Egypt Along the Nile, Part 2


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The Gods and Goddess of Egypt; Early Kingdoms

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Egypt Along the Nile, Part 2

  1. 1. Egypt, Part 2 Kingdom Along the Nile, Online
  2. 4. The Principal Gods of Egypt I: <ul><li>Amon: (aka, Re, Ra and Aten) the god of the sun (depicted as the sun’s rays; upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>He is also depicted as a scarab beetle who emerges in the morning (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Anubis: the god of embalmers and cemeteries (depicted as a jackal) </li></ul><ul><li>Aten: the god of the solar disk (depicted by the disk of the sun) </li></ul><ul><li>Hapi: the god of the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Hathor: Mother, wife, daughter of Ra </li></ul>
  3. 5. The Principal Gods of Egypt II <ul><li>Osiris: God of the underworld (upper left; depicted with Isis) </li></ul><ul><li>Set or Seth: God of storms and violence; brother of Osiris who murders him </li></ul><ul><li>Isis: Wife of Osiris, goddess of fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Horus: Son of Osiris and Isis: God of the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Horus (with head of falcon) and Seth (head of dog) crown Ramses III (lower left) </li></ul>
  4. 6. Other Gods of Egypt <ul><li>Thoth: God of the scribes, Lord of Language and inventor of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Ptat: Creator of humankind; patron of the craftspeople </li></ul><ul><li>Ma’at: Goddess of truth and the universal order; wife of Thoth] </li></ul><ul><li>She wore an ostrich feather </li></ul><ul><li>Judges awarded the feather to the winner of a case </li></ul><ul><li>Her feather was used on the scales of judgment of the dead </li></ul><ul><li>Bes: Helper of women in childbirth; protector against snakes. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Theocracy <ul><li>Egypt, as in many civilizations, was a theocracy, government by the priests </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs represented the will of the Sun God </li></ul><ul><li>In many conceptions, the Pharaoh was a god; gods’ will flowed through him </li></ul><ul><li>The Sphinx, who guarded the entrance to Gizeh’s pyramids, had the head of Khafre and the body of a lion </li></ul><ul><li>They represented the head of a powerful man and the body of the king of beasts </li></ul>
  6. 8. Cult of the Dead <ul><li>At death, the pharaoh was prepared for a life of eternity </li></ul><ul><li>A ten-week embalming procedure was followed: see pp. 25-26 for details. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids themselves were constructed only for entombment of the pharaoh; they were not used for ritual or any other purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>See pp. 28-29 for details of a typical pyramid and its structure. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Book of the Dead <ul><li>The Tibetan Book of the Dead describes the journey of the soul between one life and the next; judgment based on karma </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptian Book of the Dead prepares the soul for judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, Horus balances the heart against the feather of Ma’at </li></ul><ul><li>If the heart outweighs the feather, the animal to the right will devour the judged </li></ul>
  8. 10. Egypt: Upper and Lower <ul><li>Before 3100 BC, the regions were divided into two parts of the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Egypt : the part from the Nile Delta to Memphis; it was lower in the sense that it was the terminus of the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt : All points along the river south of Memphis to Nubia, a separate kingdom </li></ul>
  9. 11. Unification of Egypt <ul><li>After the conquest attributed to Menes, or Narmer (left) </li></ul><ul><li>The region was united into one empire </li></ul><ul><li>Narmer was the first pharaoh of a family dynasty of 33 generations </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism: a boxy Red Crown (Lower Egypt) with a curlicue; </li></ul><ul><li>And a White Crown (Upper Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>After Narmer’s conquest, he wore a Double Crown to symbolize the unification of the two Egypts (lower left) </li></ul>
  10. 12. The Symbolism of the Union—And Defeat of Upper Egypt <ul><li>To the right, Narmer (wearing white crown) subdues a captive </li></ul><ul><li>Hieroglyph at top writes out Narmer’s name </li></ul><ul><li>God Horus holds the captive by a feather </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus blossoms symbolize Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>To the left, two long-necked lions are entwined, suggesting union), with lion tamers on either side. </li></ul><ul><li>There are the decapitated warriors in defeat </li></ul><ul><li>At the bottom is a bull symbolizing royal power </li></ul><ul><li>For other symbols on this palette, see p. 25 </li></ul>
  11. 13. History of Dynastic Egypt: Early Phases <ul><li>Divided into 33 dynasties of each pharaoh including Narmer/Menes </li></ul><ul><li>Archaic Period (3100 BC): Consolidation of state </li></ul><ul><li>Old Kingdom (2920-2134): </li></ul><ul><li>Despotic pharaohs build pyramids and foster conspicuous funerary monuments </li></ul><ul><li>The Sphinx with pyramid in background (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions, economic arrangements, and artistic traditions established </li></ul><ul><li>Subject brings offering to gods (lower left) </li></ul>
  12. 14. History of Egypt: First Intermediate Period to Middle Kingdom <ul><li>First Intermediate Period (2134-2040): political disunity </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom (2040-1650 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Thebes achieves dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Priesthood of Amun (seen here with Mut, his consort, and son Khons </li></ul>
  13. 15. History of Egypt: Later Phases <ul><li>Second Intermediate Period (1640-1530 BC ): Hyskos invasion and occupation of Nile Delta </li></ul><ul><li>New Kingdom (1530-1070 BC): </li></ul><ul><li>Great Imperial Period </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs buried in Valley of Kings </li></ul><ul><li>Ramses II, Tutankhamun, Seti I </li></ul><ul><li>Akhenaten, heretic ruler </li></ul>
  14. 16. History of Egypt: Terminal Periods <ul><li>Late Period (1072-332 BC): </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual decline in pharaonic authority </li></ul><ul><li>Persians rule (525-404 BC and 343-332 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemaic Period (332-30 BC): </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great Conquers Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemy dynasties bring Greek culture to Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Occupation (30 BC): Egypt becomes imperial province of Rome </li></ul>