The Swedish Model(s) Part 2 – Public Administration Prepared for presentation at University of Oxford, Leadership programm...
Outline of My Talk <ul><li>Three characteristics of Swedish Public Administration (PA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decentraliz...
1. A DECENTRALIZED UNITARY STATE <ul><li>Three Characteristics of Swedish Public Administration </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul ...
The democratic system in Sweden • Regional  level Elections to the County Council  Assembly The County Council Assembly el...
A hierarchy? (no) 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.  National Gov’t County Gov’t Municipal Gov’t
Regional and local levels of equal stature The People Riksdag Regering Assembly Council Council Assembly 2009-10-21 Paul T...
Competences 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
A Decentralized Unitary State 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
Employed persons in different parts of the public sector (2006). 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
Central vs. Local Government Income Taxes  2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
Local Autonomy <ul><li>Dates at least to 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Locally elected parliaments/councils </li></ul><ul><li>Gua...
2. DUALISM <ul><li>Three Characteristics of Swedish Public Administration </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
<ul><li>  Ministerial systems </li></ul><ul><li>  Sweden </li></ul>Parliament Government Ministries including agencies Par...
Small ministries Large agencies <ul><li>Government Offices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministries: 12+2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Governing the agencies <ul><li>Prohibited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministerial rule! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforced by P...
” Mandarins” on autonomy Source: Birgitta Niklasson ”The Swedish Cobra Study”, Brussels April 2009. 2009-10-21 Paul T. Lev...
Commissions of inquiry <ul><li>Regeringen appoints </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather knowledge, in...
3. OPENNESS <ul><li>Three Characteristics of Swedish Public Administration </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
Openness <ul><li>Public access to documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates to the Freedom of the Press Act of 1766  </li></ul...
Inquiry and consultation Regering decides on a Proposition The Riksdag Chamber To Regering for Inquiry Commission of Inqui...
Consultation (”remiss”) <ul><li>Opinions distributed to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Illustration - consultation <ul><li>Swedish utility Svenska Kraftnät presented a study in 2006 which proposed 4 energy gri...
Openness and corruption Transparency International 2007 Global Corruption Perceptions World Audit 2007 rankings 2009-10-21...
NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT <ul><li>The impact of </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
New Public Management <ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>MbOR </li></ul><ul><li>P...
” Best practice” cases <ul><li>E.g. competetive tendering has increased efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockholm city – ...
Vouchers – some key aspects <ul><li>Additional fees restricted </li></ul><ul><li>Vouchers fully fund each student  </li></...
NPM - limitations <ul><li>Choice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequalities </li></...
Transparency and tendering <ul><li>Svenska Dagbladet  has recently published a  series of investigative articles  on the p...
Challenges ahead <ul><li>Beyond NPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice vs. Equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforming or aban...
The end 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
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The swedish model of public administration

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  • The total public sector employs ca 6% of the total Swedish workforce.
  • Birgitta: ’Datan kommer från min egen enkätundersökning &amp;quot;Svenska myndigheter&amp;quot; som genomfördes mellan december 2008 och april 2009. Den har riktat sig till myndighetschefer på 256 förvaltningsmyndigheter (allmänna myndigheter, högskolor, polis, länsstyrelser, landsarkiv, statliga företag, museum), varav 182 svarade (71%).’ (Från ’presentationen &amp;quot;The Swedish Cobra Study&amp;quot;, som jag gjorde på COST-mötet i Bryssel den 20-21 april 2009 ’) Definition of target group = Precisering av målgrupp, som enligt hjälptexten ienkäten betyder: &amp;quot;Bedömning av vilka brukare, klienter, kunder, förmånstagare,etc. som myndighetens verksamhet ska rikta sig mot, dvs. den grupp som ärföremål för myndighetens aktiviteter, t.ex. pensionärer, ungdomar, ellerinvandrare.&amp;quot; Val av medel, som enligt hjälptexten i enkäten betyder: &amp;quot;Val av politiska ochadministrativa verktyg som används för att genomföra politiken, t.ex. skatter,subventioner, information, utbildning, föreskrifter, rekommendationer, etc.&amp;quot; Konkret sätt att lösa uppgift, som enligt hjälptexten i enkäten betyder:&amp;quot;Handläggning av sakärenden och prioritering mellan aktiviteter.&amp;quot;
  • Official Government Committees (SOU) Under a Ministry 144 Committees of Inquiry active (2005) Intra-ministerial Inquiries Agency Inquiries Other functions might be: Get thorny issues off the agenda Start a new Agency SOU: Functionally part of the Government Offices Legally Agencies Serve as ”elastic rubber bands”
  • The principle of public access to documents applies to: Input to &amp; output from gov’t institutions Decisions &amp; related documents Documents archived in gov’t institutions
  • The practise of sending out proposals and studies for review and comment is widespread in other parts of the Swedish public administration, not just in the ministries. The next slide shows one example:
  • The first three were rather naturally in line with the Swedish tradition of public administration. The NPM movement also emerged strong in Sweden during the 90s, when there were high pressures to cut costs due to the high deficit. Generally, NPM entails a greater focus on outcomes than on managing and regulating the details of the process by which the bureaucracy implements the decisions.
  • Swedish Agency for Public Management estimates 1.5 bn savings.
  • 50 813 kr per elev och år för 6-8 åringar                                                                                                                          53 058               ”                9-11 åringar                                                                                                                          60 395               ”               12-15 åringar Till detta kommer en tilläggsresurs, som fördelas mot bakgrund av andelen barn med utländsk bakgrund 5,2% respektive föräldrarnas utbildningsbakgrund 4,8% av totalresursen.   Lokalkostnaderna utgår enligt faktiska kostnader. Vi har ännu inte hittat ett system att lägga in det i skolpengen, eftersom det skiljer så mycket. Lägsta kostnad för skolan är 6 000 kr/elev/år och högsta 30.000 kr/elev/år. För förskolorna, som är nybyggda ,rör det sig om ännu högre hyror.   Därtill kommer pengar för särskild verksamhet som förberedelseklasser, Resurscentrum för elever med stort behov av särskilt stöd, särskola o s v     Dessutom finns det pengar till Barn och skolnämndens förfogande för nämnds- och förvaltningsledning, kvalitetsuppföljningar, särskilda satsningar, naturskola, sommarskola, långa rehab.satsningar m m Choice must be feasible (rural v. urban areas)
  • Goals often too general – This makes accountability and evaluation difficult. Specific Measurable Accepted Realistic Time limited
  • The swedish model of public administration

    1. 1. The Swedish Model(s) Part 2 – Public Administration Prepared for presentation at University of Oxford, Leadership programmes for China Dr. Paul T. Levin, Stockholm University
    2. 2. Outline of My Talk <ul><li>Three characteristics of Swedish Public Administration (PA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A decentralized unitary state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Public Management Reforms </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    3. 3. 1. A DECENTRALIZED UNITARY STATE <ul><li>Three Characteristics of Swedish Public Administration </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    4. 4. The democratic system in Sweden • Regional level Elections to the County Council Assembly The County Council Assembly elects the County Council Executive Board • • Local level Elections to the Municipal Council The Municipal Council elects the Municipal Executive Board • • • National level Elections to the Parliament (Swedish parliament) The Parliament elects the Prime Minister, who forms a government 18 County Councils 21 Countys 290 Municipalities Pictures courtesy of Gov’t Offices 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    5. 5. A hierarchy? (no) 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D. National Gov’t County Gov’t Municipal Gov’t
    6. 6. Regional and local levels of equal stature The People Riksdag Regering Assembly Council Council Assembly 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D. National Local Regional
    7. 7. Competences 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    8. 8. A Decentralized Unitary State 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    9. 9. Employed persons in different parts of the public sector (2006). 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    10. 10. Central vs. Local Government Income Taxes 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    11. 11. Local Autonomy <ul><li>Dates at least to 1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Locally elected parliaments/councils </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed by the constitution (the Instrument of Government - RF) and political praxis </li></ul><ul><li>Right of taxation (RF 1:7) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited by law and thus riksdag (RF 8:5) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1991-1993 tax freeze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced budget requirement (deficits must be restored within 3 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes collected and distributed by central gov’t through equalization grants </li></ul></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    12. 12. 2. DUALISM <ul><li>Three Characteristics of Swedish Public Administration </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    13. 13. <ul><li> Ministerial systems </li></ul><ul><li> Sweden </li></ul>Parliament Government Ministries including agencies Parliament Government Ministries Agency Agency Agency Agency A A A A A Picture courtesy of Swedish Gov’t Offices 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    14. 14. Small ministries Large agencies <ul><li>Government Offices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministries: 12+2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number of employees (2008): 4771 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrative agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies: ca 250-500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number of employees: 230 000 (ca 6% of workforce) </li></ul></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    15. 15. Governing the agencies <ul><li>Prohibited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministerial rule! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforced by Parliament’s Constitutional Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasingly abandoned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earmarked grants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allowed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame-budgeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives & results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointment of DGs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditing & supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parliament - JO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SNAO </li></ul></ul></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    16. 16. ” Mandarins” on autonomy Source: Birgitta Niklasson ”The Swedish Cobra Study”, Brussels April 2009. 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D. No/minor restrictions by ministry Consultation/restrictions by ministry Ministry takes most decisions Legislation leaves no discretion Definition of target group 55% 30% 14% 0% Choice of policy instrument 70% 22% 8% 0% Carrying out activities and setting priorities 86% 13% 1% 0%
    17. 17. Commissions of inquiry <ul><li>Regeringen appoints </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather knowledge, inform policy proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different kinds of Inquiries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-person inquiries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” Parliamentary” inquiries’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opinion published as a report </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    18. 18. 3. OPENNESS <ul><li>Three Characteristics of Swedish Public Administration </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    19. 19. Openness <ul><li>Public access to documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates to the Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public unless classified or sentitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requests are anonymous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>” Whistle blower” protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All (including civil servants) who speak to the press are guaranteed anonymity by the FPA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Ombudsman institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability through public scrutiny </li></ul></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    20. 20. Inquiry and consultation Regering decides on a Proposition The Riksdag Chamber To Regering for Inquiry Commission of Inquiry ” Remiss” – Opinion sent out for comments Commission Opinion 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    21. 21. Consultation (”remiss”) <ul><li>Opinions distributed to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs/interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor market organizations (unions etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local/regional governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ministry collects, summarizes, and presents responses along with proposition </li></ul><ul><li>Intention is to enhance legitimacy, improve quality, and anchor policies </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    22. 22. Illustration - consultation <ul><li>Swedish utility Svenska Kraftnät presented a study in 2006 which proposed 4 energy grid paths through southern Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>The study was sent out for review and comment </li></ul><ul><li>3 months later, 1890 replies! </li></ul><ul><li>The above-ground alternative was scrapped in view of criticism of its environmental impact, despite being 20-30% cheaper </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    23. 23. Openness and corruption Transparency International 2007 Global Corruption Perceptions World Audit 2007 rankings 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D. Country Corruption Rank Democracy Rank Finland 1 1 Denmark 1 2 New Zealand 1 4 Singapore 4 74 Sweden 4 3 Switzerland 6 5 Netherlands 6 6 Norway 8 7 Canada 8 8 Australia 10 9
    24. 24. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT <ul><li>The impact of </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    25. 25. New Public Management <ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>MbOR </li></ul><ul><li>Performance indicators and measurement </li></ul><ul><li>” Marketization” of public sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive tendering & outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts </li></ul></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    26. 26. ” Best practice” cases <ul><li>E.g. competetive tendering has increased efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockholm city – 14% savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central gov’t coordination of tendering – est. 1.5 bn SEK per year in savings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School vouchers – choice in the public sector </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    27. 27. Vouchers – some key aspects <ul><li>Additional fees restricted </li></ul><ul><li>Vouchers fully fund each student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C:a 50-60 000 SEK/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplement to resource-weak students (+10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities suppl. 6 000-30 000 SEK/year and student </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information available. Example </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    28. 28. NPM - limitations <ul><li>Choice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always feasible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contracts and tendering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require high competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk for corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MbOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals not always S.M.A.R.T. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement overload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding underperformance? </li></ul></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    29. 29. Transparency and tendering <ul><li>Svenska Dagbladet has recently published a series of investigative articles on the procurement of microwave food for hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrates importance of both </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whistle-blower protection and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionalism and adherence to rule of law in tendering process </li></ul></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    30. 30. Challenges ahead <ul><li>Beyond NPM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice vs. Equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforming or abandoning MbOR? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger regions? </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of the crisis </li></ul>2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.
    31. 31. The end 2009-10-21 Paul T. Levin, Ph.D.

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