Chiefdom Level of Integration

4,065 views

Published on

Describes the characteristics of chiefdoms

Published in: News & Politics, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,065
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
23
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
34
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chiefdom Level of Integration

  1. 1. Chiefdoms and Ranked Societies Common Features
  2. 2. How Social Class Begins <ul><li>Band and Tribal Societies: No significant social classes emerge </li></ul><ul><li>This was true for at least 100,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefdoms or states did not start until 10,000 years ago. Why not? </li></ul><ul><li>One possible answer: Reverse dominance hierarchy </li></ul>
  3. 3. By Way of Introduction: Case Study <ul><li>“ Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Lee conducted an ethnographic study of the Dobe !Kung during year </li></ul><ul><li>He gave the band a fattened ox to thank them </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction: Dobe ridiculed this gift </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson: the !Kung typically ridicule all unusually valuable game </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why This Bizarre Behavior? <ul><li>Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When a young man kills much meat, </li></ul><ul><li>he thinks himself as a chief or big man </li></ul><ul><li>and the rest of us as his servants. </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot accept this. </li></ul><ul><li>Someday his pride will make him kill somebody. </li></ul><ul><li>So we always speak of his meat as worthless. </li></ul><ul><li>That way, we cool his heart and make him gentle.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lessons from This Tale <ul><li>Even bandsmen know about inequality </li></ul><ul><li>They fear domination by one man </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual gifts always involve some ulterior motive </li></ul><ul><li>So they denigrate this gifts </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction conforms to a model of reverse dominance hierarchy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: A Definition <ul><li>Primary Source: Boehm’s Hierarchy in the Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: a collective reaction to </li></ul><ul><li>anyone’s attempt to dominate his fellows </li></ul><ul><li>Summary: “All men seek to rule </li></ul><ul><li>but if they cannot rule </li></ul><ul><li>they seek to be equal.” </li></ul><ul><li>— Harold Schneider, Economic Anthropologist </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reverse Dominant Hierarchy: Band/Tribal Egalitarianism <ul><li>Most Models: Effortless Egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Dominance: You Have to Work at It </li></ul><ul><li>“ Upstart” Individuals Try to Dominate the Band/Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Coalitions Suppress Every Such Attempt </li></ul><ul><li>Ridicule (!Kung “Insulting the Meat”) </li></ul><ul><li>Song Duels (Inuit/Eskimo—left photo) </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Case: Homicide by Group-Selected Executioner </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Food Surplus <ul><li>Bases of Food Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Foraging: Northwest Coast Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Pastoralists: Mongol Nomads </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfarm Specialization in </li></ul><ul><li>Crafts and Manufactures </li></ul><ul><li>Administration and Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of an Elite </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ending Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: Population Density <ul><li>Populations increase </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond scope of kin-based control (Ur, Sumeria, left) </li></ul><ul><li>New control mechanism come into place </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-Familial groups take control </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-hierarchical mechanisms lose effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Circumscription ensures control. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Emergence of Stratification <ul><li>Manipulative Individuals/ Families </li></ul><ul><li>Form alliances between factions </li></ul><ul><li>Play one faction against another </li></ul><ul><li>Form dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Control over Life-Sustaining Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Water systems in semi-arid regions </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural lands </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms of Taxation </li></ul><ul><li>Forced labor </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute in products </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation in money. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rank(ed) Societies <ul><li>The numbers and kinds of positions are fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Kwakiutl (likeness of chief holding a copper object </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone is ranked </li></ul><ul><li>There is only one position from top down </li></ul><ul><li>Death demands a replacement for position </li></ul><ul><li>Missing: no monopoly over resources </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing grounds are open to all </li></ul>
  12. 12. Power versus Authority <ul><li>Extreme examples </li></ul><ul><li>Power: concentration camps: Auschwitz (above); Guantanamo (below) </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: !Kung, Inuit, Yanomamo </li></ul><ul><li>Neither is absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorships need to persuade: Nuremberg rallies, Mayday parades </li></ul><ul><li>Power is evenly distributed in nonstate cultures </li></ul>
  13. 13. Legitimacy as Justification for Political Order <ul><li>Justification necessary even in authoritarian states </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchies: the divine right to rule </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union: Socialist transition to communist economy </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi Germany: Racial purification; delivery of full-employment (Nuremberg rallies, above) </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic forms: consent by the governed (below, State of the Union) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chiefdoms <ul><li>Textbook: A regional polity in which </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more local groups </li></ul><ul><li>Are organized under a single chief </li></ul><ul><li>Who heads a ranked hierarchy of people </li></ul><ul><li>Chief as office </li></ul><ul><li>Office is permanent </li></ul><ul><li>“The king is dead; long live the king” </li></ul><ul><li>Requires rules of succession </li></ul>
  15. 15. Chiefdoms: Conical Clan <ul><li>Can have chiefs and subchiefs </li></ul><ul><li>When eldest sons are heirs </li></ul><ul><li>When subclans or lineages bud off. </li></ul><ul><li>Rank remains among </li></ul><ul><li>Descendant clans/lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals within lineages </li></ul>
  16. 16. How Conical Clans Work I <ul><li>I in leftmost minimal lineage is chief of the entire group depicted here, as well as the subgroups </li></ul><ul><li>That is because he is the eldest son of a line of eldest sons of founder of Maximal Lineage (labeled I at the top </li></ul>
  17. 17. How Conical Clans Work II <ul><li>Descendant of 2 nd eldest son (II of 2 nd major segment) is IX; he manages that segment </li></ul><ul><li>Eldest son of each segment runs that segment </li></ul>
  18. 18. Redistribution <ul><li>Process whereby goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Flow to a central authority (king, chief, government) </li></ul><ul><li>Where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated </li></ul><ul><li>Classic example: Potlatch of Kwakiutl </li></ul><ul><li>Historical example: administered trade </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chiefdoms: Kwakiutl <ul><li>Eldest son succeeds chief’ </li></ul><ul><li>Must validate claim by holding potlatch </li></ul><ul><li>All feasts have legal dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Chief makes speech, presents the ceremonial dances </li></ul><ul><li>At end, distributes gifts that are appropriate to rank of guests </li></ul><ul><li>Guests give validation speeches </li></ul><ul><li>They praise the behavior of new chief </li></ul><ul><li>They note that gifts were appropriate to rank of guests </li></ul><ul><li>All this reinforces the values of ranking in culture </li></ul>
  20. 20. Case Studies <ul><li>In this section, you are asked to select one of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians of the Northwest Coast, of which the Kwakiutl is one, or </li></ul><ul><li>The Trobriand Islanders of Melanesia in the Southwest Pacific </li></ul>

×