Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Band Level of Integration


Published on

A Comparison of bands in two different regions: the Arctic north and the Kalahari of Southern Africa

Published in: Business, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Band Level of Integration

  1. 1. Band Level of Integration Family and Multifamily Groups
  2. 2. Band Level of Integration <ul><li>Band in recent history are found in marginal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Inuit (Eskimo) in cold climates of North America (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>!Kung San of the Kalahari in southern Africa (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Aborigines in Australia, who adapted to a dry climate for 40,000 or more </li></ul><ul><li>Mbuti “pygmies” of the Ituri rainforest in Congo </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bands: Main Feature <ul><li>They comprise a few families at most </li></ul><ul><li>Populations: 40-100 </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to be nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is informal and not permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Their property is communalistic; private ownership is rare or nonexistent </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence base: simple foraging </li></ul>
  4. 4. Simple Foraging: Main Features I <ul><li>Food is where you find it </li></ul><ul><li>Direct dependence on naturally available plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Plant foods (like the mongongo nuts this !Kung woman just gathered) are the most abundant </li></ul><ul><li>They form 80% of the diet among most foragers </li></ul><ul><li>Animal food is hard to come by </li></ul>
  5. 5. Simple Foraging: Main Features II <ul><li>Near total reliance on hunting is rare (as among the seal-hunting Inuit here) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuation of food sources by place, season, and year </li></ul><ul><li>Means of meat storage rare or nonexistent—except in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Foragers do have wide variety of food, however </li></ul>
  6. 6. Foraging: Carrying Capacity <ul><li>Population limited by the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Its carrying capacity is the population that resources can support </li></ul><ul><li>Liebig’s Law of the Minimum defines carrying capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>According to this law, a population may not increase </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond the minimum amount of critical resources of a given environment </li></ul>
  7. 7. Liebig’s Law of the Minimum Illustrated <ul><li>The lowest stave of a barrel limits its capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Plants can yield only as much </li></ul><ul><li>As the amount of a critical nutrient is available. </li></ul><ul><li>This principle applies to carrying capacity limits </li></ul><ul><li>When the lowest stave is lengthened, </li></ul><ul><li>The next lowest stave sets the limit </li></ul>
  8. 8. Foraging: Sharing and Property: Netsilik Inuit (Eskimo) <ul><li>Sharing ethic: rules govern meat sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Netsilik Inuit: Partnerships by the anatomical part of the seal </li></ul><ul><li>A hunter’s partner may be his “shoulder” </li></ul><ul><li>If he kills the seal he gives his partner the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>If the partner bags the seal, then he gives the shoulder to the first man </li></ul>
  9. 9. Foraging: Sharing and Property: !Kung Hunters <ul><li>!Kung: Hunters and owner of arrow “own” the game </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership is only stewardship; </li></ul><ul><li>An “owner” keeps the animal until the time comes to share </li></ul><ul><li>Game is shared by definite obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Property: communalism—land may be used by all in the band </li></ul>
  10. 10. Effects of Contact with Industrialized Society <ul><li>Individual families may own food or other objects </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts, roots, and other plant foods are property of a woman and her family </li></ul><ul><li>Land itself is accessible to all </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict arises when “white” society imposes private ownership of land </li></ul><ul><li>Walkabout demonstrates this conflict </li></ul>
  11. 11. Foraging: Other Derived Characteristics <ul><li>Egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>No incentive to hoard </li></ul><ul><li>Social class differences minimal </li></ul><ul><li>Work time </li></ul><ul><li>Average: 15-20 hours/week </li></ul><ul><li>Nonintensive labor with other activities </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic mode of production: work done until needs are met </li></ul>
  12. 12. Complex Foraging: Primary Characteristics <ul><li>Food source dependence is still direct </li></ul><ul><li>Food sources now are richer </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary example: Salmon complex in NW Coast societies, Inuit of Alaska’s North Slope </li></ul><ul><li>Variance still occurs by season and location </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity of environment is higher </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum specified in Liebig’s Law is higher than in simple foragers </li></ul>
  13. 13. Complex Foraging: Derived Characteristics <ul><li>Settled communities form </li></ul><ul><li>They depend on stable, rich resources </li></ul><ul><li>Groups need not rely only on plant or animal domestication </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblage of tools and artifacts will: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply in number; </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply in type (specialization) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social and Cultural Features of Complex Foragers <ul><li>As populations increase, societies become more complex </li></ul><ul><li>In Mesolithic, settled communities were common without agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Monte Verde, Chile, was one example (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Recent examples: Kwakiutl of Northwest coast (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Main food: salmon, which was plentiful and preserved by smoking </li></ul>
  15. 15. Band Economies <ul><li>Bands do exchange goods </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, they rarely have markets </li></ul><ul><li>Exception: Trade with the outside world </li></ul><ul><li>Trading posts portrayed in Nanook of the North </li></ul><ul><li>Shops in !Kung territory </li></ul><ul><li>Outside trade with whites, rules of reciprocity govern exchange </li></ul>
  16. 16. Imperatives of Exchange: Background <ul><li>Marcel Mauss: The Gift (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Preface: “When two groups of men meet, they may move away or </li></ul><ul><li>in case of mistrust they may resort to arms </li></ul><ul><li>or else they may come to terms” </li></ul><ul><li>Coming to terms, he called “total prestations” or </li></ul><ul><li>an obligation that has the force of law </li></ul><ul><li>in the absence of law </li></ul><ul><li>As shown here by this New Guinean man (lower left) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Obligations of the Gift <ul><li>Obligation to give </li></ul><ul><li>To extend social ties to other person or groups </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to receive </li></ul><ul><li>To accept the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal is rejection of offered relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Induces hostilities </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to repay </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to repay renders one a beggar </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Reciprocity: Generalized <ul><li>The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity: Direct exchange of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized reciprocity: altruistic transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Gifts are freely given without calculating value or repayment due </li></ul><ul><li>Example: meat distribution among !Kung (left) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Reciprocity: Balanced <ul><li>Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Value of gift is calculated </li></ul><ul><li>Time of repayment is specified </li></ul><ul><li>Selling surplus food (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Kula ring, Trobriand Islands </li></ul><ul><li>One trader gives partner a white armband (see map, lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Expects a red necklace of equal value in return </li></ul><ul><li>Promissory gifts are made until return is made </li></ul>
  20. 20. Band Level of Integration: Egalitarianism <ul><li>Individuals depend on ability alone for prestige </li></ul><ul><li>No one individual “Lords it over“ the others </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, there are sanctions against such behavior </li></ul><ul><li>See what happened when Richard Lee gave an ox to his Dobe hosts (next slide) </li></ul>
  21. 21. By Way of Introduction: Case Study <ul><li>“ Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee </li></ul><ul><li>Lee conducted an ethnographic study of the Dobe !Kung or Ju/’hoansi (left) </li></ul><ul><li>He gave the band a fattened ox to thank them </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction: Dobe ridiculed this gift </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson: the !Kung typically ridicule valuable game. </li></ul><ul><li>This is “insulting the meat” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Why This Bizarre Behavior? <ul><li>Tomazo’s answer: “Arrogance.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When a young man kills much meat, </li></ul><ul><li>He thinks himself as a chief or big man </li></ul><ul><li>And the rest of us as his servants. </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot accept this. </li></ul><ul><li>Someday his pride will make him kill somebody. </li></ul><ul><li>So we always speak of his meat as worthless. </li></ul><ul><li>That way, we cool his heart and make him gentle.” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Lessons from This Tale <ul><li>Even bandsmen know about inequality </li></ul><ul><li>They fear domination by one man </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual gifts always involve some ulterior motive </li></ul><ul><li>So they denigrate this gifts </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction conforms to a model of reverse dominance hierarchy </li></ul>
  24. 24. Reverse Dominance Hierarchy: A Definition <ul><li>Primary Source: Boehm’s Hierarchy in the Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: a collective reaction to </li></ul><ul><li>anyone’s attempt to dominate his fellows </li></ul><ul><li>Summary: “All men seek to rule </li></ul><ul><li>but if they cannot rule </li></ul><ul><li>they seek to be equal.” </li></ul><ul><li>— Harold Schneider, Economic Anthropologist </li></ul>
  25. 25. Reverse Dominant Hierarchy: Band/Tribal Egalitarianism <ul><li>The group consciously suppresses individuals trying to dominate the band </li></ul><ul><li>“ Upstart” Individuals Try to Dominate the Band/Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Coalitions Suppress Every Such Attempt </li></ul><ul><li>Ridicule (!Kung “Insulting the Meat”) </li></ul><ul><li>Song Duels (Inuit/Eskimo—left photo) </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Case: Homicide by Group-Selected Executioner </li></ul>
  26. 26. Bands: A Definition <ul><li>Small group of related households occupying a particular region </li></ul><ul><li>People often come and go </li></ul><ul><li>Bands do not yield sovereignty to larger group such as a chiefdom </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is conducted by persuasion rather than use of force. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no permanent leader status or offices </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: !Kung, Inuit, Mbuti (left) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Supernatural Beliefs: Magic <ul><li>Sir James Frazier’s distinction: Magic versus Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Magic: manipulation of supernatural beings and/or forces </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic vs. contagious magic </li></ul><ul><li>Usually addresses an immediate problem </li></ul><ul><li>Left: a jealous husband raising a tupilik (monster) in Greenland to attack his rival </li></ul>
  28. 28. Supernatural Beliefs: Religion <ul><li>Religion: Recognition of unseen world </li></ul><ul><li>Focus: explanation based on myth </li></ul><ul><li>Supplication emphasized </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable overlap in distinction between magic and religion </li></ul><ul><li>Left: St. Jude, the Patron Saint of Lost Causes, is often invoked to intercede for the hopeless </li></ul>
  29. 29. Supernatural Beliefs: Animism <ul><li>Most band and tribal societies believe in animism </li></ul><ul><li>This is the belief that spirits inhabits all things </li></ul><ul><li>The faces carved in trees comprise one example (left) </li></ul><ul><li>The False Face society of the Iroquois carved masks from trees </li></ul><ul><li>Believing the spirits would be infused into the masks. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Band Level Societies: Conclusion and Case Studies <ul><li>The features of band are ideal types </li></ul><ul><li>These features are what one expects of informal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Your task: compare the ideal types presented here </li></ul><ul><li>With actual case studies:: </li></ul><ul><li>The Inuit of Alaska (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>The !Kung San of the Kalahari (lower left) </li></ul>