Egypt, Part 1 Kingdom Along the Nile, Online
Egypt: Introduction <ul><li>A much more stable and hierarchical entity than Mesopotamia, as we will see. </li></ul><ul><li...
Location and Map of Egypt <ul><li>Lower Egypt comprises the Nile delta </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt comprises the Nile be...
Ecology of the Nile Valley <ul><li>The Nile has a regular pattern of rainfall, which floods the banks of the river regular...
Demographics of the Nile <ul><li>The population itself was uniform, with the same language and similar, if not the same, c...
Egyptian Neolithic: Overview <ul><li>Domesticated Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Food plants: wheat and barley </li></ul><ul><li...
Egyptian Neolithic: Merimbe <ul><li>Merimbe, near Nile Delta (4900) </li></ul><ul><li>Subterranean oval houses with roofs ...
Egyptian Neolithic: Badari <ul><li>Clusters of huts or skin tents </li></ul><ul><li>Burial sites precursors of later buria...
Pre-Dynastic Egypt: Central Places <ul><li>Nagada (Naqada) </li></ul><ul><li>Early evidence of stratification: sumptuous b...
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Egypt: Kingdom of the Nile, Part 1

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Introduction to Egypt. Egyptian Society and Culture to Unification

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Egypt: Kingdom of the Nile, Part 1

  1. 1. Egypt, Part 1 Kingdom Along the Nile, Online
  2. 2. Egypt: Introduction <ul><li>A much more stable and hierarchical entity than Mesopotamia, as we will see. </li></ul><ul><li>After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>The empire lasted 2500-3000 years, depending on interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Only one major episode of political fragmentation (2200-2000 BC) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Location and Map of Egypt <ul><li>Lower Egypt comprises the Nile delta </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt comprises the Nile below the delta </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile is constant </li></ul><ul><li>There is a predictable flood every spring </li></ul><ul><li>Desert on either side contributed to its isolation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ecology of the Nile Valley <ul><li>The Nile has a regular pattern of rainfall, which floods the banks of the river regularly every spring and summer from the rainy season further south in the Sudan and East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding was more regular and predictable than the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Soil at either side was fertile because of the flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt also had precious metals, stone that was useful both for tools and construction </li></ul>
  5. 5. Demographics of the Nile <ul><li>The population itself was uniform, with the same language and similar, if not the same, culture </li></ul><ul><li>Stability was facilitated by its relative isolation, an advantage that Mesopotamia lacked. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, for 3,000 years, the political, religious, and cultural areas was uniform from the south to the delta. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Egyptian Neolithic: Overview <ul><li>Domesticated Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Food plants: wheat and barley </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber plants: flax </li></ul><ul><li>Domesticated animals: sheep, goats, cattle, pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Small villages formed along both banks of the Nile </li></ul>
  7. 7. Egyptian Neolithic: Merimbe <ul><li>Merimbe, near Nile Delta (4900) </li></ul><ul><li>Subterranean oval houses with roofs of sticks and mud </li></ul><ul><li>Tools: stone axes, knives, arrowheads </li></ul><ul><li>Grains stored in ceramic jars, pits, baskets </li></ul><ul><li>Circular clay-lined threshing floor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Egyptian Neolithic: Badari <ul><li>Clusters of huts or skin tents </li></ul><ul><li>Burial sites precursors of later burial customs </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies lowered into circular or rectangular pits after faces painted with green coloring </li></ul><ul><li>Grave goods included utensils, food, ivory spoons, and vases of ivory or stone </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly the root of Egyptian burial customs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pre-Dynastic Egypt: Central Places <ul><li>Nagada (Naqada) </li></ul><ul><li>Early evidence of stratification: sumptuous burials </li></ul><ul><li>Control of large hinterland by 5500 BP </li></ul><ul><li>Hierkonopolis (Nehken) </li></ul><ul><li>Center of pottery manufacture, whose design appears throughout Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Center of a necropolis, or “city of the dead,” evidence by tombs </li></ul>

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