Gardner’s Art Through the Ages,                            12e                                 Chapter 6                  ...
South and Southeast Asia                           2
Key Ideas• Indian art stresses the interconnectedness of all the  arts: architecture, painting, and sculpture.• Buddhist &...
History• History of invasion & assimilation.• Layers of disparate populations – 18 official languages,  Hindus, Muslims, J...
Figure 6-2 Robed male figure, from Mohenjo-daro,Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. Steatite, 6 7/8” high.National Museum of Paki...
Figure 6-3 Seal with seated figure in yogic posture, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. Steatite coatedwith a...
Philosophy of Buddhism• Life is full of suffering with an endless cycle of birth &  rebirth• Goal is to end the cycle & ac...
Characteristics of Buddhist ArtArchitecture:• Place of worship = stupa (reliquary; mound-shaped shrine  w/ no interior)• P...
Characteristics of Buddhist ArtPainting/Sculpture:• Little negative space• Compact pose• Seated (usually) in lotus positio...
Figure 6-4 Lion capital of column erected by Ashoka atSarnath, India, ca. 250 BCE. Polished sandstone, approx.7’ high. Arc...
Figure 6-5 Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE (View from the east).                        ...
Figure 6-7 Yakshi, detail of eastern gateway, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, mid first century BCE to early first century CE....
Figure 6-8 Interior (left), section (top right), and plan(bottom right) of chaitya hall, Karle, India, ca. 100 CE.        ...
Figure 6-9 Meditating Buddha, from Gandhara, Pakistan,second century CE. Gray schist, 3’ 7 1/2” high. RoyalScottish Museum...
Figure 6-10 The life and death of the Buddha, frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Schist, 2’ 2 3/8” X 9’6 1...
Figure 6-11 Buddha seated on lion throne, fromMathura, India, second century CE. Red sandstone, 2’ 31/2” high. Archaeologi...
Figure 6-12 Seated Buddha preaching first sermon, fromSarnath, India, second half of fifth century. Tan sandstone,5’ 3” hi...
Figure 6-14 Bodhisattva Padmapani, wall paintingin Cave 1, Ajanta, India, second half of fifthcentury.                    ...
Philosophy of Hinduism• Polytheistic• Infinite variety of the divine – in gods, in nature, in  humans.• Vedic texts are sa...
Characteristics of Hindu ArtArchitecture:• Temple is residence of god• Small inner cella – Womb of the World• Sacred statu...
Characteristics of Hindu ArtPainting:• Miniatures of watercolor on paper to illuminate books• Rajput School – specialized ...
Figure 6-15 Boar avatar of Vishnu rescuing the earth, Cave 5, Udayagiri, India, early fifth century. Relief approx 22’ X13...
Figure 6-16 Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cavetemple, Badami, India, late sixth century.                              ...
Figure 6-17 Shiva as Mahadeva, Cave 1, Elephanta,India, ca. 550–575. Basalt, Shiva 17’ 10” high.                          ...
Figure 6-18 Vishnu Temple,Deogarh, India, early sixth century.                                       25
Figure 6-19 Vishnu asleep on theserpent Ananta, detail of facade ofthe Vishnu Temple, Deogarh,India, early sixth century. ...
Figure 6-20 Rock-cut temples, Mamallapuram, India, second half of seventh century. From left to right: Dharmaraja, Bhima,A...
Figure 6-21 Rajarajeshvara Temple, Thanjavur, India, ca. 1010                                                             ...
Figure 6-22 Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000. (View looking northwest and plan).                            ...
Figure 6-23 Sculptures on temple wall, Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000.                                    ...
Figure 6-24 Shiva as Nataraja, bronze in theNaltunai Ishvaram Temple, Punjai, India, ca. 1000.                            ...
Figure 6-25 Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana), Gal Vihara, near Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, eleventh totwelfth century. Granul...
Figure 6-26 Borobudur, Java, Indonesia, ca. 800.                                                   33
Figure 6-29 Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, first half of twelfth century.                                                  ...
Figure 6-31 Bayon, Angkor Thom,Cambodia, ca. 1200.                                  35
Figure 25-1 Qutb Minar, begun early thirteenthcentury, and Alai Darvaza, 1311, Delhi, India.                              ...
Figure 25-2 Lotus Mahal, Vijayanagara, India, 15th or early 16th century.                                                 ...
Mughal Painting                  38
Figure 25-3 BASAWAN and CHATAR MUNI, Akbarand the Elephant Hawai, folio 22 from the Akbarnama(History of Akbar) by Abul Fa...
Figure 25-4 BICHITR, Jahangir Preferring a SufiShaykh to Kings, ca. 1615–1618. Opaque watercolor onpaper, 1’ 6 7/8” x 1’ 1...
Mughal Architecture                      41
Figure 25-5 Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1632–1647.                                                 42
Outside India                43
Figure 25-11 Emerald Buddha, Emerald Temple,Bangkok, Thailand, 15th century. Jade or jasper, 2’ 6”high.                   ...
Figure 25-12 Schwedagon Pagoda,Rangoon (Yangon), Burma(Myanmar), 14th century or earlier(rebuilt several times). Stupa, go...
Figure 25-14 MEERA MUKHERJEE, Ashoka at Kalinga,1972. Bronze, 11’ 6 3/4” high. Maurya Sheraton Hotel, NewDelhi.           ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

India

952 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
952
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
21
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

India

  1. 1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 6 Paths to Enlightenment: The Art of South and Southeast Asia before 1200 Chapter 25 Sultans, Kings, Emperors and Colonists:The Art of South and Southeast Asia after 1200 1
  2. 2. South and Southeast Asia 2
  3. 3. Key Ideas• Indian art stresses the interconnectedness of all the arts: architecture, painting, and sculpture.• Buddhist & Hindu philosophies form a background to Indian artistic thought.• A vibrant school of manuscript painting using brilliantly applied watercolors flourishes in India. 3
  4. 4. History• History of invasion & assimilation.• Layers of disparate populations – 18 official languages, Hindus, Muslims, Jains, Buddhists, Christians, Sikhs, tribal religions• Arts are critical• Rulers have been major patrons to enhance civic/religious life & themselves• Monuments are a combination of arts, with 1 artist as leader of project w/ single vision• Design may be determined by religious advisor who worked with lead artist• Highly organized approach to artistic training - apprenticeship 4
  5. 5. Figure 6-2 Robed male figure, from Mohenjo-daro,Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. Steatite, 6 7/8” high.National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi. 5
  6. 6. Figure 6-3 Seal with seated figure in yogic posture, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. Steatite coatedwith alkali and baked, approx. 1 3/8” X 1 3/8”. National Museum, New Delhi. 6
  7. 7. Philosophy of Buddhism• Life is full of suffering with an endless cycle of birth & rebirth• Goal is to end the cycle & achieve oneness with the supreme spirit, usually by accumulating spiritual merit through good works, charity, etc.Iconography:o Lion = symbol of Buddha’s loyaltyo Wheel = Buddha’s lawo Lotus = symbol of Buddha’s pure nature.o Columns surround by wheel = Buddha’s teachingo Empty Throne = Buddha or reminder of his presence 7
  8. 8. Characteristics of Buddhist ArtArchitecture:• Place of worship = stupa (reliquary; mound-shaped shrine w/ no interior)• Pray while walking clockwise (easterly) around it. Cosmic symbolism.• Symbol of Mt. Meru, mountain at center of the world & axis connecting earth & heavens• 3 umbrellas at top symbolizing 3 jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, Law, Community of Monks. Square around is sacred tree surrounded by fence.• Gates at 4 points of compass (toranas) 8
  9. 9. Characteristics of Buddhist ArtPainting/Sculpture:• Little negative space• Compact pose• Seated (usually) in lotus position w/ wheel on souls of feet• Drapery is regional – tight-fitting over 1 shoulder (Central India); heavy robes over both shoulder (NW, Pakistan, Afghanistan – Hellenistic influence)• Frontal, symmetrical, w/ nimbus/halo around head• Helpers (bodhisattvas) nearby• Meditative mood• Hand gestures (mudras) tell actions/feelings• Hair bun (ushnisha); curl on forehead (urna); no jewelry – rejection of court life• Base – predella (may show donors figures)• Nature spirits – yakshas (males) & yakshis (females) 9
  10. 10. Figure 6-4 Lion capital of column erected by Ashoka atSarnath, India, ca. 250 BCE. Polished sandstone, approx.7’ high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath. 10
  11. 11. Figure 6-5 Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE (View from the east). 11
  12. 12. Figure 6-7 Yakshi, detail of eastern gateway, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, mid first century BCE to early first century CE. 12
  13. 13. Figure 6-8 Interior (left), section (top right), and plan(bottom right) of chaitya hall, Karle, India, ca. 100 CE. 13
  14. 14. Figure 6-9 Meditating Buddha, from Gandhara, Pakistan,second century CE. Gray schist, 3’ 7 1/2” high. RoyalScottish Museum, Edinburgh. 14
  15. 15. Figure 6-10 The life and death of the Buddha, frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Schist, 2’ 2 3/8” X 9’6 1/8”. Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 15
  16. 16. Figure 6-11 Buddha seated on lion throne, fromMathura, India, second century CE. Red sandstone, 2’ 31/2” high. Archaeological Museum, Muttra. 16
  17. 17. Figure 6-12 Seated Buddha preaching first sermon, fromSarnath, India, second half of fifth century. Tan sandstone,5’ 3” high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath. 17
  18. 18. Figure 6-14 Bodhisattva Padmapani, wall paintingin Cave 1, Ajanta, India, second half of fifthcentury. 18
  19. 19. Philosophy of Hinduism• Polytheistic• Infinite variety of the divine – in gods, in nature, in humans.• Vedic texts are sacred texts• Caste system – Brahmins – ritual specialists linking gods to humans• Good life through prayer, deeds, devotion to break cycle of reincarnationIconography:o Shiva = destruction & rebirtho Brahma = creatoro Vishnu = preservero Consort goddesses = peaceful 19
  20. 20. Characteristics of Hindu ArtArchitecture:• Temple is residence of god• Small inner cella – Womb of the World• Sacred statue there• Prefer corbelled vaults for cave feel• Hypostyle antechamber/hall• Larger complex• Regional – N more vertical on high pedestals, S bigger complexes/cities• Outside covered w/ sculpture, crowding over every surface 20
  21. 21. Characteristics of Hindu ArtPainting:• Miniatures of watercolor on paper to illuminate books• Rajput School – specialized in myths legends, life of Krishna• Portraits• Crowded, colorful• Tilted perspective• Floral patterns• Small figures, large landscapesSculpture:• Integrated w/ architecture• Divine couples (mithuna)• Curves, lines of body – dance poses common• Organic, geometric designs; flowers, bells• God images inside temples – rarely seen 21
  22. 22. Figure 6-15 Boar avatar of Vishnu rescuing the earth, Cave 5, Udayagiri, India, early fifth century. Relief approx 22’ X13’; Vishnu 12’ 8” high. 22
  23. 23. Figure 6-16 Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cavetemple, Badami, India, late sixth century. 23
  24. 24. Figure 6-17 Shiva as Mahadeva, Cave 1, Elephanta,India, ca. 550–575. Basalt, Shiva 17’ 10” high. 24
  25. 25. Figure 6-18 Vishnu Temple,Deogarh, India, early sixth century. 25
  26. 26. Figure 6-19 Vishnu asleep on theserpent Ananta, detail of facade ofthe Vishnu Temple, Deogarh,India, early sixth century. 26
  27. 27. Figure 6-20 Rock-cut temples, Mamallapuram, India, second half of seventh century. From left to right: Dharmaraja, Bhima,Arjuna, and Draupadi rathas. 27
  28. 28. Figure 6-21 Rajarajeshvara Temple, Thanjavur, India, ca. 1010 28
  29. 29. Figure 6-22 Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000. (View looking northwest and plan). 29
  30. 30. Figure 6-23 Sculptures on temple wall, Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000. 30
  31. 31. Figure 6-24 Shiva as Nataraja, bronze in theNaltunai Ishvaram Temple, Punjai, India, ca. 1000. 31
  32. 32. Figure 6-25 Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana), Gal Vihara, near Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, eleventh totwelfth century. Granulite, Buddha approx. 46’ long. 32
  33. 33. Figure 6-26 Borobudur, Java, Indonesia, ca. 800. 33
  34. 34. Figure 6-29 Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, first half of twelfth century. 34
  35. 35. Figure 6-31 Bayon, Angkor Thom,Cambodia, ca. 1200. 35
  36. 36. Figure 25-1 Qutb Minar, begun early thirteenthcentury, and Alai Darvaza, 1311, Delhi, India. 36
  37. 37. Figure 25-2 Lotus Mahal, Vijayanagara, India, 15th or early 16th century. 37
  38. 38. Mughal Painting 38
  39. 39. Figure 25-3 BASAWAN and CHATAR MUNI, Akbarand the Elephant Hawai, folio 22 from the Akbarnama(History of Akbar) by Abul Fazl, ca. 1590. Opaquewatercolor on paper, 13 7/8” X 8 3/4”. Victoria and AlbertMuseum, London. 39
  40. 40. Figure 25-4 BICHITR, Jahangir Preferring a SufiShaykh to Kings, ca. 1615–1618. Opaque watercolor onpaper, 1’ 6 7/8” x 1’ 1”. Freer Gallery of Art,Washington, D.C. 40
  41. 41. Mughal Architecture 41
  42. 42. Figure 25-5 Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1632–1647. 42
  43. 43. Outside India 43
  44. 44. Figure 25-11 Emerald Buddha, Emerald Temple,Bangkok, Thailand, 15th century. Jade or jasper, 2’ 6”high. 44
  45. 45. Figure 25-12 Schwedagon Pagoda,Rangoon (Yangon), Burma(Myanmar), 14th century or earlier(rebuilt several times). Stupa, gold,silver, and jewel encrusted, approx.344’ high. Top of stupa, gold ballinlaid with 4,351 diamonds. 45
  46. 46. Figure 25-14 MEERA MUKHERJEE, Ashoka at Kalinga,1972. Bronze, 11’ 6 3/4” high. Maurya Sheraton Hotel, NewDelhi. 46

×