Papua New Guinea


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Describes two cultures, the Kawelka of Papua New Guinea and the Dani of Papua or West New Guinea

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  • Papua New Guinea

    1. 1. Papua New Guinea Land of the Big Men
    2. 2. Introducing the Peoples of Papua New Guinea <ul><li>Idjadje tribe – Papua New Guinea, 2003 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Describing Papua New Guinea <ul><li>Papua New Guinea is (or increasingly was) the land of the pristine tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>Undiscovered until the 1930s, the main island was the one of the largest areas of uncontacted tribes—uncontacted by Europeans that is—in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Two brothers in search for gold happened upon them while flying into the region—and the rest became history. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists have come in droves to the island—and so have the logging and mining corporations. They are isolated no more. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, a group of Idjadji tribesmen pose for the camera. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Where in the World is Papua New Guinea? <ul><li>Papua New Guinea (marked red) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Location of Papua New Guinea <ul><li>The island of New Guinea itself is located 100 miles north of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>It comprises the independent nation of Papua New Guinea itself (east side) </li></ul><ul><li>And one of the provinces of Indonesia (west) </li></ul><ul><li>Together with Australia and New Zealand, New Guinea has always been isolated from Southeast Asia, even during the ice ages when the sea level was at its lowest. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Map of New Guinea <ul><li>New Guinea Comprises Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya (now Papua, sometimes called West Papua) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Papua New Guinea and Papua <ul><li>As indicated above, the eastern half of the island forms the main part of the independent nation, Papua New Guinea (PNG) </li></ul><ul><li>PNG also includes the islands east of New Guinea, including the Trobriand (Kiriwina) Islands and others </li></ul><ul><li>Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, is a province of Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, attempts have been made to form another province, West Papua, but the status of this effort is unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>There is also an independence movement in Papua, so far without success. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Map of Papua or West Papua
    9. 9. The Dani of Papua <ul><li>Papua, also known as West Papua and West New Guinea and formerly as Irian Jaya, covers the western side of the island. It forms the northeastern part of Indonesia, of which it is a province. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the Danis’ well-documented reputation for warfare (the film Dead Birds is a classic depiction of Dani warfare), Papua and the Dani will be discussed first </li></ul><ul><li>The Dani are located in the southeastern part of the country, along the Baliem River (labeled on the preceding map as Baliem Valley) in the Grand Valley (not shown). </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Dani of Papua <ul><li>Dani Men (left). Note penis sheaths made of gourds. </li></ul><ul><li>Once used to spot enemies, towers (right) are now used to detect pig thieves </li></ul>
    11. 11. Dani of Papua: A Description <ul><li>The Dani, like all New Guinea tribes, grow yams or sweet potatoes and raise pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Like other New Guinea tribes, pig feasts form part of their culture </li></ul><ul><li>Their big men, also known as “men of influence” generally direct the battles in tribal wars and other major events such as the feasts </li></ul><ul><li>However, they are not chiefs, and they often have to rule by persuasion—there is no organized army or police force </li></ul><ul><li>Their namba, or penis sheaves made of gourds, are a distinct feature of the Dani and related tribes. Their scrotums remain exposed. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Tribal Warfare among the Dani, 1950s <ul><li>Dani at war from Dead Birds (left) </li></ul><ul><li>The price of survival is eternal vigilance; Dani sentry on watchtower (right) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Dani Warfare <ul><li>War was suppressed by the Indonesian government in 1963; in Papua New Guinea, it was suppressed earlier by the Australian government in the late 1940s and 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>There is evidence that warfare has not entirely disappeared, as a later presentation will demonstrate. Guns have made such wars even deadlier than they were before </li></ul><ul><li>The laws prohibiting tribal wars have proven to be unenforceable in some regions. </li></ul>
    14. 14. How Women Mourned Fallen Warriors <ul><li>Women and girls losing their fingers in mourning (Fig. 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Women and their hands with fingers missing (Fig. 6) </li></ul>
    15. 15. A Casualty of War: Loss of Fingers <ul><li>According to Henry Bagish, Professor of Anthropology at Santa Barbara City College, one mourning practice was for women to lop off two fingers when a close male relative died in war </li></ul><ul><li>Bagish photographed many women with missing fingers during his visit of the region in 1979. These photos appear in the preceding panel. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Mitigating Warfare: A Scene from a Feast <ul><li>Preparing for a feast, two Poguma women paint each other’s faces </li></ul><ul><li>Feasts mitigated chances of warfare </li></ul>
    17. 17. Mitigating Warfare: Feasts <ul><li>One way to curtail warfare was to hold intertribal feasts. Besides enjoying the festivities, the tribes found this a good way to minimize chances of warfare. The warfare was eliminated by government intervention—or so it was thought for a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>As seen in Ongka’s Big Moka , pig feasts were a way to compensate for a death and to make peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, Ongka brings a pig as a peace offering after the big man of a rival tribe has died unexpectedly. This practice, known as bloodwealth, was commonplace </li></ul><ul><li>Nbenda, Ongka’s father-in-law describes a similar practice in the days prior to the outlawing of warfare. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Ongka’s Big Moka: Introduction <ul><li>Big men (left) lead New Guinea tribe—sort of </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the feast begins with slaughtered pigs (right) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Ongka’s Big Moka: Background <ul><li>This video depicts a big man of the Kawelka (pronounced “cowaga”) tribe who owes the big man (Peruwa) of a rival tribe a major feast. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten years ago, Peruwa sponsored a feast in which he gave Ongka 400 pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>In the film, Ongka hope to repay Peruwa with 600 pigs and a little extra, such as cassowaries (midsize flightless birds), cattle, and a truck. </li></ul><ul><li>The film shows what he had to do to pull it off. </li></ul>
    20. 20. New Guinean Big Men <ul><li>A tribe has two big men—or more </li></ul>
    21. 21. Defining Big Men <ul><li>Big men actually are not chiefs. For one thing, they cannot boss their followers around. They can get their way only by persuasion, as you will see in the video. The term “big man” actually means “man of influence.” </li></ul><ul><li>For another thing, a tribe can have more than one big man, all competing for power. Ongka’s main rival among the Kawelka is Raima, who is scheming to fix the date of the big moka. </li></ul><ul><li>These ploys lead to shifts of influence from one big man to another. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Pig Feasts <ul><li>Every man is dressed up for the Big Moka (Feast)—for good reason (left). </li></ul><ul><li>Goroka man of Sepik River dance at the feast (right). </li></ul>
    23. 23. Defining “Moka” <ul><li>Every man is dressed up to inspire fear and awe among their visitors when the moka actually occurss. </li></ul><ul><li>As you will see, there are smaller mokas to bring in the pigs from Ongka’s followers—which he has to persuade in order for them to comply. The big moka is a crescendo of the smaller ones. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Moka” itself means more than just a feast. It involves a “rope” by which the tribe itself accumulates prestige and respect, both within the tribe and among other tribes. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Balanced Reciprocity: The Big Moka <ul><li>Balanced Reciprocity , New Guinea market (left) </li></ul><ul><li>Payment is immediate. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram of three types of reciprocity (right) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Big Moka as Balanced Reciprocity <ul><li>In the anthropological literature, tribal societies rely on trade to keep relative peace among themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>In The Gift Marcel Mauss (nephew of the French sociologist Emile Durkheim ) argued that every gift involves three obligations: </li></ul><ul><li>To give, and thereby create a relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>To give, and thereby accept the offer of a relationship </li></ul><ul><li>To repay, and thereby honor the relationship; to fail to repay puts the recipient in the status of a beggar. </li></ul><ul><li>You will see Ongka’s great fear of being called “rubbish” if he fails to repay Peruwa with his feast. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Balanced Reciprocity: Ongka’s Big Moka <ul><li>Repaying an old debt </li></ul>
    27. 27. Balanced Reciprocity: Its Importance <ul><li>Why is gift exchange so important? </li></ul><ul><li>Mauss argued that in the absence of law—codified law of the state, that is—the moka has the force of law </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship, Mauss called “total prestations.” The alternatives to gift giving is either total avoidance or warfare. If you reject a gift, in effect you declare war. </li></ul><ul><li>So it was imperative for Ongka to come through with a reciprocal pig feast for Peruwa and his tribe. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Ongka’s Big Moka: Cashing In <ul><li>Ongka’s Big Moka: The DVD/Video (left) </li></ul><ul><li>Ongka’s Big Moka: A rock band cashing in (left) </li></ul>
    29. 29. The Hazards of Ethnography: Mokas and Rock Bands <ul><li>A rock band that calls itself Toploader titled its album Ongka’s Big Moka. </li></ul><ul><li>Is its real name more like Freeloader, or did the band actually practice balanced reciprocity by paying the usual (exorbitant) permission fees for using Ongka’s name. </li></ul><ul><li>Did the corporation pay Ongka for using his name? </li></ul><ul><li>In either case, we may have a case of negative reciprocity here—getting more than you give, either through high fees or through theft. </li></ul><ul><li>We can only guess. . . </li></ul>
    30. 30. Ongka’s Big Moka <ul><li>View the video Ongka’s Big Moka. It should be available via Netflix or Blockbuster if you don’t have it at your college library. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions in the part of your assignment that covers this video </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to comment on the issues brought up by Ongka’s Big Moka. Remember: discussion is worth 10 percent of the grade. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Continuing Warfare <ul><li>Tribal warfare continues to this day </li></ul>
    32. 32. Warfare Gets Deadlier <ul><li>As you will see in the You Tube presentations, </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare has persisted into the 2000s </li></ul><ul><li>Because guns have replaced spears, war has become deadlier </li></ul><ul><li>Source of guns include vendors and often from the officials themselves of the PNG government </li></ul>
    33. 33. Tribal Warfare Made Deadlier <ul><li>Guns and armored vehicles part of the new warfare </li></ul>
    34. 34. Tribal Fighting: Papua New Guinea (You Tube) <ul><li>Access the video by this link (paste to browser if it doesn’t work) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Answer this section of Papua New Guinea in your assignment </li></ul>
    35. 35. Deforestation Crisis: The Scenes <ul><li>The Face of Deforestation in Papua New Guinea (Left) </li></ul><ul><li>The Extent of Deforestation (Right) </li></ul><ul><li>Upper panel, right: Deforestation in 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower panel, right: Projected deforestation by 2020 </li></ul>
    36. 36. Deforestation Crisis: Background <ul><li>Tribal society reflects another weakness—each tribe looks after its own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>This is reflected when logging companies makes deals with tribes, one by one. </li></ul><ul><li>The following video shows how the very existence of New Guinea tribesmen is at riak. </li></ul><ul><li>The map above projects the extent of deforestation by the year 2020—12 years away </li></ul>
    37. 37. Deforestation in PNG (You Tube) <ul><li>Access “Rapid Deforestation—Papua New Guinea” using this link (Paste it to your browser if it doesn’t work here) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions addressing deforestation </li></ul>
    38. 38. Conclusion: Big Men, Past and Present <ul><li>Left: Big Man from a Highland Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Right: Wari Iamo, Minister of Environment and Conservation, Papua New Guinea </li></ul>
    39. 39. Conclusion: Future of Papua New Guinea <ul><li>The future of Papua New Guinea is problematical </li></ul><ul><li>The government itself represents many tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption is reflected in many ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Gunrunning is one source of corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Selling out to logging firms is another </li></ul><ul><li>Will men like Wari Iamo avoid corruption or will they continue the practices of their big men counterpart? </li></ul><ul><li>Time alone will tell. </li></ul>