Emergency First Aid for Children 3. Basic Life Support
Automatic External DefibrillatorOften just called a defibrillator or an AED.These are referred to in the manual: – Find out if there is one local to you and who is permitted to operate it. Most require specialist training. – This course will focus on manual CPR techniques.
Basic Life SupportInvolves » Rescue Breaths » Chest MassageTo ensure » Air continues to enter the lungs » Blood circulates around the body in an emergency
Basic Life SupportCardiac arrest• Causes in children are very different to adults• Children rarely have problems with their hearts, but a healthy heart will stop if insufficient oxygen reaches other vital organs
Basic Life SupportRemember• Children are anatomically different to adults• Hence need for different life support techniques• Children have narrower air passages• Windpipe is more flexible – if neck bent too far back, airway may become blocked• A child’s tongue is bigger than an adults relative to their mouth
ABC of Resuscitation A is for Airway Open airway as for adult: Head tilt and chin lift takes the tongue off the back of the throat – ensure head is not over tilted For a baby - open airway by lifting chin, use minimum head lift Do not turn or tilt back the head if you suspect an injury to thePages 19-21, 66-67 neck
ABC of ResuscitationB is for Breathing Look, Listen and Feel for any signs of breathing for 10 seconds before deciding breathing is absent.Pages 19-21, 66-67
ABC of ResuscitationB is for Breathing• Main difference in approach with children compared to adults is the need to give artificial ventilation for one minute before calling an ambulance (if no-one else has done it).Pages 19-21, 66-67
ABC of ResuscitationC is for Circulation Check for breathing, coughing or any movement. If the heart has stopped chest compressions can be combined with artificial ventilationPages 19-21, 66-67
Resuscitation of a Baby or Child• If child has lost consciousness and is not breathing you will need to give rescue breaths Note• Resuscitation of a baby differs slightly from that of an older childPages 19-21, 66-67
Resuscitation of a Child 1. Open airway 2. Look, Listen, Feel for breathing 3. Pinch soft part of nose, place mouth over child’s mouth – try to give 5 effective rescue breathsPages 19-21, 66-67
Resuscitation of a Child cont’d• After giving 5 effective breaths, next part of ABC is check for Circulation (pulse)• If absent start chest compressions – give 2 breaths for every 30 compressions• If there is circulation continue rescue breaths at a rate of 1 every 3 seconds (20 per minute). If there is no circulation move to giving full CPRPages 19-21, 66-67
Rescue Breaths for a Baby – UNDER 1 YEAR –Procedure similar for older child• Open airway – use MINIMUM chin lift• May be easier to seal your mouth over baby’s mouth & nose• Empty your cheeks of air – rather than blowing hard into the mouthPages 19-21, 66-67
Continue Resuscitation until…• The baby/child show signs of life (breathing and circulation)• Someone else takes over• Qualified professionals are at the scene• You are completely exhaustedPages 19-21, 66-67
What to do if chest does not rise• Check for obvious obstruction around neck or on the chest• Re-open the airway, tilt the head and look for any obvious obstructions• Re-seal the mouth and breathe in again• Try up to 5 attempts to give 5 effective rescue breathsPages 19-21, 66-67
CPRFinding and using the CPR compression site in a child (1-8 years) 1. Find Xiphisternum – small protrusions at base of breastbone, where ribs join 2. Place heel of your hand over lower half of child’s breastbone (ensure you do not press on or below xiphisternum 3. Press vertically with heel of hand to depth 1/3 to ½ the depth of child’s chest. Repeat 5 times in 3 seconds (100 per minute) After 30 compressions, give 2 effective rescue breaths. Continue with ratio 30 compressions followed Pages 19-21, 66-67 by 2 effective rescue breaths.
CPR Finding and using the CPR compression site in a baby (under 1 year) 1. Hold index finger between baby’s nipples with centre of finger at the sternum or breastbone 2. Correct compression site is located 1 finger width line between the nipples. Position 2 fingertips over this site. 3. Compress breastbone to approx depth of one-third to half of infant’s chest. Release. Give 30 compressions and continue as for older child.Pages 19-21, 66-67
Recovery Position For casualties who are unconscious but breathing Prevents tongue from blocking the throat Allow liquids to drain from the mouth Head, neck and back are in a straight linePages 14-17 Bent limbs keep body stable
Recovery Position - Child 1. Open airway 2. Straighten both legs. Place arm nearest you at right angles to child’s body, with elbow bent and palm facing upwards. 3. Bring arm furthest away from you across child’s chest and hold back of hand against the cheek nearest you.Pages 14-17
Recovery Position - Child 4. Keeping child’s hand against cheek, pull on far leg and roll child towards you and onto her side. Adjust upper leg so that both hip and knee are bent at right angles. 5. Tilt head back so that airway remains open.Pages 14-17
Recovery Position - Baby Cradle the baby on their side with head their head tilted down. Hold the baby with one hand under their head, the other under their lower backPages 14-17
REMEMBER ACTION AT AN EMERGENCYKEY POINTS• Always follow the DR’S ABC principles.• Assess the situation promptly but with thought – do not rush in.• Do not move the casualty before the paramedics arrive unless it is absolutely necessary.• Always treat casualties with respect, seek permission for actions where casualty is conscious.
Emergency First Aid for Children End of Section