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ADVISE ON ACADEMIC WRITING
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO- WRITING COURSES
1-GENERAL
• A– Some general advise on academic essay- writing.
• B- The transition from high school to university writing.
• C- Understanding essay topics: a check list.
• D- Writer´s block.
A-SOME GENERAL ADVISE ON ACADEMIC
WRITING
AN ESSAY
SHOULD HAVE
AN
ARGUMENT: It
should answer
a question. It
should try to
prove
something.
-POSIBLE
QUESTIONS
-A PROVISIONAL
HYPOTHESIS
-A POSIBLE TITLE
AN OVERALL
PURPOSE AND
ORGANISATION
METHODS OF
COMPOSING AN
ESSAY
TO START
WRITING
EARLY
TO WRITE
WHAT
SEEMS
READIEST
TO BE
WRITTEN
TO KEEP AN
OVERALL
PURPOSE AND
ORGANISATION
IN MIND
TO REVISE
SENTENCES,
TRANSITIONS
,PRAGRAPHS,
ECONOMY
OF WORDS
AND TO
PROFREAD
THE FINAL
COPY
B-THE TRANSITION FROM HIGH SCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY WRITING
HIGH SCHOOL RULES UNIVERSITY EXPECTATIONS
ESSAY STRUCTURE
ESSAYS CONSIST OF THREE MAIN POINTS AND HAVE A
FIVE- PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE, AN INTRODUCTION,
YOUR THREE MAIN POINTS AND A CONCLUSION.
THERE IS NO DETERMINED NUMBERS OF POINTS THAT
YOUR ESSAY MUST INCLUDE AND IT HAVE AS MANY
PARAGRAPHS AS NEEDED. YOU SHOULD CHOOSE A
STRUCTURE FOR YOUR ESSAY THAT SERVES YOUR
IDEAS AND YOUR ARGUMENT.
PARAGRAPHS
PARAGRAPHS ARE AS LOGN OR AS SHORT AS NEEDED
TO MEET THE FIVE PARAGRAPH REQUIREMENT AND
THE PAGE LIMIT.
Each paragraph must begin with a topic sentence that
explicitly echoes the thesis statement.
Paragraphs generally end with a conclusion that
reiterates the point contained in the topic sentence.
Paragraphs may end with a transitional sentence that
anticipates the next paragraph.
Paragraphs are usually between one-third and two-
thirds of a page and vary in length according to the
needs of the paragraph.
Parragraphs wiil be clearer and more coherent if they
begin with a topic sentence that sums up the main
point of the paragraph.Your paragraphs should end
whenever yuo have provided enough evidence and
analysis to support the point in your topic sentence,
repeating that point would be redundant.
Provide a transition only when it helps the reader your
train of thought. But your paragraphs will be more
coherent if you place the transition at the strart of the
next paragraph
THESIS STATEMENT
Essays must include a thesis statement. It
must be supported by three main points,
A thesis statement can be two or three
sentences long or even longer if the
B-THE TRANSITION FROM HIGH SCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY WRITING
HIGH SCHOOL RULES UNIVERSITY EXPECTATIONS
INTRODUCCION AND CONCLUSION
The introduction should begin with a
broad and general statement and
eventually be narrowed down.
The conclusion should provide a summary
of the main points of the paper.
The introduction should raise the essay
topic or question as soon as possible in
specific and concrete terms.
The conclusion should do more than
merely summarize what you have already
done in the paper.
ARGUMENTS
You may add narration and description to
remind the reader of events or particulars.
Argumentative essays can be based on
personal experience or opinión.
Your essay should not acknowledge
opposing viewpoints because they will
weaken your argument.
PRESENTATION: Students may receive
credit for visual effects.
You may incorporate narrative or plot
elements into your argument as long as
you analyze them in sufficient depth.
Argumentative essays should be
supported by evidence from your sources.
In some disciplines, your professor may
invite you to supplement your argument
with an account of your personal
experience.
PRESENTATION:Proffesors expect you to
C- UNDERSTANDING ESSAY TOPICS: A CHECKLIST
• 1- Note the key terms: including those naming parts of the topic and those giving
directions for dealing with it.
• -Analyse means look behind the surface structure of your source material. See the
relationship of parts to whole
• -Compare means find differences as well as similarities
• Evaluate stresses applying your judgement to the results of your analysis
• Argue (or agree or disagree) likewise asks you to take a stand based on analysis of solid
evidence and explained by clear reasoning.
• 2- Note which concepts or methods the topic asks you to use. an essay assignment
expects you to use course concepts and ways of thinking; it encourages you to break new
ground for yourself in applying course methodology.
• 3-To generate ideas asks yourself questions, look for controversies in the material.
• 4-For an essay of argument, formulate a tentative thesis statement at a fairly early stage
that is, a statement of your own likely position in the controversy that most interests you,
or your preliminary answer to an important interpretive question.
WRITER´S BLOCK
Writer´s block
refers to thosen
greater ordinary
blockages. It occurs
when a writer feels
truly stuck and
unable to write.
some
common
causes of
writer’s
block
Trouble to
understand the
assignment:
-ask questions
about anything
that you find
new or
confusing.
-Look for
keywords and
phrases.
Have you done
enough research?
-Go to find
materials on your
topic and specific to
the discipline
Have you done
too much
research?
-come up with
a narrow
research that
should help
you discard
irrelevant
Do you have a
topic?
-have an
specific topic
- Use course
materials to
refine your
topic
- - try a mind
- Don´t try
to use
unfamiliar
words to
sound
smart
Do you find
introductions
difficult to write?
- Write the
introduction last
and quickly
Try time-
managment
that allow
you time for
writing.
Take a
break if you
are
exhausted.
2-PLANNING AND ORGANIZING
A-ORGANIZING AN ESSAY
B-USING THESIS STATEMENTS
C-INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
D-PARAGRAPHS
E-USING TOPIC SENTENCES
Organizing an essay Using thesis statements Introductions and
conclusions
The best time to think about
how to organize your paper
is during the pre-writing
stage
AVOIDING A COMMON
PIFALL: the structure of an
essay should not be
determined by the structure
of its source material. If your
essay is not well structured,
then its overall weaknesses
will show through in the
individual paragraphs.
WHAT DOES AN ESSAY
OUTLINE LOOK LIKE? Most
essay outlines will never be
handed in. They are meant to
serve you and no one else
TECHNIQUES FOR
INTEGRATING NOTE-TAKING
AND PLANNING:
METHOD 1: Index
When you are asked to write
an essay that creates an
argument, your reader will
probably expect a clear
statement of your position.
Typically, this summary
statement comes in the first
paragraph of the essay.
INTRODUCTION: A good
introduction should identify
your topic, provide essential
context, and indicate your
particular focus in the essay.
It also needs to engage your
readers´ interests.
CONCLUSION:A strong
conclusion will provide a
sense of closure to the essay
while again placing your
concepts in a somewhat
wider context. It will also, in
some instances, add a
stimulus to further thought.
D-PARAGRAPHS E-USING TOPIC
SENTENCES
A paragraph is a series of
related sentences developing
a central idea, called
the topic
the most effective way to
achieve paragraph unity is
to express the central idea
of the paragraph in a topic
sentence
a single paragraph will
develop by a combination of
methods:
DEFINITION,ANALYSIS/CLASSIFICATIO
N,ILLUSTRATION.How do I make my
ideas flow in a paragraph?
The best overall strategy to
enhance flow within a
paragraph is to show
connections.
A topic sentence states the
main point of a paragraph.
Topic sentences usually
appear at the very
beginning of paragraphs
Use a topic sentence to show how
your paragraph contributes to
the development of your argument
by moving it that one extra step
forward.
Relating your topic sentences to
your thesis can help strengthen
the coherence of your essay
PREVIEWING:It is common for students to dive into an academic text and begin reading in a
hurry, which is often counterproductive. When reading for academic purposes, it is preferable
to read with certain goals in mind. First, read the title,then think about the subject matter,
think about who wrote the text, what information do you have about this author?, Where was
this text originally published?, Who would be the audience for this kind of writing?.
USING SOURCES:
HOW NOT TO PLAGIARIZE: It’s against the rules to buy essays or copy
chunks from your friend’s homework, and it’s also plagiarism to borrow
passages from books or articles or Web sites without identifying them.
You know that the purpose of any paper is to show your own thinking, not
create a patchwork of borrowed ideas. The point of documenting sources
in academic papers is not just to avoid unpleasant visits to the Dean’s
office, but to demonstrate that you know what is going on in your field of
study. It’s also a courtesy to your readers because it helps them consult
the material you’ve found. That’s especially important for Internet
sources. So mentioning what others have said doesn’t lessen the credit
you get.
USING QUOTATIONS: How much should I quote? The focus of your essay
should be on your understanding of the topic. If you include too much
quotation in your essay, you will crowd out your own ideas.
Why is it important to identify my sources? Quotations come from
somewhere, and your reader will want to know where. Don’t just
parachute quotations into your essay without providing at least some
indication of who your source is. Letting your reader know exactly which
authorities you rely on is an advantage.
How do I let my reader know I’ve altered my sources? If you need to alter
your quotations in any way, be sure to indicate just how you have done
PARAPHRASE AND SUMMARY
Paraphrase: To paraphrase means to restate someone else’s ideas in your own
language at roughly the same level of detail.
How do I paraphrase?
When you paraphrase you have to take into account these two points:- you must
provide a reference and The paraphrase must be in your own words. You must
do more than merely substitute phrases here and there. You must also create
your own sentence structures.to paraphrase more effectively: You have to reflect explicitly to the autor in your paragraphs,
you have to analize, you don´t need to change every Word and not all of the details from the
original passage need to be included in the paraphrase.
Summarize: To summarize means to reduce the most essential points of someone
else’s work into a shorter form.
Summary moves much further than paraphrase from point-by-point translation. When
you summarize a passage, you need first to absorb the meaning and then to capture
in your own words the most important elements from the original passage. A
summary is necessarily shorter than a paraphrase.
REVISING
REVISING AND EDITING: Revising gives you the chance to preview your work on behalf of the
eventual reader. Revision is much more than proofreading, though in the final editing stage it
involves some checking of details. Good revision and editing can transform a mediocre first
draft into an excellent final paper. It’s more work, but leads to real satisfaction when you find
you’ve said what you wanted.
PUNCTUATION: Punctuation, when skillfully deployed, provides you with considerable control
over meaning and tone. Try to experiment with all forms of punctuation in order to expand
your expressive range as a writer. And observe closely how accomplished writers use
punctuation to good effect. This handout limits itself to punctuation that occurs within
sentences: commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, and parentheses.
COMMAS:
Commas are the most frequently used form of punctuation and probably the hardest to
master. Using commas well is a science and an art: though there are well-defined rules, there
is plenty of room to manouevre as well. Both the science and the art of comma use have
changed with time.
SEMICOLONS: The semicolon has two main uses. The first is to combine two closely related
independent clauses into one sentence.
The other valid use of semicolons is to separate list elements that are long or complex. If, in
particular, those list elements contain internal commas, semicolons will help show just where
ACTING ALONE, A DASH, LIKE A COLON, ALLOWS YOU TO EXPAND ON OR TO COMPLETE
AN IDEA, AND DASHES USED THIS WAY ARE OFTEN INTERCHANGEABLE WITH COLONS. BUT
THE DASH TENDS TO BE A LITTLE MORE ABRUPT AND IS PARTICULARLY GOOD AT
SUGGESTING IRONY OR SURPRISE. THE DASH HAS ONE OTHER OCCASIONAL USE.
FOLLOWING A LIST, A DASH ALLOWS YOU TO TIE THINGS TOGETHER WITH AN
EXPLANATORY INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.
PARENTHESIS: PARENTHESES OFFER A THIRD WAY OF INTRODUCING INTERRUPTING
MATERIAL. A PAIR OF COMMAS SUPPLIES THE STANDARD, MATTER-OF-FACT WAY OF
DOING SO. IF DASHES PROVIDE A MORE FORCEFUL ALTERNATIVE TO COMMAS,
PARENTHESES OFFER A TENTATIVE AND MODEST ONE. PARENTHESES CAN ALSO ENCLOSE FULL
SENTENCES. THE PERIOD GOES INSIDE THE CLOSING PARENTHESIS.
What is passive voice? In an active sentence, the person or thing responsible for
the action in the sentence comes first. In a passive sentence, the person or thing
acted on comes first, and the actor is added at the end, introduced with the
preposition “by.” The passive form of the verb is signaled by a form of “to be”. In
a passive sentence, we often omit the actor completely.
When do I use passive voice? We can use it when:
-The actor is unknown.
-The actor is irrelevant.
-You want to be vague about who is responsible.
-You are talking about a general truth.
-You want to emphasize the person or thing acted on.
-You are writing in a scientific genre that traditionally relies on passive voice.
Passive voice is often preferred in lab reports and scientific research papers, most
Specific Types of Writing
The Abstract
Abstracts are important
because they give a first
impression of the document
that follows, letting readers
decide whether to continue
reading and showing them
what to look for if they do.
Though some abstracts only
list the contents of the
document, the most useful
abstracts tell the reader
more. An abstract should
represent as much as
possible of the quantitative
and qualitative information
in the document, and also
reflect its reasoning.
The Comparative Essay
What is a comparative essay?
A comparative essay asks
that you compare at least
two (possibly more) items.
These items will differ
depending on the
assignment. You might be
asked to compare
positions on an issue (e.g.,
responses to midwifery in
Canada and the United
States)
theories (e.g., capitalism and
communism)
figures (e.g., GDP in the
United States and Britain)
texts (e.g.,
Shakespeare’s Hamletand Ma
cbeth)
events (e.g., the Great
Depression and the global
Writing about History
Primary Sources and
Secondary Sources:
What is a Primary Source?
A primary source is a
document that was created
at the time of the event or
subject you’ve chosen to
study or by people who were
observers of or participants
in that event or topic.
The medium of the primary
source can be anything,
including written texts,
objects, buildings, films,
paintings, cartoons, etc.
What makes the source a
“primary” source is when it
was made, not what it is.
What are Secondary Sources?
Once you have a topic in
mind, you need to find out
Writing about literatura
Like all university essays, the
English paper requires
critical thought and strong
argumentation, but its focus
on language and close
textual analysis makes it
unique. Here are some tips
that you’ll want to keep in
mind when writing about
literature:
-Avoid plot summary.
-Master the art of the
analytical thesis.
-Let the structure of your
argument determine the
structure of your paper.
-Opt for analysis instead of
evaluative judgments.
-Don’t confuse the author
with the speaker.
-Integrate quotations fully
into your argument.
Philosophy
In studying philosophy,
students aim to do the
following:
understand such
philosophical questions and
the concepts, arguments,
and theories that
philosophers use to address
them,
think critically about such
arguments and theories and
develop their own answers
to philosophical questions.
Writing philosophy essays is
a key part of studying
philosophy. Make sure first
to understand the
assignment, looking out for
the questions asked and
paying attention to prompts
such as “outline” or
“evaluate” or “compare”.
Science
A science paper should be
written in a clear and
concise style, its paragraphs
should be coherent, and its
ideas should be well
organized. This handout
focuses on the features of
science writing that
distinguish it from other,
non-scientific genres.
A writer should take into
account the following items:
-THE AUDIENCE
-TITLES
-HEADINGS
-JARGON: The
word jargon generally refers
to language that is
unrecognizable to most
people, either because it is
deliberately obscure and
needlessly difficult, or
Effective Admission Letters
Some cualities to write
a letter or personal statement as
part of applying for graduate or
professional school.
Be focussed
Be coherent
Be
interpretat
ive Be specific
Be personal
Options for Organizing an
Admission Letter.
standard patterns for
prose exposition:
Narrative: Analytic
Technica
l
Other Sources of Advice
Writing
style
Guidebook
s
Online
advise
THE ACADEMIC PROPOSAL:
AN ACADEMIC PROPOSAL IS THE FIRST STEP IN PRODUCING A THESIS OR MAJOR
PROJECT. ITS INTENT IS TO CONVINCE A SUPERVISOR OR ACADEMIC COMMITTEE
THAT YOUR TOPIC AND APPROACH ARE SOUND, SO THAT YOU GAIN APPROVAL TO
PROCEED WITH THE ACTUAL RESEARCH.
An academic proposal is expected to contain these elements :
-a rationale for the choice of topic, showing why it is important or useful within the
concerns of the discipline or course. It is sensible also to indicate the limitations of your
aims—don’t promise what you can’t possibly deliver.
-a review of existing published work (“the literature”) that relates to the topic. Here you
need to tell how your proposed work will build on existing studies and yet explore new
territory.
-an outline of your intended approach or methodology (with comparisons to the existing
published work), perhaps including costs, resources needed, and a timeline of when you
USING ARTICLES:
Articles are special modifiers that appear before nouns or noun phrases. Like other
adjectives, they help clarify the meaning of the noun in your sentence. There are only two
articles in the English language: the and a (and its variant an, used before a word that
starts with a vowel sound).
Where exactly do articles go?
Articles belong in front of all other modifiers preceding a noun. There are other special
modifiers called determiners or markers that may appear in front of a noun phrase.
A useful set of rules for using articles
You can determine which article to place in front of almost any noun by answering the
following three questions: Is the noun countable or uncountable? Is it singular or plural? Is
it definite or indefinite?
Using articles to refer to classes of objects:
Nouns can refer to an entire group of similar objects, sometimes called a class. There are
three ways to refer to a class: using (1) the definite singular, (2) the indefinite singular, or
(3) the indefinite plural.
Using articles in front of proper nouns: The rules in the chart do not work in all situations.
EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: SPECIAL CASES OF SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
With fractions, percentages and indefinite quantifiers (e.g., all, few, many, much, some),
the verb agrees with the preceding noun or clause:
With a singular or non-count noun or clause, use a singular verb(One-third of this
article is taken up with statistical analysis )
With a plural noun, use a plural verb: Many researchers depend on grants from
industry.
With a collective noun, use either a singular or a plural verb, depending on whether
you want to emphasize the single group or its individual members: All of the
class is/are here.
The words majority and minority are used in a variety of ways:
When majority/minority mean an unspecified number more or less than 50%, use a
singular verb(The majority holds no strong views)
When majority/minority mean a specific percentage, you may use either a singular or a
plural verb: A 10% minority are/is opposed to the measure.
When majority/minority refers to a specified set of persons, use a plural verb:
A majority of Canadians have voted for change.
Expressions of time, money and distance usually take a singular verb: Ten
kilometres is too far to walk.
Adjectives preceded by the and used as plural nouns take a plural verb:The
USING GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES: Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the
place of a noun in a sentence.
Following a verb (gerund or infinitive): Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as
the object of a verb. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in
the sentence:
I expect to have the report done by Friday(INFINITIVE)
I anticipate having the report done by Friday(GERUND)
Following a preposition (gerund only): Gerunds can follow a preposition; infinitives
cannot(Can you touch your toes without bending your knees?).
Following an indirect object (infinitive only): Some verbs are followed by a pronoun or
noun referring to a person, and then an infinitive. Gerunds cannot be used in this
position.
Verbs for Referring to Sources: You can indicate your attitude to the sources you cite by
choosing specific verbs to refer to them. for example:
Da Souza argues that previous researchers have misinterpreted the data.
Researchers have demonstrated that the procedure is harmful.
Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class factors.
Singh infers that both states are essential.
.BIBLIOGRAPHY:
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO- Writing courses, Advice on Academic
Writing, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

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Advise on academic writing

  • 1. ADVISE ON ACADEMIC WRITING UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO- WRITING COURSES
  • 2. 1-GENERAL • A– Some general advise on academic essay- writing. • B- The transition from high school to university writing. • C- Understanding essay topics: a check list. • D- Writer´s block.
  • 3. A-SOME GENERAL ADVISE ON ACADEMIC WRITING AN ESSAY SHOULD HAVE AN ARGUMENT: It should answer a question. It should try to prove something. -POSIBLE QUESTIONS -A PROVISIONAL HYPOTHESIS -A POSIBLE TITLE AN OVERALL PURPOSE AND ORGANISATION METHODS OF COMPOSING AN ESSAY TO START WRITING EARLY TO WRITE WHAT SEEMS READIEST TO BE WRITTEN TO KEEP AN OVERALL PURPOSE AND ORGANISATION IN MIND TO REVISE SENTENCES, TRANSITIONS ,PRAGRAPHS, ECONOMY OF WORDS AND TO PROFREAD THE FINAL COPY
  • 4. B-THE TRANSITION FROM HIGH SCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY WRITING HIGH SCHOOL RULES UNIVERSITY EXPECTATIONS ESSAY STRUCTURE ESSAYS CONSIST OF THREE MAIN POINTS AND HAVE A FIVE- PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE, AN INTRODUCTION, YOUR THREE MAIN POINTS AND A CONCLUSION. THERE IS NO DETERMINED NUMBERS OF POINTS THAT YOUR ESSAY MUST INCLUDE AND IT HAVE AS MANY PARAGRAPHS AS NEEDED. YOU SHOULD CHOOSE A STRUCTURE FOR YOUR ESSAY THAT SERVES YOUR IDEAS AND YOUR ARGUMENT. PARAGRAPHS PARAGRAPHS ARE AS LOGN OR AS SHORT AS NEEDED TO MEET THE FIVE PARAGRAPH REQUIREMENT AND THE PAGE LIMIT. Each paragraph must begin with a topic sentence that explicitly echoes the thesis statement. Paragraphs generally end with a conclusion that reiterates the point contained in the topic sentence. Paragraphs may end with a transitional sentence that anticipates the next paragraph. Paragraphs are usually between one-third and two- thirds of a page and vary in length according to the needs of the paragraph. Parragraphs wiil be clearer and more coherent if they begin with a topic sentence that sums up the main point of the paragraph.Your paragraphs should end whenever yuo have provided enough evidence and analysis to support the point in your topic sentence, repeating that point would be redundant. Provide a transition only when it helps the reader your train of thought. But your paragraphs will be more coherent if you place the transition at the strart of the next paragraph THESIS STATEMENT Essays must include a thesis statement. It must be supported by three main points, A thesis statement can be two or three sentences long or even longer if the
  • 5. B-THE TRANSITION FROM HIGH SCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY WRITING HIGH SCHOOL RULES UNIVERSITY EXPECTATIONS INTRODUCCION AND CONCLUSION The introduction should begin with a broad and general statement and eventually be narrowed down. The conclusion should provide a summary of the main points of the paper. The introduction should raise the essay topic or question as soon as possible in specific and concrete terms. The conclusion should do more than merely summarize what you have already done in the paper. ARGUMENTS You may add narration and description to remind the reader of events or particulars. Argumentative essays can be based on personal experience or opinión. Your essay should not acknowledge opposing viewpoints because they will weaken your argument. PRESENTATION: Students may receive credit for visual effects. You may incorporate narrative or plot elements into your argument as long as you analyze them in sufficient depth. Argumentative essays should be supported by evidence from your sources. In some disciplines, your professor may invite you to supplement your argument with an account of your personal experience. PRESENTATION:Proffesors expect you to
  • 6. C- UNDERSTANDING ESSAY TOPICS: A CHECKLIST • 1- Note the key terms: including those naming parts of the topic and those giving directions for dealing with it. • -Analyse means look behind the surface structure of your source material. See the relationship of parts to whole • -Compare means find differences as well as similarities • Evaluate stresses applying your judgement to the results of your analysis • Argue (or agree or disagree) likewise asks you to take a stand based on analysis of solid evidence and explained by clear reasoning. • 2- Note which concepts or methods the topic asks you to use. an essay assignment expects you to use course concepts and ways of thinking; it encourages you to break new ground for yourself in applying course methodology. • 3-To generate ideas asks yourself questions, look for controversies in the material. • 4-For an essay of argument, formulate a tentative thesis statement at a fairly early stage that is, a statement of your own likely position in the controversy that most interests you, or your preliminary answer to an important interpretive question.
  • 7. WRITER´S BLOCK Writer´s block refers to thosen greater ordinary blockages. It occurs when a writer feels truly stuck and unable to write. some common causes of writer’s block Trouble to understand the assignment: -ask questions about anything that you find new or confusing. -Look for keywords and phrases. Have you done enough research? -Go to find materials on your topic and specific to the discipline Have you done too much research? -come up with a narrow research that should help you discard irrelevant Do you have a topic? -have an specific topic - Use course materials to refine your topic - - try a mind - Don´t try to use unfamiliar words to sound smart Do you find introductions difficult to write? - Write the introduction last and quickly Try time- managment that allow you time for writing. Take a break if you are exhausted.
  • 8. 2-PLANNING AND ORGANIZING A-ORGANIZING AN ESSAY B-USING THESIS STATEMENTS C-INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS D-PARAGRAPHS E-USING TOPIC SENTENCES
  • 9. Organizing an essay Using thesis statements Introductions and conclusions The best time to think about how to organize your paper is during the pre-writing stage AVOIDING A COMMON PIFALL: the structure of an essay should not be determined by the structure of its source material. If your essay is not well structured, then its overall weaknesses will show through in the individual paragraphs. WHAT DOES AN ESSAY OUTLINE LOOK LIKE? Most essay outlines will never be handed in. They are meant to serve you and no one else TECHNIQUES FOR INTEGRATING NOTE-TAKING AND PLANNING: METHOD 1: Index When you are asked to write an essay that creates an argument, your reader will probably expect a clear statement of your position. Typically, this summary statement comes in the first paragraph of the essay. INTRODUCTION: A good introduction should identify your topic, provide essential context, and indicate your particular focus in the essay. It also needs to engage your readers´ interests. CONCLUSION:A strong conclusion will provide a sense of closure to the essay while again placing your concepts in a somewhat wider context. It will also, in some instances, add a stimulus to further thought.
  • 10. D-PARAGRAPHS E-USING TOPIC SENTENCES A paragraph is a series of related sentences developing a central idea, called the topic the most effective way to achieve paragraph unity is to express the central idea of the paragraph in a topic sentence a single paragraph will develop by a combination of methods: DEFINITION,ANALYSIS/CLASSIFICATIO N,ILLUSTRATION.How do I make my ideas flow in a paragraph? The best overall strategy to enhance flow within a paragraph is to show connections. A topic sentence states the main point of a paragraph. Topic sentences usually appear at the very beginning of paragraphs Use a topic sentence to show how your paragraph contributes to the development of your argument by moving it that one extra step forward. Relating your topic sentences to your thesis can help strengthen the coherence of your essay
  • 11.
  • 12. PREVIEWING:It is common for students to dive into an academic text and begin reading in a hurry, which is often counterproductive. When reading for academic purposes, it is preferable to read with certain goals in mind. First, read the title,then think about the subject matter, think about who wrote the text, what information do you have about this author?, Where was this text originally published?, Who would be the audience for this kind of writing?.
  • 13. USING SOURCES: HOW NOT TO PLAGIARIZE: It’s against the rules to buy essays or copy chunks from your friend’s homework, and it’s also plagiarism to borrow passages from books or articles or Web sites without identifying them. You know that the purpose of any paper is to show your own thinking, not create a patchwork of borrowed ideas. The point of documenting sources in academic papers is not just to avoid unpleasant visits to the Dean’s office, but to demonstrate that you know what is going on in your field of study. It’s also a courtesy to your readers because it helps them consult the material you’ve found. That’s especially important for Internet sources. So mentioning what others have said doesn’t lessen the credit you get. USING QUOTATIONS: How much should I quote? The focus of your essay should be on your understanding of the topic. If you include too much quotation in your essay, you will crowd out your own ideas. Why is it important to identify my sources? Quotations come from somewhere, and your reader will want to know where. Don’t just parachute quotations into your essay without providing at least some indication of who your source is. Letting your reader know exactly which authorities you rely on is an advantage. How do I let my reader know I’ve altered my sources? If you need to alter your quotations in any way, be sure to indicate just how you have done
  • 14. PARAPHRASE AND SUMMARY Paraphrase: To paraphrase means to restate someone else’s ideas in your own language at roughly the same level of detail. How do I paraphrase? When you paraphrase you have to take into account these two points:- you must provide a reference and The paraphrase must be in your own words. You must do more than merely substitute phrases here and there. You must also create your own sentence structures.to paraphrase more effectively: You have to reflect explicitly to the autor in your paragraphs, you have to analize, you don´t need to change every Word and not all of the details from the original passage need to be included in the paraphrase. Summarize: To summarize means to reduce the most essential points of someone else’s work into a shorter form. Summary moves much further than paraphrase from point-by-point translation. When you summarize a passage, you need first to absorb the meaning and then to capture in your own words the most important elements from the original passage. A summary is necessarily shorter than a paraphrase.
  • 15. REVISING REVISING AND EDITING: Revising gives you the chance to preview your work on behalf of the eventual reader. Revision is much more than proofreading, though in the final editing stage it involves some checking of details. Good revision and editing can transform a mediocre first draft into an excellent final paper. It’s more work, but leads to real satisfaction when you find you’ve said what you wanted. PUNCTUATION: Punctuation, when skillfully deployed, provides you with considerable control over meaning and tone. Try to experiment with all forms of punctuation in order to expand your expressive range as a writer. And observe closely how accomplished writers use punctuation to good effect. This handout limits itself to punctuation that occurs within sentences: commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, and parentheses. COMMAS: Commas are the most frequently used form of punctuation and probably the hardest to master. Using commas well is a science and an art: though there are well-defined rules, there is plenty of room to manouevre as well. Both the science and the art of comma use have changed with time. SEMICOLONS: The semicolon has two main uses. The first is to combine two closely related independent clauses into one sentence. The other valid use of semicolons is to separate list elements that are long or complex. If, in particular, those list elements contain internal commas, semicolons will help show just where
  • 16. ACTING ALONE, A DASH, LIKE A COLON, ALLOWS YOU TO EXPAND ON OR TO COMPLETE AN IDEA, AND DASHES USED THIS WAY ARE OFTEN INTERCHANGEABLE WITH COLONS. BUT THE DASH TENDS TO BE A LITTLE MORE ABRUPT AND IS PARTICULARLY GOOD AT SUGGESTING IRONY OR SURPRISE. THE DASH HAS ONE OTHER OCCASIONAL USE. FOLLOWING A LIST, A DASH ALLOWS YOU TO TIE THINGS TOGETHER WITH AN EXPLANATORY INDEPENDENT CLAUSE. PARENTHESIS: PARENTHESES OFFER A THIRD WAY OF INTRODUCING INTERRUPTING MATERIAL. A PAIR OF COMMAS SUPPLIES THE STANDARD, MATTER-OF-FACT WAY OF DOING SO. IF DASHES PROVIDE A MORE FORCEFUL ALTERNATIVE TO COMMAS, PARENTHESES OFFER A TENTATIVE AND MODEST ONE. PARENTHESES CAN ALSO ENCLOSE FULL SENTENCES. THE PERIOD GOES INSIDE THE CLOSING PARENTHESIS. What is passive voice? In an active sentence, the person or thing responsible for the action in the sentence comes first. In a passive sentence, the person or thing acted on comes first, and the actor is added at the end, introduced with the preposition “by.” The passive form of the verb is signaled by a form of “to be”. In a passive sentence, we often omit the actor completely. When do I use passive voice? We can use it when: -The actor is unknown. -The actor is irrelevant. -You want to be vague about who is responsible. -You are talking about a general truth. -You want to emphasize the person or thing acted on. -You are writing in a scientific genre that traditionally relies on passive voice. Passive voice is often preferred in lab reports and scientific research papers, most
  • 17. Specific Types of Writing The Abstract Abstracts are important because they give a first impression of the document that follows, letting readers decide whether to continue reading and showing them what to look for if they do. Though some abstracts only list the contents of the document, the most useful abstracts tell the reader more. An abstract should represent as much as possible of the quantitative and qualitative information in the document, and also reflect its reasoning. The Comparative Essay What is a comparative essay? A comparative essay asks that you compare at least two (possibly more) items. These items will differ depending on the assignment. You might be asked to compare positions on an issue (e.g., responses to midwifery in Canada and the United States) theories (e.g., capitalism and communism) figures (e.g., GDP in the United States and Britain) texts (e.g., Shakespeare’s Hamletand Ma cbeth) events (e.g., the Great Depression and the global Writing about History Primary Sources and Secondary Sources: What is a Primary Source? A primary source is a document that was created at the time of the event or subject you’ve chosen to study or by people who were observers of or participants in that event or topic. The medium of the primary source can be anything, including written texts, objects, buildings, films, paintings, cartoons, etc. What makes the source a “primary” source is when it was made, not what it is. What are Secondary Sources? Once you have a topic in mind, you need to find out
  • 18. Writing about literatura Like all university essays, the English paper requires critical thought and strong argumentation, but its focus on language and close textual analysis makes it unique. Here are some tips that you’ll want to keep in mind when writing about literature: -Avoid plot summary. -Master the art of the analytical thesis. -Let the structure of your argument determine the structure of your paper. -Opt for analysis instead of evaluative judgments. -Don’t confuse the author with the speaker. -Integrate quotations fully into your argument. Philosophy In studying philosophy, students aim to do the following: understand such philosophical questions and the concepts, arguments, and theories that philosophers use to address them, think critically about such arguments and theories and develop their own answers to philosophical questions. Writing philosophy essays is a key part of studying philosophy. Make sure first to understand the assignment, looking out for the questions asked and paying attention to prompts such as “outline” or “evaluate” or “compare”. Science A science paper should be written in a clear and concise style, its paragraphs should be coherent, and its ideas should be well organized. This handout focuses on the features of science writing that distinguish it from other, non-scientific genres. A writer should take into account the following items: -THE AUDIENCE -TITLES -HEADINGS -JARGON: The word jargon generally refers to language that is unrecognizable to most people, either because it is deliberately obscure and needlessly difficult, or
  • 19. Effective Admission Letters Some cualities to write a letter or personal statement as part of applying for graduate or professional school. Be focussed Be coherent Be interpretat ive Be specific Be personal Options for Organizing an Admission Letter. standard patterns for prose exposition: Narrative: Analytic Technica l Other Sources of Advice Writing style Guidebook s Online advise
  • 20. THE ACADEMIC PROPOSAL: AN ACADEMIC PROPOSAL IS THE FIRST STEP IN PRODUCING A THESIS OR MAJOR PROJECT. ITS INTENT IS TO CONVINCE A SUPERVISOR OR ACADEMIC COMMITTEE THAT YOUR TOPIC AND APPROACH ARE SOUND, SO THAT YOU GAIN APPROVAL TO PROCEED WITH THE ACTUAL RESEARCH. An academic proposal is expected to contain these elements : -a rationale for the choice of topic, showing why it is important or useful within the concerns of the discipline or course. It is sensible also to indicate the limitations of your aims—don’t promise what you can’t possibly deliver. -a review of existing published work (“the literature”) that relates to the topic. Here you need to tell how your proposed work will build on existing studies and yet explore new territory. -an outline of your intended approach or methodology (with comparisons to the existing published work), perhaps including costs, resources needed, and a timeline of when you
  • 21. USING ARTICLES: Articles are special modifiers that appear before nouns or noun phrases. Like other adjectives, they help clarify the meaning of the noun in your sentence. There are only two articles in the English language: the and a (and its variant an, used before a word that starts with a vowel sound). Where exactly do articles go? Articles belong in front of all other modifiers preceding a noun. There are other special modifiers called determiners or markers that may appear in front of a noun phrase. A useful set of rules for using articles You can determine which article to place in front of almost any noun by answering the following three questions: Is the noun countable or uncountable? Is it singular or plural? Is it definite or indefinite? Using articles to refer to classes of objects: Nouns can refer to an entire group of similar objects, sometimes called a class. There are three ways to refer to a class: using (1) the definite singular, (2) the indefinite singular, or (3) the indefinite plural. Using articles in front of proper nouns: The rules in the chart do not work in all situations.
  • 22. EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY: SPECIAL CASES OF SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT With fractions, percentages and indefinite quantifiers (e.g., all, few, many, much, some), the verb agrees with the preceding noun or clause: With a singular or non-count noun or clause, use a singular verb(One-third of this article is taken up with statistical analysis ) With a plural noun, use a plural verb: Many researchers depend on grants from industry. With a collective noun, use either a singular or a plural verb, depending on whether you want to emphasize the single group or its individual members: All of the class is/are here. The words majority and minority are used in a variety of ways: When majority/minority mean an unspecified number more or less than 50%, use a singular verb(The majority holds no strong views) When majority/minority mean a specific percentage, you may use either a singular or a plural verb: A 10% minority are/is opposed to the measure. When majority/minority refers to a specified set of persons, use a plural verb: A majority of Canadians have voted for change. Expressions of time, money and distance usually take a singular verb: Ten kilometres is too far to walk. Adjectives preceded by the and used as plural nouns take a plural verb:The
  • 23. USING GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES: Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a sentence. Following a verb (gerund or infinitive): Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the sentence: I expect to have the report done by Friday(INFINITIVE) I anticipate having the report done by Friday(GERUND) Following a preposition (gerund only): Gerunds can follow a preposition; infinitives cannot(Can you touch your toes without bending your knees?). Following an indirect object (infinitive only): Some verbs are followed by a pronoun or noun referring to a person, and then an infinitive. Gerunds cannot be used in this position. Verbs for Referring to Sources: You can indicate your attitude to the sources you cite by choosing specific verbs to refer to them. for example: Da Souza argues that previous researchers have misinterpreted the data. Researchers have demonstrated that the procedure is harmful. Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class factors. Singh infers that both states are essential.
  • 24. .BIBLIOGRAPHY: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO- Writing courses, Advice on Academic Writing, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.