally, reusing, repurposing, refurbishing products, sharing, saving resources, etc.) Personal In what ways am “I” inhibiting or enabling conscious consumption? Somatic realities (eg. feelings, emotions, sensations) Psychological Dynamics (e.g. spiritual realization, wisdom, empathy) Cultural In what ways are “we” (group/ culture) inhibiting or enabling conscious consumption? Inter-corporeal dimensions (eg. group feelings, shared somatic realities) Worldviews (group beliefs, stigmas, cultural norms) Compassionate perspectives (ethics, religious communities) Systems/ Structural In what ways is/ are “It(s)” inhibiting or enabling conscious consumption? Physical & Natural systems (eg ecosystems, watersheds, built environment) Social systems (eg economics, institutions, laws) Subtle systems (subtle energy, architecture, sacred gardens) Drivers or inhibitors of conscious consumption(1) Cristina Mendonça is an experienced implementation manager in the context of climate change, cities and development initiatives that have global impact. She is founding partner of Techni, where dedicated services were provided to C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (a global network of megacities to advance sustainability in urban environments at scale). Cristina served the organisation for almost 11 years, in various capacities, including advising the Chair of C40, the Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, from 2013-2016 and advising the governance structure of the Global Coalition for Urban Transitions. Cristina Mendonça B) Consumption program, a prototype designed for a global city network (cont.)
  50. 50. Evolutionary Culture in Organizations The human experience is unique in the degree that we use culture to help our survival as a species. We form groups, religions and political regimes based on philosophical ideas. Some people keep family connections closer than anything else and some others live as individuals. The variety of human experience has been considered as part of our biological evolution. In fact, we have been using our capacity to create organizational structures as a set of cultural tools to deal with the realities that we have to face. Each historical moment, each new wave of knowledge and possibilities, have brought the types of organizations that prove to be useful in that context, generating economic development, prosperity for the participants and cultural dissemination for management practices. This evolutionary mechanism (new types of organizations emerging for new contexts), in its progression, has had times of great light as well as many shadows. The lights aim at better results, ways to sustainably scale organizational capacity, great coverage and impact. The shadows are related to depersonalization, lack of commitment to the environment, ethical dilemmas, stress, among others. All these shadows have occurred in attempts to solve complex problems with types of organizations that have not been willing (or available) to adapt to the increasing complexity of the times in which they are immersed, thinking that with the common way of doing things they can become aware of any problem that arises. The consequence has been the mismatch that ends up decoupling the organization from its historical, social, biological and cultural context, preventing (or hindering) its evolution and causing problems along the way. Plataforma Áurea Pablo Reyes Arellano
  51. 51. Evolutionary Culture in Organizations Modernity has accelerated development, expansion, new possibilities and sustainability by improving the quality of life in many possible ways. But, are the systems with which we have approached problem management in the past, enough to deal with the complex environments we find today? The process of cultural evolution occurs through an algorithm. When there is inheritance, variation and selection, it operates through an evolutionary mechanism that allows new generations (seen from genetics) to adapt better to the contexts in which they live. At the cultural level, change happens in the same way. However, replication systems are not genes, but cultural transmission units that are inherited, varying and selecting from person to person (or group to group) depending on the context in which they participate. We are imitating what we see and generating complex belief systems, values and paradigms that make us, on the one hand, see reality in a particular way, and on the other, act, teach and manage according to this conception of reality. This form of evolution becomes increasingly complex when what we face is more complex, so that new forms of inheritance, variation and selection are happening while the environment changes, largely as a product of the same results that we encourage. In the process of cultural evolution, this generates an "immune system" that attracts those practices, values and systems that are consistent with the central cultural system, while repealing those that are not in agreement. This generates real articulated systemic structures that seek the preservation of the system and the rejection of other ways of seeing, thinking and acting.
  52. 52. The systematic observation of human behavior in the last 40 years has shown the existence of an evolutionary process that has generated different forms of thinking, each adapted to the context in which they have emerged. In general, people are only empowered to be aware of the problems they are facing in that particular context. Now that these contexts are constantly changing, relations, information and globalization have brought more complexity in the management of dynamic, cultural and relational processes, as well as in the evaluation of results. From there, there have been emerging organizations that have reproduced these paradigmatic systems in their own design and modus operandi. An organization that arises from the need to face the challenges in the industrial revolution, for example, is dysfunctional for current challenges. That is where new types of organizations begin to emerge to be aware of current challenges and give a more integrated and evolved view of their management paradigms. These organizations recognize the enormous variety of forms that co-exist with them, valuing diversity as an opportunity to be a more resilient, connected and effective organization to operate in complex contexts. In a way, these organizations find their adaptive purpose (continuing to exist and improve) with an evolutionary purpose (to transcend and evolve in a complex context). These two forces (consolidation and change) are the constant paradox that the organization must overcome in order to succeed in the changing conditions of the current world. The current challenge is to find managers capable of understanding and operating in these contexts, applying new ways that in many cases will cause them to lose the illusion of control that has been taking place since the industrial revolution. This issue itself will be a challenge to overcome as a process of cultural evolution. Pablo Reyes Arellano, founding partner of Plataforma Áurea, B company dedicated to the transformation and organizational cultural evolution Evolutionary Culture in Organizations
  53. 53. Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems Managing Sustainability
  54. 54. Thriving People people places planet
  55. 55. Wellbeing Curator: Barbara van Schaik
  56. 56. Wellbeing Healing Ourselves and Healing the Planet Robin Wood How Can You Possibly Heal our Planet? • We are so small, seemingly so insignificant in the grand order of the universe- how can something as small as you or I possibly heal something as enormous as our planet? • Looking down on this precious blue pearl from space, we see a vast biosphere that seems limitless, yet we ourselves are slowly poisoning our air, soil and oceans and triggering climate disruption that could mean the end of human civilization as we know it today. • It does not have to be this way. We can still do something, we still have the power to heal our planet. But first we must heal ourselves. Join us at the “Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet” group on Facebook
  57. 57. Healing Ourselves is Easier than you Think • The ironic thing is…that when you heal yourself you are also making the planet more whole at the same time. You are one of the billions of human cells in the super-organism known as Gaia, along with countless other living beings. • Your coming alive, being counted, and engaging with others who share your love for all life on our planet can not only make a huge difference to the wellbeing of us all, it can also ensure the future flourishing of humankind and life as we know it. Join us at the “Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet” group on Facebook Healing Ourselves and Healing the Planet Robin Wood Wellbeing
  58. 58. How Can Healing our Cities Heal our Planet? • Healing our towns and cities is one of the keys to healing ourselves and our planet. • Cities consume most of the earth’s energy and host nearly two-thirds of its inhabitants, so whether we survive and thrive as a global civilization will depend upon the health of our cities. • Low carbon shared transport, green lungs and commons, zero energy buildings, healthier lifestyles and vibrant cultural life will distinguish the thriveable from the miserable cities in this century. • Citizen power is in the hands of city dwellers right now, in the form of green consumption, circular economy participation, thriving lifestyle choices in transport, education, and demanding greener habitats at home, work and play. Join us at the “Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet” group on Facebook Healing Ourselves and Healing the Planet Robin Wood Wellbeing
  59. 59. What is the Connection between Healing and Transformation? • Each of us can thrive when we are part of a larger whole that is flourishing. When we are in a nurturing place that helps us realize our full potential, we can also make a much greater contribution to the health of the whole system we are a part of. • As it is in the nature of living systems to evolve and transform, healing ourselves and the wholes we are a part of is a synergistic process that can positively transform how our world works for all life. • Healing /ˈhiːlɪŋ/ noun • the process of making or becoming sound or healthy again. • Transformation [trans-fer-mey-shuh n] • a complete change in the appearance or character of something or someone, especially so that that thing or person is improved. Join us at the “Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet” group on Facebook Healing Ourselves and Healing the Planet Robin Wood Wellbeing
  60. 60. Join us at the “Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet” group on Facebook Explore Your Potential to Heal & Transform • Suffering and struggle result when any species, especially ourselves, degenerates its environment & thereby, itself. • Yet our own nature and that of the natural world is infinitely regenerative, if we create the space and time for healing to occur. • The Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet movement brings together people from around the planet who appreciate that our personal wellbeing depends upon the flourishing of all life on our planet, and the thriveability of our towns and cities. • We need to not only be the change we seek in the world, but also midwife the mindshifts, culture shifts, capability and worldshifts that must happen for us all to thrive in the 21st century. • Healing Ourselves, Healing Our Planet is about generating a mindshift that celebrates all life and creates conditions in which it can thrive, locally and globally.. Healing Ourselves and Healing the Planet Robin Wood Wellbeing
  61. 61. The Learning Agenda for Flourishing City Dwellers • Where are You on the Spectrum of Change? • How have the dynamics of human evolution shaped what is possible? • What are the 7 Challenges & 7 Acupuncture points for a regenerative civilisation? • How to build dynamic, living platforms for change? • How can you become creatively antifragile? • What is needed to transcend and include our political, religious and cultural differences to drive the change we need? • How to let go of what is blocking the realization of your full potential? • And much, much more….. Join us at the “Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet” group on Facebook Healing Ourselves and Healing the Planet Robin Wood Wellbeing
  62. 62. What do the 7 Challenges & 7 Responses Mean for You? A. Greedy Elites B. Weaponised Media C. Dirty Growth D.Planetary Overshoot E. Authoritarianism Rising F. Self-Contraction G.Anxiety & Depression a. Antifragile Citizens b. Helicopter View c. Creative Imaginations d. Nature Reconnect e. Regenerative Economics f. Exponential Greentech g. True Future Value Responses Wellbeing Join us at the “Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet” group on Facebook Challenges
  63. 63. What People are Saying About This Work The Momentous Leap – Thriveable Transformation in the 21st Century - 2018 "The rewards of healing yourself and healing the planet at the same time, are immense. No matter where you are on your own journey, applying the thinking and frameworks in this book to improve your own practices and skills will help you become more focused and powerful in your efforts. Your fellow travelers are already out there, waiting for you to connect up with them, and make the momentous leap together". Paul van Schaik – Founder- Integral Mentors & Integral Without Borders Synergise! 21st Century Leadership - 2017 “Every few years a book comes along that you know sits within a special group of books that provides thought-provoking insight into the waves of change taking place, like Alvin Toffler's Future Shock and The Third Wave. And The Fourth Wave by Maynards and Mehrtens....We are in a time when the 'fourth wave' is breaking through, a time of considerable change and uncertainty, and this is an excellent handbook for designing a positive and hopeful way through that wave.” Michael Gell Making Good Happen – Pathways to a Thriving Future – 2017 It is very clear that the younger generations now moving into positions of leadership want to live a life of authenticity, and of meaning – and this is becoming far more important to all of us than the things we may aspire to own. This poses a challenge and an opportunity for brands who wish to stay relevant in the future. Now that we have grown into a global community of change makers who understand not just the responsibility, but the opportunity embedded in re-infusing our businesses with sustainable purpose -- what’s needed next is for us to collectively tap into and accelerate an emerging new vision for the “Good Life.” I heartily recommend “Making Good Happen” as a handy and accessible guide on that journey. KoAnn Vikoren Skryniarz - CEO/Founder of Sustainable Brands Visit Robin’s amazon author web page for more details. Wellbeing Robin Lincoln Wood PhD has synthesised his insights and experience in making successful change and transformation happen at micro, meso and macro scales over 3 decades in 8 award winning books. The « Healing Ourselves, Healing our Planet » group and its associated series of Zoom Webinars & Live Exploratoria brings you a synthesis of this work, together with practical maps, models, tools and practices you can use in your personal and professional life.
  64. 64. Wellbeing – Healthy Cities Key messages • Cities are complex systems, so urban health outcomes are dependent on many interactions • The so-called urban advantage— whereby urban populations are, on average, at an advantage compared with rural populations in terms of health outcomes—has to be actively promoted and maintained • Inequalities in health outcomes should be recognised at the urban scale • A linear or cyclical planning approach is insufficient in conditions of complexity • Urban planning for health needs should focus on experimentation through projects • Dialogue between stakeholders is needed, enabling them to assess and critically analyse their working practices and learn how to change their patterns of decision making Urban Wellbeing
  65. 65. Key features of a healthy city • A clean, safe, high quality environment (including adequate and affordable housing) • A stable ecosystem • A strong, mutually supportive, and non- exploitative community • Much public participation in and control over the decisions affecting life, health, and wellbeing • The provision of basic needs (food, water, shelter, income, safety, work) for all people • Access to a wide range of experiences and resources, with the possibility of multiple contacts, interaction, and communication • A diverse, vital, and innovative economy • Encouragement of connections with the past, with the varied cultural and biological heritage, and with other groups and individuals • A city form (design) that is compatible with and enhances the preceding features of behaviour • An optimum level of appropriate public health and care services accessible to all • A high health status (both a high positive health status and a low disease status) Wellbeing – Healthy Cities Urban Wellbeing
  66. 66. Can We Improve Wellbeing In Cities? Leeds : England Getting healthier involving everyone People across Leeds are invited to play their part in making Leeds the best city for health and wellbeing after leaders endorsed a new health and wellbeing strategy. Following a wide range of contributions from local people and experts, the focus of the strategy is on reducing health inequalities and building stronger connections across communities to help people live happier lives. Urban Wellbeing
  67. 67. HOW PPS DRIVES CHANGE Transforming Places: We help communities and cities shape their future through individual public spaces and broad placemaking campaigns. Building the Placemaking Movement: We convene, amplify and build the capacity of the placemaking movement globally and locally. Campaigning for Systemic Change: We make the case for placemaking and engage with like-minded people and movements to influence policies, disciplines, hearts and minds. Urban Wellbeing
  68. 68. Cultivating People systems practices
  69. 69. Education Curator: Alan Dean
  70. 70. Education No one person, company, town or country can achieve the Global Goals on their own, but if we work together, we can achieve anything! Burning2Learn believes we can do it together. From an education point of view, water is key to our survival and we need to take this message into education and help young people visualise that their small drop will be the ripple that creates change. As the Global Goal 6 talks of clean water and sani- tation in the western world, we often fail to see this as a problem because we just turn on a tap and we have water instantly. Can schools and communities support our water companies and governments to value their role in solving this problem? As we look around the world, we are finding the likes of Southern Water in the UK and Hunter Water, in Australia engaging with young people and their communities to address this issue. Think Global Act Local create a day, a week or month of action in your community
  71. 71. Education GEL Summit 2018, United Nations Geneva 300 young people tackle the Global Goals If we look at the UN SDG’s, it apparent that water impacts on most, if not all other goals. This requires young people to look at complexity and problem solving as they bring forward their solutions. With new developments being created in cities and towns, young people could be given an opportunity to be a part of the decision making process, whilst taking into account the UN SDG’s. After all, they are tomorrow’s residents and potential urban planners. They will be also very much impacted upon with regard to the forthcoming devastating effects of climate change. Global can the United Kingdom help South Africa create water security? Local Can Southern Water (UK) encourage customers to reduce usage from: 130LTR per person to 100LTR per person?
  72. 72. Education WORKING WITH THE COMMUNITY Hunter Water, based in Newcastle in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia is working closely with their local community schools. Almost 300 students from a local primary school, aged from 6yrs - 11yrs old participated in a project arranged by Hunter Water. Students were shown the “hook video” describing the water resilience problems faced in the Hunter. This alerted the children to the fact that water is a finite resource. A group of Year 4 students participated in an excursion to Hunter Water where they participated in a range of activities about ‘source to tap’, as well as a tour of the catchment area around Grahamstown Dam, the Hunter’s primary water source. Another local primary school is also about to commence a project and take part in visits to Hunter Water. 39 students from a secondary school participated in a project and they were challenged to come up with their own ideas about solving the real world problem of water scarcity. Students continued working on various projects when they returned to school. Hunter Water will be hosting a gala event on 10th December to showcase the projects undertaken at the school. The Hunter has experienced a period of drought so this has made the conversations around water consumption and water resilience more relevant. What we use What we should use 191 litres 172 litres
  73. 73. Water is the key to our survival. We need to value this vital resource! Einstein said “we cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.” With this in mind, we are asking for your help to solve the problem you face in your community with water. If you’re not experiencing any problems from lack of clean drinking water at present, can we ask you to increase the depth of your thinking to take this question into your school and community. Be the open mind that can address this problem! Education Jacques Cousteau
  74. 74. Thriving Planet people places planet
  75. 75. A Broader View
  76. 76. For communication tools see ‘Guides for Integrally Informed Practitioners : Basic’ – Paul van Schaik vS Publishers Personal beliefs/mindset Systems existing & proposedCultural views Personal Behaviour Context Stages of development Interior Subjective : Consciousness – mindsets & intention Exterior Objective : Capacities - Behaviour & Competences Interior Intersubjective : Culture - worldviews Exterior Interobjective : Creations - systems & infrastructure Any attempt at interventions to modify behaviour needs to consider the interrelationship between behaviour, values & mindsets, culture and existing systems in place and systems of infrastructure being proposed. Each of these domains have a distinct influence and need to be tetra-meshed to embed change in the long-term. Change can be translational – healthier at same Stage of development or transformational – healthier (hopefully) a higher Stage of development. Integral Evaluation
  77. 77. An Integral Approach to Development Beliefs/mindset (individuals) Determine Values Centre of Gravity (VCG) (a number of instruments are available to measure VCG) Communications: 1. to nudge ‘improvements’ at current VCG (short term) 2. to transform to higher levels of understanding (long term) - stories, messages, school programs, social media, advertising etc. Peer group pressure, role models etc. Cultural views (communities etc.) Determine Dominant Mode of Discourse (DMD) (a number of instruments are available to measure DMD) Communications: 1. to nudge ‘improvements’ at current DMD (short term) 2. to transform to higher levels of understanding (long term) - stories, messages, school programs, social media, advertising etc. Peer group pressure, role models etc. Behaviour (individuals) To change Personal Behaviour both – translational more healthy at same level (horizontal) - transformational towards a higher stage of development (vertical) - new laws & guidelines/instructions - programs/projects in other quadrants. Context For communication tools see ‘Guides for Integrally Informed Practitioners : Basic’ – Paul van Schaik vS Publishers Stages of development Systems in place – what needs improving & what needs replacing proposed systems C40 interventions These ‘problems’ are know as ‘wicked problems’ and actions or interventions usually bring forth unintended consequences. This constant alignment to goals of vision needed Projects need to be co created with communities – not handed down from the centre. See Modes of Participation table below page 21 (level 6 to 8 for results) Any intervention must be designed and implemented in conjunction with projects in other quadrants
  78. 78. • comprehensive, • inclusive, • non-marginalizing, • embracing. Integral approaches to any field attempt to be exactly that – to include as many: • perspectives, • styles, & • methodologies as possible within a coherent view of the topic. In a certain sense, integral approaches are “meta-paradigms,” or ways to draw together an already existing number of separate paradigms into an interrelated network of approaches that are mutually enriching. – Ken Wilber A Broader Framework integral means Methodologies for understanding each Zone People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds.
  79. 79. A Quadrant Worldview A Quadrivia Worldview domains in which I am embedded My Values & Mindset Our Culture & WorldViews Our Society & Systems My Behaviour & Lifestyle ‘City’ viewed from a personal perspective – through personal mindsets & values (centre of gravity) ‘City’ viewed from a cultural perspective – through group culture & worldviews (dominant mode of discourse) ‘City’ viewed from a social & systems perspective – (data and observation driven) ‘City’ viewed from an empirical perspective – (data and observation driven) People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. A Broader Framework Perspectives – Domains of Knowing
  80. 80. The perspective (concepts/lens) through which we view our world are mostly self-built, based on life conditions (and genes). These life conditions help develop our mindset, values, and our depth and complexity of consciousness. That is, we mostly ‘self- construct’ the world that we are aware of or 'see'. Different perspectives ('lenses’) bring forth different worlds in the same ‘physical’ space. Our own perspective (lens) is developed from many of the following: • Age • Gender • Mindset • Culture (Dominant mode of discourse) • Community (Dominant mode of discourse) • Family (Dominant mode of discourse) • Country (Dominant mode of discourse) • Location • Geography • Rural/Urban • Climate • Education type and level • Experience of all kinds • Multi cultural/country embeddedness • Personal Centre of Gravity - values/altitude • etc. In order to transform to a broader perspective we need to transcend our current ‘lens’ (include its positive aspects) and unlearn the lesser or negative elements. This is difficult as in transformation all the above need to be re-evaluated and transcended. People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. Make-up of our View
  81. 81. Integral Framework - Simplified Complexity of Experience – Stages or Levels: Each higher Stage transcends and includes the lower stages – including the best and transcending the areas that no longer apply. Development occurs through the interplay between person and environment, not just by one or the other. It is a potential and can be encouraged and facilitated by appropriate support and challenge. The depth, complexity, and scope of what people notice can expand throughout life. Yet no matter how evolved we become, our knowledge and understanding is always partial and incomplete. As development unfolds, autonomy, freedom, tolerance for difference and ambiguity, as well as flexibility, reflection and skill in interacting with the environment increase, while defences decrease. But each transformation can and will leave aspects of self that does not always transcend and turns into shadow. Overall, worldviews evolve from simple to complex, from static to dynamic, and from egocentric to socio- centric to world-centric. Each later stage in the sequence is more differentiated, integrated, flexible and capable of functioning optimally in a world that is rapidly changing and becoming more complicated. People's stage of development influences what they notice or can become aware of, and therefore what they can describe, articulate, influence, and change. People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds.
  82. 82. Integral Framework - Simplified Values Cultures Systems Behaviour The main reason that learning is as slow as it is, is that learning means giving up ideas, habits, and values. Some of the old “learning” that has to be given up or “unlearned” was useful in the past, and is still useful to some of the people in the society. Some of the things that people have to unlearn are traditions that are dear to people, and that may be part of their personal character development. Some of what needs to be forgotten are ways of living that still have important values to people. Folding Back the Future "It is not that we aren’t doing anything to influence our future. We are. We do what everybody does. We know that our actions have implications for the future and we act accordingly. But what we fail to do is fold our future back into our present with any real creativity or power in the course of our day- to-day activities - and day-to-day activities are where the future occurs." "Our future emerges from the interplay of today’s actions. Enough of the ‘right’ actions and we will survive and prosper. Too many of the ‘wrong’ ones and we will disappear. Enough of a fuzzy mixture and we will take a little longer to disappear, with a few of us waking up to discover what path we are on and working out a recovery." Mike McMasters People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds.
  83. 83. Integral Framework - Simplified Kosmic Karma & Creativity - Ken Wilber 2002 [unpublished] The Idea of Progress "Only such an AQAL interpretation can allow us to handle the idea of progress in a way that makes sense of actual historical realities. The problem with virtually all previous notions of progress—from the Enlightenment to Marx to present-day liberal democratic versions—is that they made the wholly unwarranted assumption that society has merely a single basic worldview and a single basic techno- economic mode, and therefore history must be a progressive, step by step increase in liberal values, clunking up the great ladder of linear progress. Thus, if the Enlightenment represented the emergence of industrial- rationality over feudal-mythology, then modernity must embody nothing but progress, pure and simple. "But, of course, a society whose governance system embodies industrial-rational modes (orange), still has pockets of archaic, magic, and mythic subcultures (purple, red, and blue). Moreover, the products of orange can now be used by pre-orange waves. Orange moral consciousness, for example, demands that all people be treated fairly, regardless of race, color, sex, or creed. Orange cognition is also powerful enough that it has the potential to produce assembly line gas chambers, but orange moral consciousness would never use them. But tribal-red moral consciousness can easily seize orange products and will gladly use them—hence, Auschwitz. "In other words, “levels and lines” becomes an important ingredient in the AQAL analysis of any idea of “progress,” because the higher the level of development in any line in a society, the greater the possibility that those higher products can be seized by lower levels of development in other lines. Thus, the greater the genuine depth in any society—that is, the more there is genuine, real, authentic progress—the more types of pathology that can follow in its wake, due to levels and lines. This allows us to track the “good news, bad news” nature of all social transformations, and not fall into the only two widely accepted options, which either see only progress or deny all progress. "In short, no matter how “high” a society is in terms of developmental depth, every human being must start its development at square one, and thus the greater the depth, the more problems that can occur. Even in a society whose governance systems were at turquoise, individuals would still have to begin at beige, then purple, then red, blue, orange, green, yellow, and turquoise—if they develop fully. But many individuals will remain at junior waves of development, which is certainly their right in all post-orange societies. But just that fact accounts for the peculiar distresses of advanced cultures: the higher the culture, the more stages of development involved, and since every stage has its own pathologies, then the higher the culture, the more ways you can be sick. Thus, good news, bad news.
  84. 84. Integral Framework - Simplified The Great Possibility And so it is today, with an integral age at the leading edge. The possibility—and it is only a gossamer possibility at this time—is that a new and wider wave of consciousness—an integral wave, an age of synthesis—is beginning to emerge and push against all of the now-older waves (traditional, modern, and postmodern), throwing each of them (but especially the postmodern) into a legitimation crisis about its own validity—a crisis of legitimacy that can only be resolved by an increase in authenticity, or an actual transformation to the new and wider integral wave of unfolding. This new unfolding will involve, in terms of its paradigmatic base, an actual set of social practices, not merely a new theory or set of theories. ………….. a paradigm is a social practice or behavioral injunction, not simply a theory or intellectual edifice (although, of course, they tetra-evolve together). Accordingly, any new paradigm will include a set of exemplars and practices—practices that, if they contain more depth (or Eros) than their predecessors, will throw the old approaches into a legitimation crisis that can only be resolved by a vertical (“revolutionary”) transformation—as we said, the crisis in legitimacy can only be resolved by an increase in authenticity. Thus, a new integral paradigm will therefore be a new set of injunctions and practices, not simply theories, not worldviews, not Web-of-Life notions, not holistic concepts—but actual practices. People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds.
  85. 85. Integral Framework - Simplified Values Cultures Systems Behaviour The Basic Moral Intuition (BMI) In The Context Of Social Change “The intuition is given; the unpacking is our moral dilemma, always.” “…one of the main problems with virtually all forms of "sustainability" is that they ignore depth, so there's no real way to include choices that favor human interior growth and development, to greater and greater levels of consciousness, love, care, inclusiveness, embrace. It's just some form of "happiness" or "goodness" which is assumed to be the same for all people, so flatland it is. The BMI takes depth into central concern, and thus opens the door to real human potentials and growth and awakening--while including other sentient beings in the overall equation at any given time.” “….how to actually balance these is an intuition. There's no mathematical formula for how to do this. Further, humans at different levels of development will all intuit "depth/span," but will define "depth" differently--somebody at red egocentric, "depth" means me alone--so the BMI comes out, "the greatest stuff for me!" Somebody at amber mythic will interpret "depth" as meaning those who are saved, those who embrace the given savior, those among the "chosen peoples." So the BMI comes out, "The greatest good stuff for God's people, to hell (literally) with everybody else." Get to rational orange, and "depth" becomes something along the lines of "individual (human) achievement," so the BMI becomes "the greatest excellence for the most humans." By the time of green pluralism, other species are usually included, so you end up with bioequality, and there you're stuck.” Ken Wilber 2013 People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds.
  86. 86. A Broader Framework Individual domains People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. UPPER LEFT Experience Involves the psychological and cognitive processes involved in making meaning, constructing identity, structuring reasoning, and forming worldviews; perspectives of roles within the community, society, environment and world; attitudes, feelings self- concept, and value systems. Practices tend to be qualitative and subjective; some examples include: • self-reflection/introspection • contemplation • self-inquire • body scanning • journaling • goal-setting • meditation • prayer • rituals • vision quests • wild-nature experiences UPPER RIGHT Behaviour Involves physical health, intentional behaviour, skills, capabilities, such as nutritional intake; conduct towards the environment, or the opposite sex; routines; responses to rules and regulations; birth control use; money management; computer skills. Practices tend to be quantitively, using scientific measurement and diagnostic tests; some examples include: • social indicators (life-expectancy rates, literacy rates, infant mortality rates, etc.) • diet and hygiene • preventative medicine • exercise • skill-building and training • technical capacity building • rules, regulations, and guidance
  87. 87. A Broader Framework Collective domains People do not perceive worlds but enact them. Different mindsets bring forth different worlds. LOWER LEFT Culture Involves worldviews, social norms, customs and shared values that (subtly or explicitly) inform relationships, community processes, mutual understanding and social appropriateness. Practices tend to be qualitative and intersubjective; some examples include: • dialogue • participatory methodologies • focus groups • collective visioning • trust-building exercises • group facilitations • participant-observer techniques • nonviolent communication • storytelling • appreciative inquiry • collective introspection LOWER RIGHT Systems Involves the quantifiable, measurable and exterior components of development, such as diagnostic statistics, ecological and economic systems, and social institutions and political arrangements. Practices tend to be quantitively, using scientific measurement and diagnostic tests; some examples include: • quantitative research • scientific studies • monitoring and evaluation • gap analysis • stakeholder analysis • diagnostic testing • rapid appraisals • skill building • policy-making • technical/social capacity development
  88. 88. Monitoring mindsets practices cultures systems
  89. 89. Evaluation
  90. 90. Integral Evaluation Guiding principle here is that you need enough diversity in what data you are gathering and how you are gathering it, that you can adequately capture impacts that are occurring in all quadrants. Types of data to be collected: - third-person data (objective) such as surveys or other quantitative ways to measure change, - second-person (intersubjective data) such as data that is generated and interpreted together as a group or within a process, and - first-person (subjective data) such as reflective answers, thick description, or other qualitative descriptions (one-on-one). IIImpact on Practices (practices & conduct carrying out work) Impact on Systems (policies, structures that support innovation in work) Impact on Mindsets (ways of thinking about and approaching problems) Impact on Culture (collaboration, cultural perceptions, and social discourse in issues)
  91. 91. www.integralwithoutborders.Net LOW POINT ASSESSMENT: Moving potential forward, addressing gaps and sticking points FOUR QUADRANT MAP: Working With Complexity Topic or Issue:Topic or Issue: Integral Evaluation
  92. 92. THIRD-PERSON DATA COLLECTION • Build in content from the indicator table into the feedback forms, proposal questions, grant reports, forum retrospectives, etc. • This will generate actual numbers along the 1-5 spectrum for these indicators, which can be quantified and used in evaluation analysis and reporting. • Any thing you quantify (numbers of participants, proposals or multi sector tables) can be useful to analyze and include. SECOND-PERSON DATA COLLECTION • At the Evaluation Pod meetings and Development Evaluation (DE) meetings generate discussion and reflection through prompting with skillful DE questions. Then, harvest the insights and doing pattern-finding; that is where indicators come in. • Community Liaison carry out this pattern-finding afterwards then reflect back to the other participants later. • During the DE sessions, do some group pattern- finding with indicator tables written on flip- charts, and participants use post-it notes to tag where in the spectrum they would say the outcome was achieved. This is based on participant-observation, and is co-generated in a focus-group style meeting. FIRST-PERSON DATA COLLECTION • To generate thick descriptions on these indicators (about how and why changes occurred as they did): • use more in-depth reflective questions posed within one of the activities, such as a qualitative question in a survey • or by doing key-informant interviews with a sample of the target audience. Integral Evaluation
  93. 93. Integral Evaluation www.integralwithoutborders.Net
  94. 94. Reflective, experiential inquiry Description: interior felt-sense, how one feels (about oneself, org, project, issue), Methods: phenomenology Methodologies: personal ecology sheet self-reflection (can use this tool to guide the process, can be an ongoing cascading reflection-stream, and/or can be accessed through journaling). Developmental inquiry Description: interior personal change, developmental stages, changes in motivation, attitudes, and values. Methods: structuralism Methodologies: developmental assessment (includes pre/post interviews that are carried out one- on-one with a sample of the population and the interviewer is trained to ask the same questions that hone in on indicators for motivational, attitudinal I R Interpretive inquiry Description: culture and meanings held by the group or community; for example, how do people generally feel and what do they know about “conservation”, what does “conservation concession” mean to them? Methods: hermeneutics Methodologies: focus group (using a guided method, shared below, as a pre/during/post method of “taking the pulse” of the group—where motivation lies, what is working what is not, how can the project shift and flow. Ethno-methodological inquiry Description: changes in social discourse, implicit “background” social norms, and shared worldview. Method Family: ethno-methodology Methodologies: participant-observation (using a tool with focus questions on specific domains of change) Integral Methodological Pluralism application - international development framework : Gail Hochachka IWB Integral Evaluation
  95. 95. Systems inquiry Description: quantitative measurement of seen changes in social, economic, political systems in which the work is carried out. Methods: systems analysis Methodologies: systems-analysis tool S E Empirical inquiry Description: quantitative measurement of seen changes in behaviours, for example: shifts in land-use practices, uptake of conservation practices in the household, behavioural change in gender relations. Methods: empiricism Methodologies: measuring, ranking, and quantitative analysis (pre/during/post measurement that ranks certain behaviours from 1-10 and can compare/contrast to later assessment, after which time that data can be analysed using quantitative methods to create graphs and figures of what percentage of behaviours changed through the lifetime of the project.) Integral Methodological Pluralism application - international development framework : Gail Hochachka IWB Integral Evaluation
  96. 96. Maps the map is not the territory
  97. 97. Integral Tools