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Andean America


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Reviews the Inca Empire and its roots.

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Andean America

  1. 1. Andean America The Inca and Their Descendants
  2. 2. The Inca: An Introduction <ul><li>One of the world’s largest empires </li></ul><ul><li>Lacked writing </li></ul><ul><li>An administrative socialistic economy </li></ul><ul><li>Stone architecture without pulleys, draft animals, or metal tools </li></ul><ul><li>Longest highway in the ancient world </li></ul>
  3. 3. Location of Inca Empire <ul><li>In South America (Inset): </li></ul><ul><li>The empire extended from the Pacific coast </li></ul><ul><li>Through the Andes into Amazon forest </li></ul><ul><li>It extended from Colombia in north </li></ul><ul><li>To Chile in south. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Map of Inca Empire <ul><li>The capital, Cuzco, was in the center of the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Machu Picchu, the sacred center, was northeast of Cuzco </li></ul><ul><li>The empire was 2800 miles long </li></ul><ul><li>Tiahuanaco was the main city of the minority Aymara </li></ul><ul><li>Other centers: Moche, Chan Chan, Nazca, Huari </li></ul>
  5. 5. Inca: Road System <ul><li>The road system kept the empire together </li></ul><ul><li>Extent: Quito to north to Santiago to the south </li></ul><ul><li>Runners maintained communication in the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Tampus (garrisons) spaced one day apart enforced central control </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ecological Map of Central Inca Empire <ul><li>The empire covered diverse ecological zones: </li></ul><ul><li>Light orange: dry coastal area </li></ul><ul><li>Purple: foothill forests </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow: Andes highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Green: Amazonian rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Empire exploited resources of each ecological zone </li></ul>
  7. 7. Andean Region: Coastal Climate <ul><li>Coastal regions were extremely dry </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion prevented rainfall on the coastal plains </li></ul><ul><li>Most of rainfall occurred in Andes </li></ul><ul><li>10% rainfall drained in coastal rivers, only source of water on coast </li></ul><ul><li>The southward current produced an upwelling of coastal Pacific, yielding </li></ul><ul><li>Rich plankton and other nutrients, which </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained a rich supply of fish and shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>First settlements began on the coast </li></ul>
  8. 8. Andean Regions: Mountains <ul><li>Andes Mountains comprises: </li></ul><ul><li>Peaks of mountains and </li></ul><ul><li>Valleys, including with grassy flatlands ( punas) </li></ul><ul><li>Andes received most of the rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Snowmelt watered both interior habitations and coast </li></ul><ul><li>Wet, vegetated montaňas were on the eastern side of the Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Amazonia; tributaries received most of the rainfall </li></ul>
  9. 9. Plant and Animal Domestication <ul><li>Plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes: a tuber highly adapted to cold climates </li></ul><ul><li>Quinoa: a grain made into breads </li></ul><ul><li>Maize introduced about 4,000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Llama: Beast of burden, also used for wool and meat </li></ul><ul><li>Alpaca : Valued mainly for its wool </li></ul><ul><li>Site : Telemarchay rock shelter shows sequence from hunting to animal domestication </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pre-Inca Regional Empires <ul><li>The Andes were dominated by regional empires </li></ul><ul><li>Chan Chan and Moche were dominant in the northern Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Sipán and Chan Chan were coastal empires </li></ul><ul><li>Nazca and the Aymara Tiahuanaco dominated the southern Andes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Inca Empire Expansion <ul><li>In the heart of the empire, </li></ul><ul><li>Cuzco started as village ca AD 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Probably developed into Inca capital around 1440 </li></ul><ul><li>When troops under the first emperor Pachakuti (map) defeated the rival Chanca state </li></ul><ul><li>Incas then expanded northward and southward </li></ul><ul><li>As they defeated each state, the Inca , </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed the people to retain their organization and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Map shows three phases of Inca expansion </li></ul>
  12. 12. Road System: Transportation and Communication <ul><li>Andean America: A well-developed highway system </li></ul><ul><li>Covered the 2600 mile length of empire </li></ul><ul><li>Access controlled by emperor and imperial administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Tampus (storehouses, garrisons, and lodging) constructed a day’s travel apart (see map) </li></ul><ul><li>Beasts of burden (llamas) carried up to 100 pounds of cargo </li></ul><ul><li>Most carriers were human </li></ul><ul><li>Communication maintained by runners </li></ul>
  13. 13. Administrative Economy: Prototype of Socialism? <ul><li>Emperors had a dual system of inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>First born became emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Others royalty inherited property </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor thus depended on mitá , or labor tax </li></ul><ul><li>Every adult provided labor after meeting subsistence needs of clan ( allyu ) </li></ul><ul><li>Clans provided labor for public works, state-owned lands, army manpower, and road/bridge construction </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards: chicha, entertainment, textiles </li></ul>
  14. 14. Making a Living <ul><li>The Inca had no large draft animals except for the llama (a camelid) </li></ul><ul><li>They tilled the soil using the foot plow (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Staple crop was the potato; they also grew maize, quinoa (a grain), and others </li></ul><ul><li>They raised duck, guinea pigs, and camelids (llama, alpaca, vicu ña for meat) </li></ul><ul><li>The camelids were also sources of wool (lower left). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Inca Warehouses and Accounting <ul><li>All products—potatoes to corn brew to meat—were warehoused </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts were kept with quipus </li></ul><ul><li>These were knotted cords that were used for: </li></ul><ul><li>Population censuses </li></ul><ul><li>Animals (llamas) </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse contents of each category </li></ul>
  16. 16. Quipus: A Substitute for Writing <ul><li>There is no evidence of writing so far. </li></ul><ul><li>They did have a numerical system: </li></ul><ul><li>Quipu System: knotted twine suspended from main cord </li></ul><ul><li>The further away the knot is from the cord, the lower the number is </li></ul><ul><li>It is thought to be a decimal system </li></ul><ul><li>Some experts think it might be a binary-based system </li></ul>
  17. 17. Quipu System <ul><li>Lowest: ones, at string farthest from cord </li></ul><ul><li>That is 3 on the diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Next: tens (40 in diagram) </li></ul><ul><li>Next: hundreds (600) </li></ul><ul><li>Next: thousands toward main cord (3000) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how you get the figure 3643 to the right </li></ul>
  18. 18. Quipus: Census by Color Code <ul><li>Color coding system counting : </li></ul><ul><li>Population, one color </li></ul><ul><li>Tributes of labor, another color </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms of tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Land distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Military expenses </li></ul><ul><li>There was a color for each category </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sociopolitical Structure of the Inca <ul><li>The Inca had cobbled together smaller empires: Chanca, Nazca, Moche, and others </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor was said to be descended from the Sun God </li></ul><ul><li>Sun was the giver of all life </li></ul><ul><li>Purity of the imperial lineage called for royal incest—a emperor married his sister </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility was extremely limited if existent at all </li></ul>
  20. 20. Administrative Apparatus <ul><li>Inca: An structured administrative state </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into four quarters (hence the name Tawanitimsuyu—Land of Four Quarters </li></ul><ul><li>Further subdivided into waranqa of 1000 taxpayers (labor tax) </li></ul><ul><li>Used a system of colonization called mitmaq to </li></ul><ul><li>Exploit new resources, and to prevent revolts </li></ul><ul><li>The empire was made up of diverse ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative towns, such as Huanaco Pampa (left) also added centralized control </li></ul>
  21. 21. Public Architecture <ul><li>Stone architecture was widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Inca and Predecessors used uneven blocks of stone without mortar (left) </li></ul><ul><li>They were cut without metal tools and lifted into place without pulleys </li></ul><ul><li>The blocks together so precisely that a coin could not be inserted between them </li></ul><ul><li>Surface of Temple of the sun was covered with a gold frieze, or decorative plate. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conquest of the Inca <ul><li>Conquest preceded by spread of European disease (upper left) </li></ul><ul><li>Pizarro, like Cortes in Mexico, used Indian allies to overthrow the Inca (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Inca were already divided by war between Atahualpa and Huascar, the two sons of the deceased emperor, himself dead from smallpox </li></ul>