Family and Household The Role of Postmarital Residence
Family and Household <ul><ul><li>Not all families share a residence, so we have to make a distinction between families and...
Nuclear Family <ul><li>Couples in some cultures (like our own)  forms own household; this arrangement is known as  Neoloca...
Family of Procreation and Orientation <ul><li>Here, every individual belong to at least two nuclear families </li></ul><ul...
Extended Families <ul><li>A common textbook definition is a  collection of nuclear families united consanguineally (by blo...
Patrilocal Residence <ul><li>In this case, the couple moves in with the  groom’s parents/kin </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes t...
Matrilocal Residence <ul><li>Here, the couple moves in with bride’s parents/kin </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is called  ...
Avunculocal Residence <ul><li>This form of residence occurs only with matrilineal descent </li></ul><ul><li>The household ...
Avunculocal Residence: A Likely explanation <ul><li>At one time, the culture formerly relied on cooperation among women co...
Ambilocal (Bilocal) Residence <ul><li>This residence rule occurs with bilateral descent </li></ul><ul><li>Household is for...
Example: Gilbert Islanders  Oo  and Bwoti <ul><li>Oo:  An overarching bilateral descent group for the entire island in the...
Example: Gilbert Islanders  Kainga <ul><li>A  kainga  is a localized landowning group based on marriage </li></ul><ul><li>...
Matrifocal (Matricentric) Household   <ul><li>Today, single parent households are becoming common </li></ul><ul><li>Matrif...
Successor Marriage: Levirate and Sororate <ul><li>Levirate:  Marriage in which widow marries the brother of her deceased h...
Summary of This Section <ul><li>Marriage has been defined in two ways:  </li></ul><ul><li>One stressing legitimacy of chil...
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Family and Household: Influence of Postmarital Residence

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Describes nuclear family and neolocal residence; Describes and analyzes four types of postmarital residents and extended families constructed thereby

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Family and Household: Influence of Postmarital Residence

  1. 1. Family and Household The Role of Postmarital Residence
  2. 2. Family and Household <ul><ul><li>Not all families share a residence, so we have to make a distinction between families and households </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Households may be defined as a basic residential unit in which production, consumption, child rearing, and inheritance are organized and implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are variations: households may form subunits of an extended family (such as us). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be nonfamily: New Guinean men’s houses are examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spouses may form separate units . </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nuclear Family <ul><li>Couples in some cultures (like our own) forms own household; this arrangement is known as Neolocal Residence. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Family is a family comprising one husband, one wife, and their children </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear families are usually found in industrial societies, such as the U.S., Canada, and northern European countries </li></ul><ul><li>They are also found in harsh environments such as the Arctic among Inuit or desert among !Kung </li></ul>
  4. 4. Family of Procreation and Orientation <ul><li>Here, every individual belong to at least two nuclear families </li></ul><ul><li>The family of orientation is one into which ego is born. </li></ul><ul><li>The family of procreation is one which ego has started or created. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Extended Families <ul><li>A common textbook definition is a collection of nuclear families united consanguineally (by blood) living in one household </li></ul><ul><li>A more precise definition is a family of three or more generations of married kin. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, this suggests that the arrangement is permanent if you have that many generations of married kin. </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family household refers to such families sharing a residence </li></ul>
  6. 6. Patrilocal Residence <ul><li>In this case, the couple moves in with the groom’s parents/kin </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes this is called virilocal residence </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilocal Extended Family comprises the following : </li></ul><ul><li>all consanguineal males </li></ul><ul><li>all consanguineal unmarried females </li></ul><ul><li>all females married into family </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilocal extended families occur where male cooperation important in subsistence or war </li></ul>
  7. 7. Matrilocal Residence <ul><li>Here, the couple moves in with bride’s parents/kin </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is called uxorilocal residence </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilocal Extended Family comprises the following: </li></ul><ul><li>all consanguineal females </li></ul><ul><li>all unmarried consanguineal males </li></ul><ul><li>all males married into family </li></ul><ul><li>This is found where female cooperation important in subsistence or land ownership </li></ul>
  8. 8. Avunculocal Residence <ul><li>This form of residence occurs only with matrilineal descent </li></ul><ul><li>The household is formed when the boy moves in with mother’s brother at age 5-6 years, as shown in this diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterward, he is then reared by his mother’s brother </li></ul><ul><li>Upon marriage, his wife moves in. </li></ul><ul><li>In turn, their boys move in with his wife’s brother. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Avunculocal Residence: A Likely explanation <ul><li>At one time, the culture formerly relied on cooperation among women cooperation, possibly as cultivators </li></ul><ul><li>Male property eventually becomes valuable, or warfare developed, either favoring male cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather then a full-blown shift to patrilineal reckoning, they made a partial shift to cooperation among the sisters’ brothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Variation: The chiefly class practices avunculocal residence, but the other families are patrilineal. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ambilocal (Bilocal) Residence <ul><li>This residence rule occurs with bilateral descent </li></ul><ul><li>Household is formed when : </li></ul><ul><li>The couple moves in either with the groom’s parents or bride’s parents </li></ul><ul><li>This form occurs where resources are limited within a geographically restricted space, such as an island. </li></ul><ul><li>The choice depends on resource advantage of one family or the other </li></ul><ul><li>The core members are individuals of both genders, but not all males or all females (diagram). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Example: Gilbert Islanders Oo and Bwoti <ul><li>Oo: An overarching bilateral descent group for the entire island in the Gilberts of the South Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>A bwoti Is a community council seat, whose membership is based on land rights, potentially several </li></ul><ul><li>A man or woman can choose only one bwoti, </li></ul><ul><li>Here, 8 individuals have chosen 6 bwotis : </li></ul><ul><li>Four in the father’s group (2, 3,5,6) and four in mother’s group (1,4,7,8). </li></ul>
  12. 12. Example: Gilbert Islanders Kainga <ul><li>A kainga is a localized landowning group based on marriage </li></ul><ul><li>If a couple decides to move into man’s group, the woman retains rights to her kainga, but she may not pass it down to her children; the same applies to the male. </li></ul><ul><li>Kainga is structurally similar to the bwoti; some individuals stay, while others leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, ramages or ambilineal descent groups form </li></ul><ul><li>In this diagram, we see four kaingas coded by color. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Matrifocal (Matricentric) Household <ul><li>Today, single parent households are becoming common </li></ul><ul><li>Matrifocal (Matricentric ) households comprise a woman and her children </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons include the process deindustrialization, leading to the inability of a man to support his family; divorce and premature death (diagram) are also contributing factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Patrifocal (patricentric) households are also increasing. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Successor Marriage: Levirate and Sororate <ul><li>Levirate: Marriage in which widow marries the brother of her deceased husband </li></ul><ul><li>Sororate: Marriage in which widower marries the sister of his deceased wife </li></ul><ul><li>Both are marriages to protect and support the women who otherwise would lack partners. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Summary of This Section <ul><li>Marriage has been defined in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>One stressing legitimacy of children </li></ul><ul><li>One stressing relationship of persons </li></ul><ul><li>Household and Family have been defined </li></ul><ul><li>Types of family defined </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family by postmarital residence. </li></ul><ul><li>Next: Larger kin-based groups. </li></ul>

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