HUman Biological and Cultural Evolutioj


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Covers comparative human-nonhunan anatomy, describes the mechanisms of evolution, provides a taxonomy, and traces the evolution of fossil hominins and their tools, and

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  • HUman Biological and Cultural Evolutioj

    1. 1. Human Biological and Cultural Evolution Cultural Anthropology
    2. 2. Culture in Evolutionary Perspective <ul><li>To understand culture, we need to: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Know our biological capacity for culture </li></ul><ul><li>(2) How we fit into the animal kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>(3) How we came to be what we are: Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>We are the only human species in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Neanderthals, our closest “relatives” disappeared 30,000 years ago. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Our Capacity For Culture: Our Biological Roots <ul><li>(1) Our thinking ability </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Our language ability </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Our ability to make and use tools </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Our bipedalism—ability to stand and walk on two feet </li></ul><ul><li>If the “science of humankind” is to be taken seriously </li></ul><ul><li>We need to know our own anatomy </li></ul>
    4. 4. Topics of This Section <ul><li>We start with the taxonomy, and where we fit in the animal kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>We then look at human anatomy and compare it with the chimps. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary focus: capacity for thinking, for language, for tool making and use, and for bipedalism, which enables us to do many other things. </li></ul><ul><li>We then look at hominin/hominid fossils and the tools they made—or didn’t make. </li></ul><ul><li>We then look at the behavior of our closest relative—the chimps, bonobos, and gorillas. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these have a bearing on our capacity for culture. </li></ul>
    5. 5. First Things First: Taxonomy <ul><li>Definition: Hierarchical, systematic classification of all lifeforms </li></ul><ul><li>from the general (kingdom. Phylum, class, order) </li></ul><ul><li>to the specific (genus, species, variety) </li></ul><ul><li>Taxon (pl. taxa): categories at all levels from broad to specific </li></ul>
    6. 6. Taxonomy: Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>Every species has at least two names </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Species: sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Variety: sapiens? (If we accept the splitters’ terms) </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistic Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Italicize or underline all names </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalize the genus </li></ul><ul><li>Lowercase the species and variety </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Homo (sapiens) sapiens </li></ul>
    7. 7. Taxonomy: The General Taxa <ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia (ingests food, moves) </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata (has spinal cord) </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum: Vertebrata (has segmented protective bone or cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Mammalia (warm blooded, female secretes milk, has hair) </li></ul><ul><li>(Pop quiz: what is our constant temperature fixed at?) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Taxonomy: Order Primata <ul><li>Order: Primata </li></ul><ul><li>larger brain relative to body size. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereoscopic vision : eyes angled toward the same direction, enabling depth perception </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible digits: Hands only in humans; hand and feet with other primates. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex sociability : We live in groups but have complex interactions, from grooming to dominance hierarchies to infant rearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Suborder: Anthropoidea (monkey, apes, humans) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Taxonomy: Suborder Anthropoidea <ul><li>Suborder Prosimii: These are the lemurs, tarsiers, and other so-called prosimians. </li></ul><ul><li>The don’t look much like human, but have all the features of primates. </li></ul><ul><li>Suborder Anthropoidea (“Manlike”) </li></ul><ul><li>These are the monkeys (New World, Old World) and apes </li></ul><ul><li>They look like men: almost upright, hands like ours, even the feet look similar. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Taxonomy: Superfamily Hominoidea <ul><li>Superfamily Cercopithecoidea : Old World Monkey </li></ul><ul><li>Most have tails, smaller brained, smaller in size. </li></ul><ul><li>Superfamily Hominoidea : All apes and humans. </li></ul><ul><li>They look even more humanlike than the monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Larger brains </li></ul><ul><li>No tails </li></ul><ul><li>Larger body size </li></ul><ul><li>Social behavior more humanlike </li></ul>
    11. 11. Taxonomy: Hominids (Old Taxonomy) <ul><li>Now the confusion begins </li></ul><ul><li>Old taxonomy: three hominoid families </li></ul><ul><li>Hylobatidae or Hylobates: the lesser apes—gibbons and siamangs </li></ul><ul><li>Pongidae, or pongids: Orangutans (SE Asia), gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (all African apes) </li></ul><ul><li>Hominidae: All bipedal animals: Australopithecus and Homo </li></ul>
    12. 12. Taxonomy: Hominids (New Taxonomy) <ul><li>This is the new taxonomy: </li></ul><ul><li>Hominids apply to all humans and African apes </li></ul><ul><li>Hominins apply to Homo sapiens and </li></ul><ul><li>All extinct ancestors: Australopithecus , Homo habilis , H. erectus , H. heidelbergensis , and H. neanderthalensis </li></ul>
    13. 13. On Hominid Taxonomy, DNA, and Monkey Wrenches <ul><li>Why can’t they leave well enough alone? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: DNA comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Humans and chimps DNA genomes vary only by about 99.5%; gorillas, by about 99% or so. </li></ul><ul><li>Human and Orangutan genomes vary by about 95%, justifying another taxon, pongidae; the hylobates are even more distant. </li></ul><ul><li>The new taxonomy is justified by genetic variations </li></ul><ul><li>Differences exist among physical anthropologists as to which taxonomy is better; some textbooks still use the old system. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll stick to the old system for now; but you should know that this issue exists. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Human Comparative Anatomy <ul><li>Why anatomy? We need to know what biological features give us the capacity for culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain is the seat of thinking ability, language, and even tool use. </li></ul><ul><li>Our vocal tract enables speech, as we will see in the unit on language. </li></ul><ul><li>Our hands are key to our ability to make and use tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Our ability to stand and walk on two feet frees our hands to do these and much else. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Overview: The Human Skeleton <ul><li>You do need to know some of the parts of </li></ul><ul><li>The human skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Use the online graphics (such as this) </li></ul><ul><li>Or your printed handouts </li></ul>
    16. 16. Where It All Begins: The Brain <ul><li>Frontal Lobe and Motor Cortex : </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe: Touch and Taste </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe: Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe: Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory Bulb : Smell </li></ul>
    17. 17. Parts of the Brain: Motor Cortex, Cross Section <ul><li>Related to Language : Lower Part: </li></ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Vocalization </li></ul><ul><li>Related to Tool Making and Use: Upper part: </li></ul><ul><li>Fingers and Thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Hand </li></ul><ul><li>Arm </li></ul>
    18. 18. Parts of the Brain: Language Centers <ul><li>Parts of Cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Lobe (Thinking) </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Broca’s Area (Speech production)) </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe (Hearing) </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Cortex (Hearing) </li></ul><ul><li>Wernicke’s Area (Speech reception) </li></ul><ul><li>Arcuate Fasciculus (Coordinator of Broca’s with Wernicke’s areas </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe (Taste and touch) </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe (Sight) </li></ul><ul><li>Angular Gyrus (Intersensory Connector) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Comic Relief, Anyone? (Courtesy of Geico) <ul><li>So easy a caveman can do it. . . .? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Human Skull <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>High forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded skull </li></ul><ul><li>No brow ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Chin is present </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth are small </li></ul><ul><li>The bones are named after the lobes of the brain they cover </li></ul>
    21. 21. Skull Morphology: Chimp and Human <ul><li>Note the following </li></ul><ul><li>Larger brow ridge ( supraorbital torus ) of chimp than human’s </li></ul><ul><li>Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human </li></ul><ul><li>More prognathous jaw of chimp compared to human </li></ul><ul><li>Larger canine and gap ( diastema ) of chimp than human </li></ul>
    22. 22. Human and Chimp Skulls Compared: Brain Structure <ul><li>Compare the following </li></ul><ul><li>Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs 1400cc) </li></ul><ul><li>It has reduced frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area </li></ul><ul><li>It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech </li></ul><ul><li>It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language </li></ul>
    23. 23. What This All Means <ul><li>Our brains are larger than the chimps’ </li></ul><ul><li>We have a well-developed frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>We have well developed language areas: Broca’s and Wernicke’s area </li></ul><ul><li>The motor strip is more well developed among humans than among chimps </li></ul>
    24. 24. Dentition <ul><li>For each jaw (upper or maxilla or lower or mandible: </li></ul><ul><li>Incisors (4) for cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Canines (cuspid) (2) for piercing </li></ul><ul><li>Premolars (4) for light grinding </li></ul><ul><li>Molars (6) for grinding </li></ul>
    25. 25. Chimp and Human Jaws <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arclike; apes, parallel back teeth, which are larger than human molars </li></ul><ul><li>Canines and Diastema (gap): Apes have larger canines and gaps in opposite jaw to fit them; humans do not </li></ul><ul><li>Ape incisors are more horizontal than vertical. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Anatomy of Tool Making and Use: The Hand <ul><li>Note The Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Our digits are straight </li></ul><ul><li>Our thumb is opposable </li></ul><ul><li>The thumb is long </li></ul><ul><li>The wrist bones are known as carpals. </li></ul><ul><li>The bones of the hand are called metacarpals. </li></ul><ul><li>The fingers are known as phalanges. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Ape and Human Hands <ul><li>Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human </li></ul><ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Our thumbs are longer than the others’ </li></ul><ul><li>We can make a finer grip than the others can </li></ul><ul><li>Less visible: apes’ digits are curved, ours are straight </li></ul>
    28. 28. Power and Precision Grip <ul><li>Note the Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Power grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object </li></ul><ul><li>Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object </li></ul><ul><li>Importance: We can do finer work compared to nonhuman primates </li></ul>
    29. 29. Bipedalism <ul><li>We are the only mammals that can stand and walk on two feet </li></ul><ul><li>Kangaroos hop and maintain balance with their tails </li></ul><ul><li>Apes are semibipedal, but use their knuckles to get around </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the human is on his knees, not just his feet </li></ul>
    30. 30. Chimp and Human Locomotion
    31. 31. Advantages of Bipedalism <ul><li>Efficient locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Freeing of hands </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging and hunting/scavaging </li></ul><ul><li>Tool making and use </li></ul><ul><li>Care and provisioning of offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking migrating herds </li></ul><ul><li>Predator avoidance </li></ul>
    32. 32. Vertebral Column and Pelvis <ul><li>Note the following </li></ul><ul><li>Human vertebral column is S-Shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Chimp verebral column is bow-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium </li></ul>
    33. 33. Pelvis and Femur <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Longer ilium of chimp </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter, more curved ilium of human </li></ul><ul><li>Straight vertical orientation of chimp femur </li></ul><ul><li>Inward angle of human femur </li></ul>
    34. 34. Foot Structure <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Large toe of chimp foot (right) is opposable to other digits </li></ul><ul><li>Large toe of human foot (left) is aligned with other digits </li></ul><ul><li>Ankle bones (tarsals) of human food are larger and more rigid than the chimps’ </li></ul>
    35. 35. Foot Arch: Longitudinal and Transverse <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal arch reflected from </li></ul><ul><li>First metatarsal to </li></ul><ul><li>Calcaneus (heel bone) </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse arch can be inferred from </li></ul><ul><li>Lower placement of outside foot. </li></ul>
    36. 36. The Evolution of Humankind <ul><li>The fossil records tells us one thing: human populations today are very different from those one million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Human biological evolution is well established for that reason. </li></ul><ul><li>This section provides a cultural and intellectual history of creationism and evolutionism </li></ul><ul><li>It describes the mechanisms of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>It concludes with a record of both biological and cultural evolution to the present. </li></ul>
    37. 37. The Model of Evolution <ul><li>The model of evolution: genetic change interacting with environmental pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation: Genetic change that is random </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection: environmental pressures that favor some lifeforms over others </li></ul><ul><li>Gene Flow: Change in the population by migration of life form from another population </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Drift: Change induced in small population by differential reproduction of the new lifeform. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Early Models: The Great Chain of Being <ul><li>A hierarchy of entities from the simplest to most complex anticipated the later rise of taxonomy; Karl von Linn é (discussed below) drew on this model. </li></ul><ul><li>In this view, the human race was the most complex and perfect of all living forms </li></ul><ul><li>Humans, however, were below the divine beings (including demons in the model depicted here. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Catastrophism <ul><li>Earth’s history is product of sudden change </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Creation of Earth in six days (upper left), including Adam </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Flood (Noah’s Ark), which eliminated all life except Noah’s family and the male and female animals he allowed into the ark </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophism does have some basis of reality: an asteroid that struck the earth 65 million years ago (lower left) nearly destroyed all life </li></ul>
    40. 40. Catastrophists: Ussher and Linnaeus <ul><li>James Ussher (1581-1656): Argued that humankind created noon, Oct. 23, 4004 BCE (Upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>He based his calculations on biblical history and astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Carolus Linnaeus (Carl Linn é; 1707-1778) </li></ul><ul><li>Inventor of taxonomy —classification of lifeforms based on similarities and differences (Sample taxonomy next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed system as divinely ordained </li></ul>
    41. 41. The Garden of Eden: Overview <ul><li>Location: Southern Iraq where the Tigris and Euphrates meet (left) </li></ul><ul><li>The Garden of Eden, Home of the First Couple—and of Original Sin </li></ul>
    42. 42. The Garden of Eden: The Myth <ul><li>The beginning: Adam and Eve live in the Garden of Eden </li></ul><ul><li>God: “Of every tree, thou mayest eat freely </li></ul><ul><li>But of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, thou mayest not eat </li></ul><ul><li>For in the day thou eatest of it, thou shalt surely die” </li></ul>
    43. 43. Garden of Eden: The Temptation <ul><li>Tempted by the Serpent, Eve does so (left) </li></ul><ul><li>She is the one who starts the Fall </li></ul><ul><li>Tempted by Eve, Adam also eats the fruit </li></ul><ul><li>God confronts the pair for having done so (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Despite their supplications, He carries out His punishment </li></ul>
    44. 44. Garden of Eden: The Expulsion <ul><li>The couple is expelled from the Garden of Eden </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Woman must bear the pain of childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>And be subject to man’s dominion </li></ul><ul><li>Man toils by the sweat of his brow </li></ul><ul><li>The serpent is forever reviled </li></ul>
    45. 45. Of Course, Others Besides Adam Talk to God . . . <ul><li>But was bombing the Garden of Eden back to the Stone Age </li></ul><ul><li>Something God had in mind? </li></ul><ul><li>(Censored by the FCC) </li></ul>
    46. 46. Uniformitarianism <ul><li>Definition: All geological processes occurred in the past as they do today </li></ul><ul><li>Implications: It takes millions, perhaps billions of years for the geological processes to take place </li></ul><ul><li>The earth could not be only 6,000 years ago as Ussher would have claimed </li></ul>
    47. 47. Uniformitarianism According to Charles Lyell <ul><li>Charles Lyell (1797-1875) </li></ul><ul><li>Espoused extreme form of uniformitarianism by denying catastrophism ( Principles of Geology ) </li></ul><ul><li>Three aspects hold up today </li></ul><ul><li>Geological processes of past are the same as today </li></ul><ul><li>Stratigraphy serves to reconstruct history of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Immense amount of time necessary for geological processes to effect change in the landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Age of earth: The current estimate is 4.5 billion years </li></ul>
    48. 48. Evolutionary Theories: Natural Selection <ul><li>Natural selection defined: </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary change by </li></ul><ul><li>Differential reproductive success of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>within a species (group of organism able to reproduce fertile offspring) </li></ul><ul><li>Through successful adaptation to an environment </li></ul>
    49. 49. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Origin of Species <ul><li>Charles Darwin (above) observed that pigeons, dogs, and horses were subjected to artificial selection in order to improve their breeding </li></ul><ul><li>On Galapagos Islands in 1832, Darwin observed that 13 species of finches adapted in different niches descended from a common ancestor (next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>He conceived the idea of natural selection and after years of dithering finally published his conclusions in The Origin of Species in 1859 </li></ul>
    50. 50. Charles Darwin and Natural Selection
    51. 51. Natural Selection: Definition and Implications <ul><li>Variations are already present when selection occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection has no particular direction—change is random </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, not all evolution is from the simple to the complex </li></ul><ul><li>Species can and do become extinct </li></ul><ul><li>New species can and do arise (Darwin had no way of explaining how the originated, however.) </li></ul><ul><li>New species fill new niches </li></ul><ul><li>Dark-winged moths filled a new environment in a soot-darkened coal-fired steel city; birds couldn’t see them </li></ul>
    52. 52. Genetics and Mutation <ul><li>Natural selection is one principle of evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Species proliferate </li></ul><ul><li>Some are removed by natural selection. </li></ul><ul><li>But how do new species emerge in the first place? </li></ul><ul><li>An Austrian Monk, Gregor Mendel, provided a partial answer </li></ul>
    53. 53. Principles of Evolution: Genetics I <ul><li>Gregor Mendel: Genetic theory, based on experiments with peas </li></ul><ul><li>Genes: Hereditary information determining physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype: the genetic makeup of a particular characteristic (color of flowers in pea plant) </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype: the physical characteristics created by the genetic makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Genes are always paired: male contributes half, female contributes half </li></ul><ul><li>Alleles: Variations of a genetic characteristic </li></ul>
    54. 54. Principles of Evolution: Genetics II <ul><li>When different alleles combine: </li></ul><ul><li>Allele of one manifests in physical characteristic (Dominant) </li></ul><ul><li>The other does not (Recessive) </li></ul><ul><li>Or both may manifest as hybrid (Codominant) </li></ul><ul><li>Traits change when mutation occurs in the genes change in the sex cells of one or both individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>This process of mutation requires information beyond the scope of this course. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Reconstructing Fossil Hominins and their Tools <ul><li>If taxonomies keep changing, it’s because we rely on fragments and infer from them </li></ul><ul><li>Human remains: mostly teeth, bones, and stones—because they are preserved the best </li></ul><ul><li>Here is Lucy—that’s one of the most complete remains we have that is dated 3.7 million years </li></ul><ul><li>Here are two stone choppers—we think (lower left) </li></ul>
    56. 56. Trends in Human Evolution: Australopithecus to Homo <ul><li>Australopithecus afarensis to A. africanus : Gracile Australopithecines </li></ul><ul><li>Paranthropus robustus and P. boisei: Robust Australopithecines—Dead end? </li></ul><ul><li>A. africanus to Homo habilis : Rise of tool manufacture? </li></ul><ul><li>H. habilis to H. erectus: Migration throughout Old World; more kinds of tools </li></ul><ul><li>H. erectus to H. heidelbergensis to H. sapiens: Tool specialization and population explosion to New World </li></ul><ul><li>H. neanderthalensis: Dead end? </li></ul>
    57. 57. Fossil Hominins: Skull, Arms, Hands <ul><li>Large bulbous cranium </li></ul><ul><li>Short face compared to ape </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical carriage of head </li></ul><ul><li>Shortened forelimb </li></ul><ul><li>Hands (manipulation, not locomotion) </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarged thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Straight fingers, not curved </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced finger sensitivity </li></ul>
    58. 58. Fossil Hominins: Bipedalism <ul><li>S-shaped vertebrae (backbone) </li></ul><ul><li>Short, wide, bowl-shaped pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral head (ball of femur at pelvis) angled and strengthened </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthened hindlimb </li></ul><ul><li>Angle of knee: femur “slopes” to pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Platform (arched) structure of foot </li></ul><ul><li>Nonopposable big toe; toes not curved </li></ul>
    59. 59. Encephalization (a.k.a. Bigger Brains) <ul><li>Defining Cranial Capacity (and cc’s) </li></ul><ul><li>A. afarensis: 390-500 cc; av. 440 cc </li></ul><ul><li>A. africanus: 435-530 cc; av. 450 cc </li></ul><ul><li>A./P robustus: 520 cc, one specimen </li></ul><ul><li>A.P. boisei: 500-530 cc; av. 515 cc. </li></ul><ul><li>H. habilis: 500-800 cc; av. 680 cc. </li></ul><ul><li>H. erectus: 750-1250 cc; av. 1000 cc </li></ul><ul><li>H. neanderthalensis: 1300-1750 cc; av. 1450 </li></ul><ul><li>H. (s.) sapiens: 900-2350 cc. av. 1400 </li></ul>
    60. 60. Lucy ( Australopithecus afarensis ) and Us ( Homo sapiens) <ul><li>Note the Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter (3’6”) </li></ul><ul><li>Longer arms </li></ul><ul><li>Curved fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter lower legs </li></ul><ul><li>Greater prognathism </li></ul><ul><li>Sloped forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller cranial capacity </li></ul><ul><li>What are the Similarities? </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: it’s all related to bipedalism </li></ul>
    61. 61. When We Became Bipedal (According to Gary Larson) <ul><li>“ Hey! Look! No hands!” </li></ul><ul><li>(Does he look like Lucy to you. . .?) </li></ul>
    62. 62. Gracile and Robust Australopithecines <ul><li>For A. africanus (top), note: </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat rounder skull </li></ul><ul><li>No Sagittal crest </li></ul><ul><li>Prognathous jaw </li></ul><ul><li>For Paranthropus boisei, note: </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal crest (ate a lot of veggies) </li></ul><ul><li>Massive lower jaw (mandible) </li></ul><ul><li>Flatter face </li></ul><ul><li>Massive cheek bones (zygomatic arch) </li></ul>
    63. 63. Homo habilis: The First Known Toolmaker <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Face is much flatter </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced brow ridge (supraorbital torus) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger cranial capacity (680 cc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Toolmaking Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Hammerstone used to strike </li></ul><ul><li>A core (lump of stone) to knap </li></ul><ul><li>A Flake (stone chip) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Stone has to be crystalline (so it will fracture predictably) </li></ul>
    64. 64. Homo erectus: Cranial Structure <ul><li>Note the Following: </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial capacity: 1,000 cc </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital bun </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced brow ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced sloping forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced prognathism </li></ul><ul><li>No chin; jaw is reinforced by a simian shelf </li></ul><ul><li>Artist’s conception of H. erectus </li></ul>
    65. 65. Homo Erectus (H. ergaster to Some): Postcranial Skeleton <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Fully bipedal </li></ul><ul><li>Arms about length of Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial capacity: 1000 cc (average) </li></ul><ul><li>Main apelike features: </li></ul><ul><li>Prognathous lower face </li></ul><ul><li>Sloping forehead </li></ul>
    66. 66. Lower Paleolithic <ul><li>Oldowan Tradition: </li></ul><ul><li>Four or five strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Unspecialized: choppers </li></ul><ul><li>Flakes also made and used </li></ul><ul><li>Acheulean Tradition: </li></ul><ul><li>50-75 strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetrical design </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple uses: cutting, piercing, chopping </li></ul>
    67. 67. Homo heidelbergensis (a.k.a. “Archaic” Homo sapiens <ul><li>Note the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Brow ridges much reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Forehead is higher, though sloping </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced prognathism </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial capacity 1200 cc. </li></ul><ul><li>Artist’s conception shows closer similarities to ourselves </li></ul>
    68. 68. Manufacturing Levallois Cores and Flakes <ul><li>Knappers: </li></ul><ul><li>Selects the appropriate core, up to a pound of stone </li></ul><ul><li>Strikes the edge of the core </li></ul><ul><li>Knaps the surface of the intended flake </li></ul><ul><li>Knocks off the flake </li></ul><ul><li>Retouches the flake to desired shape </li></ul><ul><li>May knap four to five flakes </li></ul>
    69. 69. Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens skull <ul><li>Note the following for “Classic” Neanderthal </li></ul><ul><li>Greater prognathism; humans lower jaw is straight </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of chin that humans have. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of brow ridge; human has none, has higher forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of occipital bun </li></ul><ul><li>Larger cranial capacity: 1450 cc vs. 1400 cc in humans </li></ul><ul><li>Also note: Artist’s conception of Neanderthal child </li></ul>
    70. 70. Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens : Postcranial Skeletons <ul><li>Note the following for Neanderthals: </li></ul><ul><li>Heavier brow ridge and sloping forehead </li></ul><ul><li>Bones generally more robust </li></ul><ul><li>Larger rib cage </li></ul><ul><li>Broader pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter forearm </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Larger ankle joint </li></ul>
    71. 71. Neanderthal Tools: Mousterian and Châtelperronian Traditions <ul><li>Mousterian (top) </li></ul><ul><li>Bordes: 63 types </li></ul><ul><li>Burins (engravers) </li></ul><ul><li>Scrapers and knives </li></ul><ul><li>Even a type of handaxe </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the Mesolithic </li></ul><ul><li>Châtelperronian (bottom) </li></ul><ul><li>First blades—by Neanderthals </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: flakes twice as wide as they are long </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated the Upper Paleolithic </li></ul>
    72. 72. Upper Paleolithic: Modern Human Tool Traditions . <ul><li>Commonalities of Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>Blades: Ever thinner and smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Increased tool specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Other material: bone, ivory, antler </li></ul><ul><li>Other Developments </li></ul><ul><li>Artwork (such as this mural at Altamira, Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamentation (Venus statuettes) </li></ul>
    73. 73. Review and Conclusion <ul><li>We have. . . </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at the biological bases of culture: for language, toolmaking, and bipedalism </li></ul><ul><li>Compared our anatomy with chimps, our closest relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed evolutionary change based on natural selection and mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at our ancestors and the tools they made </li></ul>
    74. 74. The Territory Ahead <ul><li>Nonhuman Primate Behavior: How close in behavior are our cousins? </li></ul><ul><li>Language: The medium of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Making a Living: Industrial societies are not the only cultures in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Sex, Family, and Its Extensions: The world’s first social organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Economics: How goods and services are provided </li></ul><ul><li>Social Control: Governance and law </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology: Freud didn’t start it all </li></ul><ul><li>The Supernatural: Were there gods before God? </li></ul><ul><li>Culture Change and Globalization: Is there life outside corporations? </li></ul>