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10 Lecture 10 - Motivation, Influence, Communication.pptx


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10 Lecture 10 - Motivation, Influence, Communication.pptx

  1. 1. Motivation, Influence, Communication
  2. 2. A Simple Model of Motivation Need Creates desire to fulfill needs (money, friendship, recognition, achievement Behaviour Results in actions to fulfill needs Rewards Satisfy needs: intrinsic or extrinsic rewards Feedback Reward informs person whether behaviour was appropriate and should be used again
  3. 3. Types of Rewards Intrinsic Rewards – Internal satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action Extrinsic Rewards – Rewards given by another person, typically a supervisor, such as pay increases and promotions
  4. 4. Types of Rewards (cont.) Systemwide Rewards – Rewards that apply the same to all people within an organization or within a specific category or department Individual Rewards – Rewards that differ among individuals within the same organization or department
  5. 5. Examples of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards Extrinsic Intrinsic Individual Systemwide Large merit increase Insurance benefits Feeling of self- fulfillment Pride in being part of a “winning” organization
  6. 6. Needs of People and Motivation Methods Needs of people Conventional management Lower needs Carrot and stick (Extrinsic) Control people Adequate effort Leadership Higher needs Empowerment (Intrinsic) Growth and fulfillment Best effort
  7. 7. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Area of Satisfaction Area of Dissatisfaction Motivators influence level of satisfaction Hygiene factors influence level of dissatisfaction Motivators Achievement Recognition Responsibility Work itself Personal growth Hygiene Factors Work conditions Pay/security Co. policies Supervisors Interpersonal. relationships Highly Satisfied Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied
  8. 8. Dimensions in the 2-Factor Theory • Hygiene factors – Involve working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships. • Motivators – Involve job satisfaction and meeting higher-level needs such as achievement, recognition, and opportunity for growth.
  9. 9. Key Elements of Expectancy Theory(Vroom) E > P expectancy Effort Performance P > O expectancy Performance Outcomes Valence – value of outcomes (pay, recognition, other rewards) Motivation Will putting effort into the task lead to the desired performance? Will high performance lead to the desired outcomes? Are the available outcomes highly valued?
  10. 10. 10 Equity Theory - Adams A theory that proposes that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance
  11. 11. Question • How is a Leader going to motivate?
  12. 12. Empowerment Power sharing, the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization.
  13. 13. Elements of Empowerment  Employees receive information about company performance.  Employees receive knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals.  Employees have the power to make substantive decisions.  Employees understand the meaning and impact of their jobs.  Employees are rewarded based on company performance.
  14. 14. The Empowerment Continuum
  15. 15. Communication A process by which information and understanding are transferred between a sender and a receiver
  16. 16. A Circular Model of Interpersonal Communication
  17. 17. The Leader as Communication Champion Internal and external sources Strategic Conversation Open climate Listening Discernment Dialogue Purpose Directed Direct attention to vision/values, desired outcomes; use persuasion Methods Use rich channels Stories and metaphors Informal communication Leader as Communication Champion This Links to The Golden Thread!
  18. 18. Open Communication Leaders sharing all types of information throughout the company and across all levels.
  19. 19. Why Open the Communication Channels? An open climate is essential for cascading vision, and cascading is essential because: Natural Law 1: You Get What You talk about – A vision must have ample ‘air time’ in an organization. A vision must be shared and practiced by leaders at every opportunity. Natural Law 2: The Climate of an Organization is a Reflection of the Leader – A leader who doesn’t embody the vision and values doesn’t have an organization that does. Natural Law 3: You Can’t Walk Faster Than One Step at a Time – A vision is neither understood nor accepted overnight. Communicating must be built into continuous, daily interaction so that over time followers will internalize it.
  20. 20. 20 What: Managers can communicate about anything but they cannot communicate about everything - so, implicitly or explicitly, they make choices about communication content. Who: They also take decisions or unconsciously act in ways that impact on the shape of communication networks. For example, they may communicate with some organisational members but not with others and they may authorise or encourage certain others to communicate with each other. How: They may also influence, if only by example, preferred channels for passing on particular kinds of information. John Hayes, THE THEORY & PRACTICE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT, 3rd ed. Palgrave, 2010 The Who What and How of Communication
  21. 21. 21 Underscore & Explore Identify & Reply Withhold & Uphold Tell & Sell Spray & Pray Clampett et al’s five communication strategies John Hayes, THE THEORY & PRACTICE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT, 3rd ed. Palgrave, 2010
  22. 22. 22 Underscore & Explore Identify & Reply Withhold & Uphold Tell & Sell Spray & Pray Amount of information transferred Great Little Communication effectiveness Low High Clampett et al.’s five communication strategies John Hayes, THE THEORY & PRACTICE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT, 3rd ed. Palgrave, 2010
  23. 23. Ten Keys to Effective Listening Keys Poor Listener Good Listener 1. Listen actively Is passive, laid back Asks questions; paraphrases what is said 2. Find areas of interest Tunes out dry subjects Looks for opportunities, new learning 3. Resist distractions Is easily distracted Fights distractions; tolerates bad habits; knows how to concentrate 4. Capitalize on the fact that thought is faster than speech Tends to daydream with slow speakers Challenges, anticipates, summarizes; listens between lines to tone of voice 5. Be responsive Is minimally involved Nods; shows interest, positive feedback
  24. 24. Keys Poor Listener Good Listener 6. Judge content, not delivery Tunes out if delivery is poor Judges content; skips over delivery errors 7. Hold one’s fire Has preconceptions; argues Does not judge until comprehension is complete 8. Listen for ideas Listens for facts Listens to central themes 9. Work at listening No energy output; faked attention Works hard; exhibits active body state, eye contact 10. Exercise one’s mind Resists difficult material in favor of light, recreational material Uses heavier material as exercise for the mind Ten Keys to Effective Listening
  25. 25. So How good a listener are you?
  26. 26. References Daft R. L. (2011) Leadership. 5th edn. – International Edition, London: South-Western Cengage Learning Hayes, J. (2014) The Theory and Practice of Change Management. 3rd Edition. Basingstoke. Palgrave